Internet accessibility in Brazil during the years 2008 and 2016

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DOI: 10.32749/nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/technology-en/internet-in-brazil
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NUNES, Filipe Sales [1], FECURY, Amanda Alves [2], OLIVEIRA, Euzébio[3], DENDASCK, Carla Viana [4], DIAS, Claudio Alberto Gellis de Mattos [5]

NUNES, Filipe Sales. Et al. Internet accessibility in Brazil during the years 2008 and 2016. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 03, Ed. 09, Vol. 08, pp. 47-54 September 2018. ISSN:2448-0959. Acess Link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/technology-en/internet-in-brazil, DOI: 10.32749/nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/technology-en/internet-in-brazil

SUMMARY

The internet is the junction of several communication networks, on a global scale interconnecting networks from the most distinct places in the world. It is worldwide popular and is accessed by more than 2 billion users. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the change in internet accessibility in Brazil during the years 2008 and 2016. For this, a search was performed in the CETIC database on the website (http://cetic.br/). The percentage of individuals who accessed the Internet in the last 9 years almost doubled, reaching 69% in 2016, an increase of 30% compared to 2008. In 2014, the Government of Brazil and the majority telecommunications companies in the country agreed to a commitment to increase the coverage of fixed broadband and mobile internet. The lower social classes C and ED, during the years 2008 and 2016, obtained a 30% increase in the percentage of access to the Internet. The Southeast is one of the regions that most contains internet access in Brazil. The cell phone is also one of the means considered in the access of home, since more than half of the Brazilian population uses this device for internet access. It is noticeable that more Brazilians are having the possibility of internet access in Brazil. Due to several factors such as the plans created by the government to increase access in the country, such an initiative can be considered extremely important in the advancement of several areas in Brazil. Internet access is able to improve the economy and education in the country, in addition to the life of the population who can enjoy new means of interaction through virtual platforms more easily. Accessibility to internet access in Brazil has been increasing and generating better changes for the lives of its users.

Keywords: Internet, accessibility, access, communication.

INTRODUCTION

The internet is the junction of several communication networks, on a global scale interconnecting networks from the most distinct places in the world. Its connectivity capacity already aggregates billions of users throughout the planet, enabling access to services such as communication and information quickly (OLIVEIRA and PASQUALINI, 2014).

The internet originated in the Cold War, where the United States in its military laboratories researched a way to improve the security of its data against possible attacks by the former Soviet Union. In this search, the defense department of that country, in the year 1960, was able to develop the first network that met these requirements, named ARPANet (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network). It contained a data decentralization model, which eated better network security (BEZERRA and WALTZ, 2014).

Decades later in 1989 the scientist Timothy John Berners-lee gave a major breakthrough to form the internet we know today, he created the World Wide Web protocol, after encountering a problem of loss of information in his network. Its purpose with the creation of this protocol was to facilitate the access of this information to other scientists. For this he created another research method, with a new language that had the hypertext pattern, which made it possible to consult information in digital format such as audios, photos and videos. This creation also addressed another problem, which was the incompatibility between the operating systems of the time, which did not read information that was not in their language pattern. Due to the new language created by the scientist, this interoperability between the systems became possible (OLIVEIRA and PASQUALINI, 2014).

Currently the internet is already popular worldwide, being accessed by more than 2 billion users (Klinger, Silva, Marinho, Miranda, & Reis, 2017). It is the most important information and communication technology (ICT), due to its great capacity for implication in fields such as political, economic and social, which is changing the way people interact in the world (BEZERRA and WALTZ, 2014).

Fixed broadband allows large-scale internet access. In fact, the term “Broadband” means high-speed internet (FERREIRA and AMARAL, 2012).

The internet can also be accessed in displacement, via the mobile internet. More conveniently than fixed broadband, mobile internet can be accessed from various places using portable devices such as notebooks, smartphones and tablets. These devices use a wireless technology, which allows the connection of several devices without the need for wire, which consequently causes considerable ease in internet access (LUNARDI et al., 2013).

Mobile internet became more viable and popular in the world after the advance of 3G technology, which advanced rapidly reaching tens of millions of mobile phones in a few years (SOUZA et al., 2015).

In Brazil, most internet access is performed through the mobile internet, which generates several beneficial users, such as easy communication, information, speeding up for jobs and several others (KLINGER et al., 2017).

GOAL

Demonstrate the change in internet accessibility in Brazil during the years 2008 and 2016.

METHOD

A search was carried out in the CETIC database on the website (http://cetic.br/), and the data were removed following the following steps: in “Surveys and Indicators” the option “ICT Households” was selected, then the option “View the search data” was chosen. After loading the new tab, under “Analysis Units” clicked on “Users” and, in the options listed below, which are ways of viewing the data, the form of “Table” was used. Then in “Filters”, “Year” was selected 2008 until 2016 for all indicators, and in “Indicators” were used the options “C1 – INDIVIDUALS WHO HAVE ALREADY ACCESSED THE INTERNET” and “C4 – INTERNET USERS, BY INDIVIDUAL ACCESS LOCATION”. For the first indicator (C1) it was selected in Categories “Yes” and “No”, and for the second indicator (C4) we used “At Home”, “At work”, “At school or educational establishment”, “In someone else’s house”, “Public center of free access”, “Public center of paid access” and “Moving”. The data was compiled within the Excel application, a component of the Microsoft Corporation Office suite. The bibliographic research was carried out in scientific articles, using computers from the computer laboratory of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Amapá, Macapá Campus, located at: Rodovia BR 210 KM 3, s/n – Bairro Brasil Novo. ZIP Code: 68.909-398, Macapá, Amapá, Brazil.

RESULTS

Figure 1 shows the percentage of individuals who have already accessed the Internet in Brazil between 2008 and 2016. The data show that the percentage of people who had access to the Internet in Brazil increased during the years mentioned.

Figure 1: Percentage of individuals who have already accessed the Internet in Brazil between 2008 and 2016.

Figure 2 shows the percentage of individuals who have already accessed the Internet in Brazil by area. The results show that in both areas there was an increase in the percentage of people who had access to the Internet.

Figure 2: Percentage of individuals who have already accessed the Internet in Brazil by area.

Figure 3 shows the percentage of individuals who have already accessed the Internet in Brazil between 2008 and 2016 by social class. The data presented show that in all social classes there was an increase in the percentage, but in the lower social classes such as C and ED there was a greater increase than in the higher classes such as A and B.

Figure 3: Percentage of individuals who have already accessed the Internet in Brazil from 2008 to 2016 by social class.

Figure 4 shows the average annual percentage of individuals who have already accessed the Internet in Brazil between 2008 and 2016 by region. The data from the graph show that the southeast and midwest regions are the ones with the highest percentage of individuals who had already accessed the Internet in Brazil.

Figure 4: Average annual percentage of individuals who have already accessed the Internet in Brazil between 2008 and 2016 by region.

Figure 5 shows the percentage of individuals who have already accessed the Internet in Brazil by access location. For the accesses of the house and in a place of paid access the data were made available from 2008 to 2016, and for the access in displacement only data from the years 2009 to 2016 were made available. The results show that the accesses performed from the house and displacement increased considerably (graph A), while the one in places of paid access decreased to less than half (graph B).

Figure 5: Percentage of individuals who have already accessed the Internet in Brazil between 2008 and 2016 by individual access location, home and displacement (A), Paid access location (B).

DISCUSSION

The percentage of individuals who accessed the Internet in the last 9 years almost doubled, reaching 69% in 2016, an increase of 30% compared to 2008. The decrease in prices of ITCs (Information and Communication Technologies) such as mobile phones, computers, fixed broadband and mobile internet, caused a sharp increase in internet users (CGI.BR, 2015). This is a considerable reason for increasing the percentage of individuals who had already accessed the Internet in Brazil (BARBOSA, 2015).

In 2014, the Government of Brazil and the majority telecommunications companies in the country agreed a commitment to increase the coverage of fixed broadband and mobile internet in the rural area, aiming to double the number of access in this area. This is a possible factor for the sharp increase in internet accessibility in rural Brazil (BRASIL, 2014).

The lower social classes C and ED, during the years 2008 and 2016, obtained a 30% increase in the percentage of access to the Internet. The consumption of services and new technologies are initially better used by the higher social classes, but over time they are being spread to the lower social classes due to the decrease in their prices (EARP and PAULANI, 2014).

The Southeast is one of the regions that most contains internet access in Brazil. It is the region that has the most households with internet access in the country (BRASIL, 2016).

House access was the most prevalent today (figure 5). Studies by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) have pointed out this increase in households in Brazil with internet access is due to the growth of the National Broadband Plan created by the government to improve internet access in the country (BRASIL, 2013).

Mobile is also one of the means considered in home access, since more than half of the Brazilian population uses this device for internet access, through fixed broadband, wired technologies, and mobile internet such as 3G/4G. The plans created by the government, and the increase in mobile phone use, are possible reasons for increasing the percentage of access to the internet in the house and in displacement (BRASIL, 2016).

CONCLUSION

Given the data found, it is noticeable that more Brazilians are having the possibility of internet access in Brazil. Due to several factors such as the plans created by the government to increase access in the country, such an initiative can be considered extremely important in the advancement of several areas in Brazil. Internet access is able to improve the economy and education in the country, in addition to the life of the population who can enjoy new means of interaction through virtual platforms more easily. Accessibility to internet access in Brazil has been increasing and generating better changes for the lives of its users.

REFERENCES

BARBOSA, A. F. Pesquisa sobre o uso das tecnologias da informação e comunicação nos domicílios brasileiros: Tic domicílios 2014. São Paulo: Comitê Gestor da Internet no Brasil 2015.

BEZERRA, A. C.; WALTZ, I. Privacidade, neutralidade e inimputabilidade da internet no Brasil: avanços e deficiências no projeto do marco civil. Revista Eptic Online, v. 16, n. 2, p. 161-175, 2014.

BRASIL. Domicílios com acesso à internet no Brasil crescem de 38% 2011 para 45% em 2012., 2013. Disponível em: < http://www.brasil.gov.br/governo/2013/10/domicilios-com-acesso-a-internet-no-brasil-crescem-de-38-2011-para-45-em-2012 >. Acesso em: 21 de novembro, 2017.

______. Internet e telefonia na zona rural terão expansão este ano. 2014. Disponível em: < http://www.brasil.gov.br/infraestrutura/2014/02/internet-e-telefonia-na-zona-rural-terao-expansao-este-ano >. Acesso em: 21 de novembro, 2017.

______. Pesquisa revela que mais de 100 milhões de brasileiros acessam a internet. 2016. Disponível em: < http://www.brasil.gov.br/ciencia-e-tecnologia/2016/09/pesquisa-revela-que-mais-de-100-milhoes-de-brasileiros-acessam-a-internet >. Acesso em: 21 de novembro, 2017.

EARP, F. D. S.; PAULANI, L. M. Mudanças no consumo de bens culturais no Brasil após a estabilização da moeda. Nova Economia, v. 24, n. 3, p. 469-490, 2014.

FERREIRA, L. M.; AMARAL, L. Taxa de Penetração da Banda Larga. CISTI, p. 679 – 684, 2012.

KLINGER, E. F. et al. Propensão à dependência da internet: um estudo com acadêmicos de um centro universitário. Rev. Cereus, v. 9, n. 2, p. 75-91, 2017.

LUNARDI, G. L.; DOLCI, D. B.; WENDLAND, J. Internet Móvel nas Organizações: Fatores de Adoção e Impactos sobre o Desempenho. RAC, v. 17, n. 6, p. 679-703, 2013.

OLIVEIRA, F.; PASQUALINI, K. C. Os dependentes de internet no Brasil: realidade ou mito entre os universitários. Mimesis, v. 35, n. 1, p. 95-140, 2014.

SOUZA, M. A.; ZAMBON, E. P.; PINHEIRO, G. E. N. 3G Technology as Cost Determinant: the case of a mobile phone operator. Contabilidade, Gestão e Governança, v. 18, n. 2, p. 27-44, 2015.

[1] High school student. Technical Course in Computer Networks. Federal University of Pará (UFPA)

[2]Biomedical. PhD in Tropical Diseases. Researcher Professor, Federal University of Amapá (UNIFAP). Biologist. Doctor of Tropical Diseases. Researcher Professor at the Federal University of Pará (UFPA).

[3] Biologist. Doctor of Tropical Diseases. Researcher Professor at the Federal University of Pará (UFPA).

[4] Theologian. PhD in Clinical Psychoanalysis. Researcher at the Center for Research and Advanced Studies, São Paulo, SP.

[5] Biologist. PhD in Theory and Behavior Research. Researcher Professor, Federal Institute of Basic, Technical and Technological Education of Amapá (IFAP)

Theologian, PhD in Clinical Psychoanalysis. Has been working for 15 years with Scientific Methodology (Research Method) in the Scientific Production Orientation of MSc and PhD students. Specialist in Market Research and Research in the area of ​​Health

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