MENDONÇA, Lorenna Lima 
MENDONÇA, Lorenna Lima. Synthesis on organizational behavior and the importance of people management based on the history of administration. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 05, Ed. 11, Vol. 11, pp. 21-35. November 2020. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/business-administration/synthesis-on-organizational
The present work brings a brief history about the Administration as well as about the Organization, bringing references from some authors such as Chiavenato, Gil and Ribeiro, where they mention the importance of the Organization having a Personal Management sector for the best development of the company. A brief explanation is also given about what People Management is, where it is of paramount importance for any company, not being just “another” sector of the Company, and that it is based on three fundamental aspects, where the first it is treating people as human beings; second, people are like mere organizational (human) resources; and the third foundation is that people are partners in the organization. People Management will work on the moral and social aspects of the employee and their managerial role, which aims at the cooperation of people who work in organizations to achieve both organizational and individual goals. This work also brings a brief history and an analysis of Organizational Behavior, where this can be considered a Field of Study and that it returns to predict, explain, understand and modify the behavior of human beings within organizations. It will also be explained in a simple way, the three areas of Organizational Behavior, which are: Micro Organizational Behavior; Meso Organizational Behavior and Macro Organizational Behavior. For the development of this article, the method of bibliographic research was used, where it seeks to know and analyze the existing cultural or scientific contributions of the past on a particular subject, theme or problem. This article had a theoretical basis in some books such as: Introduction to the general theory of administration; New challenges in people management; Human resource Management; People management and organizational behavior. And to conclude this work, it was explained about the importance and value of Organizational Behavior in the lives of employees and organizations.
Keywords: Administration, People Management, Organizational Behavior.
The focus of this work is based on the history of Administration, as well as on the relevant aspects of Organizational Behavior, where this is of paramount importance for companies. Since it is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and structure have on organizations, and its purpose is to use this knowledge to improve organizational quality.
Organizational behavior will apply the knowledge acquired about groups and people, or more specifically, about employees, making organizations acquire more quality in their work. Since organizations do not command themselves alone, and hence the need for the study and application of organizational behavior within companies and on employees.
Understanding organizational behavior becomes important because it will work on the dynamics of maintaining and improving people management advances, as it will determine what leaders should do, and what are the chances of assuming what may or may not happen. , and in particular to avoid certain individual and/or collective problems among employees, as well as to develop some leadership methods and management strategies that exist to achieve the desired goals and results.
Studying organizational behavior is essential at a time when it also aims to bring a better understanding of organizational spaces regarding behavioral and cultural aspects for the continuous development of organizations. Where this work will provide a better understanding of it.
Given the above, the bibliographic research that was applied in this article aimed to bring a better understanding of organizational behavior, bringing its meaning and importance within organizations.
2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
2.1 BRIEF HISTORY OF ADMINISTRATION
Over the years, men have always sought ways to apply their efforts and make them achieve better results in their projects, where they learned to gather strength and work as a team, thus making them able to invent the organization. According to Chiavenato (2014, p. 1) it was “the engine of economic and social development that allowed us to reach the modern world, the flagship of innovation and the transformation of contemporary society”.
Through man’s creations, the one that grows and stands out for being the most incomprehensible and wonderful is obviously the organization, that is, the logical way of working, starting, designing, producing and distributing goods and services. However, there is no way for two organizations to be the same, and it is noticeable that each one will have its own personality, its special nature, it will also have its unique characteristics, its performance and its results. Clearly, organizations present themselves with great diversity and are different from each other. (CHIAVENATO, 2014).
According to Chiavenato (2014), the Organization has become very important throughout history, not to mention that it acts in different environments, being circumvented by various factors such as economic, political, technological, legal, social, cultural and demographic, interacting with each other and constantly alternating, providing a dynamic field of forces that is characterized by enormous change and instability around.
Within the organization, it is necessary to have a competent team that can carry out an appropriate Administration, making the leadership of this organization act and decide prudently in the different situations that arise, and as a consequence of good organization and administration, there will be high results efficiently and effectively. According to Chiavenato (2014) it is the Administration that makes things happen, and it simultaneously involves art, technique and science. Management is the result.
According to Chiavenato (2014) organization is the method by which society achieves its goals. And for organizations to achieve their goals, that is why the Administration is used as a tool, function or instrument to produce development. Therefore, Administration does not happen in isolation, but within organizations.
Within this Administration, there is the Theory of Human Relations, which brings to light the care that the boss must have with the employees within a company. Emphasizing that employees are recognized and well taken care of for the work they perform.
The main legacies of Human Relations Theory to TGA, aim to humanize companies, bringing an emphasis on the organization to inform, as well as on social groups, communications, incentive, direction, participatory approaches, and not least, the interest in Find out about job satisfaction. (CHIAVENATO, 2014).
“Faced with the need to correct the tendency towards the dehumanization of work with the application of precise scientific methods, the Theory of Human Relations was born”. (CHIAVENATO, 2014, p. 30). According to the author, this theory was created with the objective that workers were valued and gratified for the work they perform in the company.
According to Chiavenato, (2014, p.108), the Theory of Human Relations has its origins in some factors, such as the primordiality of civilizing and socializing the Administration; within the growth of the human sciences, especially psychology, there is also its intellectual development, its applicability in industrial organizations, thus, it is noticeable that the human sciences exposed the disagreement of the beginnings of Classical Theory; there are also the ideologies of the philosopher John Dewey, and the dynamic psychology of Kurt Lewin for the growth of humanism in Management; an experiment called Hawthorne, which was carried out in 1929 and 1932, brought a setback to the principles of Classical Management Theory.
After a brief explanation about the organization, administration and the emergence of Human Relations, it is worth explaining a little about Human Resources (People Management), which is important everywhere, especially within the Administration.
2.2 THE IMPORTANCE OF PEOPLE MANAGEMENT
According to Chiavenato (2011), the world has been changing rapidly, even in the area of Human Resources, where they are named as follows: People Management, People Management, Intellectual Capital Management, Human Talent Management, Competence Management, among others to keep configured in the area and represented in a new space.
It is understood that People Management is of paramount importance for any company, not being just another sector of the Company. “People Management or HRA (Human Resources Administration) is the set of integrated decisions about employment relationships that influence the effectiveness of employees and organizations (CHIAVENATO, 1999, p.35). The same author also says that “People Management is based on three fundamental aspects: 1. People as human beings; 2. People are like mere organizational (human) resources; 3. People as partners of the organization” (CHIAVENATO, 2002, p. 20).
According to the author, it is understood that People Management will work on the moral and social aspects of the worker, who, in turn, will be called Collaborator, as he, in a way, begins not only to work for the Entrepreneur, but starts to contribute to the Company where they are providing their services.
According to the author Gil (2001, p. 17) “People Management is the managerial function that aims at the cooperation of people who work in organizations to achieve both organizational and individual objectives”.
Through this, Dessler (2003, p. 2) states that the Administration attributes itself to the necessary experiences and policies in relation to guiding people in the management work, particularly in relation to hiring, teaching, analysis, honorary, not forgetting also a safe place for company employees. It is worth mentioning that among the experiences and policies, it is also necessary to guide the role of each employee; to verify the indispensability of requesting, selecting, guiding and training new candidates, as well as other activities related to interviewing, evaluating and conducting new employees. Related to the manager, it is necessary that the manager knows about equal chances and affirmative action, as well as the employee’s well-being and his/her grievances and labor relations.
Before, Human Resources had a more controlling, rigid and mysterious role. According to Ribeiro (2005, p. 16), they were as follows:
Controlar rigidamente a carreira dos funcionários; – Manter as escalas salariais em segredo, de tal forma que nem os gerentes saibam como tal escala funciona; – Manter a avaliação de potencial como uma tarefa exclusiva da função de Recursos Humanos; – Entender que a manutenção de um clima organizacional adequado é tarefa exclusiva de Recursos Humanos; – Manter tudo o que diga respeito a Recursos Humanos em um clima cheio de mistérios e segredos; – Conservar a imagem de Recursos Humanos com um departamento fechado e à parte da organização; – Valorizar excessivamente a área, em detrimento dos objetivos estratégicos da empresa; – Pressupor que as atividades operacionais e de linha de frente não tem a menor chance de funcionar sem a presença de Recursos Humanos; – Oferecer treinamento para todos, de maneira indiscriminada; – Fazer com que os custos de pessoal não digam respeito à área de Recursos Humanos, e sim a cada setor, respectivamente.
Over time, there are changes in the market, bringing demands that call for an improvement in companies. These changes made People Management a transformer in society. Bringing to the Employee the qualifications that from then on will be required. Claro and Nickel (2002, p. 17) say that, “it has been some time since the Human Resources area passed from a simple personnel department to an agent of transformation in the organization, provoking changes and offering support in its implementation”.
Faced with such a change in society, the author Ribeiro (2005, p. 17), brings the new role of Human Resources. Are they:
Propor, definir e garantir um conjunto de normas e procedimentos alinhados com os princípios empresariais e de acordo com a Legislação Trabalhista; – Criar e operar sistemas que permitam que as oportunidades de emprego e desenvolvimento de carreira estejam disponíveis a todos; – Dar suporte às demais unidades da empresa prestadora de serviços ou funcionar como facilitador nos processos de administração de pessoas; – Dar suporte as demais unidades da empresa no recrutamento e desenvolvimento de pessoas; – Criar, propor e administrar instrumentos que possibilitem uma remuneração competitiva a todos os funcionários; – Buscar sempre a diversidade, com o objetivo principal de aumentar o capital intelectual, de modo a garantir a capacidade de atualização e inovação da empresa; – Ver as pessoas e a organização como seres espirituais e ajudá-las a dar o próximo passo em seu processo de desenvolvimento; – Ter no treinamento a principal ferramenta para retenção do capital humano, e desenvolver novas competências para atual era empresarial; – Dignificar o trabalho e o ser humano. A Gestão de Pessoas é contingencial e situacional, pois dependem de vários aspectos com a estrutura organizacional adotada, a cultura que existe em cada organização, as características do contexto ambiental, o negócio da empresa, os processos internos e outras variáveis. (CHIAVENATO, 1999, p. 32).
Within the objectives of People Management, one cannot forget some essential points for its development, such as, for example, providing assistance to the organization so that it can achieve its goals and objectives, as well as carry out its mission; there is also the matter of proposing a dispute to the company; training and motivating the company’s people are essential; offer employees satisfaction within the company; there must be a quality of life for these employees in the company; and last but not least, uphold respect as well as ethics and responsible social behavior within the company. (CHIAVENATO, 1999).
In such a way, People Management came for the company to add value to itself, making it generate returns for shareholders and provide gains for all those involved. According to the author Chiavenato, there are six processes that are basic for people management. Are they:
Processos de Agregar Pessoas: São os processos de incluir novas pessoas, de suprimento de novos funcionários. Nesse processo estão as atividades de recrutamento e seleção de pessoas. 2- Processos de Aplicar Pessoas: Processos utilizados para modelar as atividades que os funcionários irão realizar na organização, acompanhar e orientar seu desempenho. As atividades encontradas nesse processo são de desenhos de cargos e avaliação de desempenho. 3- Processos de Recompensar Pessoas: Processos utilizados para motivar e incentivar as pessoas e satisfazer suas necessidades individuais. Nesse processo podemos encontrar as atividades de remuneração e benefícios. 4- Processos de Desenvolver Pessoas: Processos utilizados para capacitar, treinar e desenvolver pessoas. Aqui encontramos as atividades de treinamento, mudanças e comunicação. 5- Processos de Manter as Pessoas: São os processos de criação de condições ambientais e psicológicas satisfatórias para o trabalho dos funcionários. 6- Processos de Monitorar Pessoas: São os processos utilizados para acompanhar e controlar o trabalho dos funcionários e analisar os resultados. Inclui nesse processo o banco de dados e sistemas de informações gerenciais. (CHIAVENATO, 1999. p. 6-13).
As exposed, it can be observed that all these processes act together, where both influence each other, thus making people important and valued beings within companies.
Chiavenato (2011, p. 10) says that “people constitute an integral part of the intellectual capital within the organization, and that successful organizations have realized this and treat people as partners in their business and suppliers of competences and not more like mere hired employees”.
Because people spend a good part of their lives within organizations, they are responsible for the company’s destiny. Where, when the company achieves its business goals, in the same way the employees achieve their goals, that is, both the company and the employees are connected to each other, where one depends on the other, so that there is a mutual benefit. (CHIAVENATO, 2011).
3. A BRIEF HISTORY OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
The author Robbins (2010, p. 5) says that “human skills are defined by the ability to work with other people, seeking to understand and motivate them both individually and in groups”. Many of these people are technically proficient but incompetent in interpersonal relationships. People who are not good listeners, are unable to understand the needs of others, and have difficulty managing conflict.
As explained by the author, human abilities are mysterious and applicable everywhere. But Human Skills are better known as Organizational Behavior. For Robbins, (2010, p.7), Organizational Behavior is: “a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups and the organizational structure have on the behavior of people within organizations, with the purpose of using this knowledge to improve organizational effectiveness”.
Organizational Behavior can be considered a Field of Study. Where the same returns to predict, explain, understand and modify the behavior of the human being within organizations. Below this concept of Organizational Behavior, there are three considerations that are also important.
O comportamento organizacional enfoca comportamentos observáveis, como falar em reuniões, usar equipamentos de produção ou redigir um relatório. Também lida com os estados internos, como pensar, perceber e decidir, que acompanham as ações visíveis. 2- O comportamento organizacional envolve a análise do comportamento das pessoas tanto como indivíduos quanto como membros de unidades sócias maiores. 3- O comportamento organizacional também avalia o “comportamento” desses grupos e organizações por si. Nem os grupos nem as organizações se “comportam” do mesmo jeito que as pessoas. Entretanto, nas organizações ocorrem certos eventos que não podem ser explicados apenas como resultado de comportamentos individuais. Esses eventos devem ser examinados em termos de processos grupais ou organizacionais. (WAGNER, 2012, p. 5).
For organizations to work more effectively and for success within them, organizational behavior applies knowledge about people and groups. As Robbins (2010) says, organizational behavior will deal with the study of what human beings do in organizations and how this behavior will affect organizational performance, and how this study is focused on situations related to the link between people and organizations. , the behavior related to tasks, work, absenteeism, turnover, productivity, performance and administration is highlighted.
As Organizational Behavior developed, it was divided into three distinct areas. They are: Micro Organizational Behavior; Meso Organizational Behavior and Macro Organizational Behavior.
Micro Organizational Behavior seeks to encompass human behavior when working alone. And for this type of behavior, Robbins (2012) says that there are three areas of Psychology that were the strands of Organizational Behavior. They are: Experimental Psychology: provided the theories about learning, motivation, perception and stress; Clinical Psychology: contributed to models of personality and human development; Industrial Psychology: offered theories on employee selection, workplace attitudes, and performance appraisal.
The Meso Organizational Behavior seeks to understand the behavior of the human being who works in teams and in groups. Where, according to Wagner (2012), meso-organizational behavior developed from research in the fields of communication, social psychology and interactionist sociology, which provided theories on topics such as socialization, leadership and group dynamics.
Macro Organizational Behavior seeks to focus on the behavior of small companies. For Wagner (2012), such behaviors can originate and be situated in four disciplines, they are: Sociology, with its theories about structure, social status and institutional relations. Political Science, with its theories of power, conflict, negotiation and control. Anthropology, with its theories on symbolism, cultural influence and comparative analysis. Economics, with its theories of competition and efficiency.
É visto que, cada área do Comportamento Organizacional ajuda a resolver certos tipos de problemas como; no Comportamento Micro Organizacional busca ver como que as pessoas sentem o seu local de trabalho? Ou, o que motiva os funcionários a fazerem suas tarefas? Já no Comportamento Meso Organizacional, busca-se saber quais as formas de socialização incentivam os colegas de trabalho a cooperar? Ou, como um gerente poderá determinar qual líder potencial será o mais eficaz? E no Comportamento Macro Organizacional procura-se saber, como o poder é adquirido e retido? Ou, quais os mecanismos podem ser usados para coordenar atividades de trabalho? (ROBBINS, 2012, p. 45).
Within such explanations, it can be seen that Organizational Behavior is of paramount importance within any organization, asserting its application of theory in practice.
4. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
It is understood that Organizational Behavior influences the climate within organizations, guiding which impressions and visions that employees have of the company where they are. For this, Organizational Behavior counts on the help of some extremely important matters that contribute to it. They are: Psychology, Social Psychology, Sociology and Anthropology.
The author Robbins (2010) explains a little about the importance of these matters. Robbins (2010, p. 33) says that, “Psychology is the science that seeks to measure, explain and sometimes modify the behavior of human beings and animals”. Those who contribute in this area of organizational behavior are those who study theories related to the learning process and personality, clinical psychologists and, mainly, organizational and industrial psychologists, where recently the contribution of psychologists has extended to studies on learning, perception, personality, emotions, training, leadership effectiveness, motivational needs and forces, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, decision-making processes, performance appraisals, attitude measurement, personnel selection techniques, job design, and occupational stress.
In relation to Social Psychology, the author Robbins (2010, p. 36) states that this area is a field of psychology in which there is a mixture of this science and sociology, thus exerting the influence of one being over another. Areas such as redirection of attitudes, a model of communication, the progress of trust and an observation of group behavior are areas where social psychologists contribute, particularly within a company.
As for Sociology, Robbins (2010) says that sociologists have contributed to organizational behavior through studies on the behavior of groups within organizations, where in turn, sociologists study organizational culture, organizational theory and structure, organizational technology, communication, power and conflict.
And finally, Anthropology, which according to Robbins (2010) is the study of societies to understand human beings and their activities, asserting that the work of anthropologists on cultures and environments has helped us to better understand differences in values, fundamental attitudes and behaviors among people of different countries or of people in different organizations.
As exposed, it can be understood that such matters are extremely important for the foundation of Organizational Behavior, contributing in their best way to the well-being of organizations. The study of Organizational Behavior is important as it greatly influences within all organizations, causing significant and positive changes in them.
Making an analysis of organizational behavior provides an understanding of how to proceed in relation to people, groups and the organization, making these beings able to improve the organization’s development, as well as its results and the well-being of those who work in the organization. organization.
As already explained, it can be understood that Organizational Behavior studies the actions that individuals, groups and the organization’s structure exert on behavior within companies in order to use such studies to improve management processes.
The author Wagner (2012) says that organizational behavior is a field of research that in turn helps to predict, explain and understand certain behaviors that occur in and between organizations. And that the three areas of organizational behavior (micro, meso and macro organizational behavior) have different actions among the scientific disciplines that contributed to the foundation of the field.
In a way, each behavior focuses on a different aspect of organizational behavior, and micro organizational behavior is based on the attributes and performance of individuals in organizations. Meso-organizational behavior, on the other hand, focuses on the characteristics of groups and the behavior of people in teams. And macro organizational behavior discusses the behaviors of organizations such as entities.
In such a way, the importance of Organizational Behavior within organizations is verified, valuing its collaborator, so that this in turn can bring benefits to the company, and at the same time the company also becomes benefited by not having certain conflicts. among collaborators.
In order to reach such objectives that led to the realization of this article, a bibliographic research was carried out.
According to the author Cervo; Bervian (2002), he says that bibliographic research proposes to explain a certain situation through theoretical references that have been published in documents, for example, and that it seeks to know and investigate what collaborations are present on the topic being researched, where this method of research used, is usually the first step to be taken in any scientific research.
This research had theoretical basis in some books such as: Introduction to the General Theory of Administration; New challenges in People Management; Human resource Management; People management; Organizational behavior; etc., where some of the authors were Chiavenato, Robbins and John, some of the most cited throughout the article.
Magazines, articles and some websites that bring information about the topic addressed were also used, with reference to Administration, People Management and Organizational Behavior.
Therefore, Oliveira (2002, p. 14) says that, “the bibliographic technique seeks to find the primary and secondary sources and scientific and technological materials that are necessary to carry out scientific or technical scientific work”.
In this article, the importance of People Management and its processes within organizations was reported, making it develop a socializing role within companies, between both, and among employees, also showing that the employee himself has his value, and which, if handled well, can bring more benefits to the company.
The author Chiavenato (2002, p. 20) says that, “People Management is based on three fundamental aspects: 1. People as human beings; 2. People are like mere organizational (human) resources; 3. People as partners of the organization”.
It was observed in the course of the work, that the Organizational Behavior is necessary both for the Organizations and for the Collaborators, where both work together so that there is a communion of interests.
It was also explained that, for Organizational Behavior to be successful today, it relied on the study and help of some subjects, such as Psychology, Social Psychology, Sociology and Anthropology, which in their own way contributed significantly to the growth of this behavior, where each study carried out in these subjects acted consequently in the study of the actions of man individually and in groups, where these studies influenced new discoveries about the attitudes of the human being within organizations.
Through such situations, micro-organizational behavior, meso-organizational behavior and macro-organizational behavior arise. Where each one has its relevance and particularity, such behaviors brought means of working the individual alone, and focused on understanding the behaviors of people who work in teams and groups and highlighted the behavior of entire companies. (WAGNER, 2012)
7. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
The aim of this work was to provide, in a synthetic but objective way, an analysis of Organizational Behavior. For that, first it was explained about the Administration, emphasizing the organization and the People Management. Where, for Chiavenato (2010) Administration makes things happen, and it simultaneously involves art, technique and science.
On People Management, Chiavenato (1999) comments that this is the set of integrated decisions about employment relationships that influence the effectiveness of employees and organizations. In such a way, it was explained in the course of the work on the importance of Organizational Behavior, where it can be considered a field of study, which in a way, it returns to predict, explain, understand and modify the behavior of the human being. human within organizations.
Therefore, the present study brought significant knowledge about Organizational Behavior, asserting that it is necessary to value the employee, so that he can consequently contribute in a valuable way to the organization, where both will only gain by having a valuable attitude.
This work contributes so that society, and more specifically human resources students, can have a better understanding of what Organizational Behavior is and what its benefits are for organizations and employees.
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 MBA in Marketing and Human Resources. Postgraduate in Management in Social Work and Public Policies. Graduation in Social Work.
Sent: July, 2020.
Approved: November, 2020.