The Role of Knowledge Sharing From Knowledge Management

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

REIS, Ingrid Weingärtner [1], CAZARINI, Edson Walmir [2]

REIS, Ingrid Weingärtner. CAZARINI, Edson Walmir. The Role of Knowledge Sharing From Knowledge Management. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 06, Ed. 06, Vol. 10, pp. 136-160. June 2021. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/business-administration/role-of-knowledge-sharing

ABSTRACT

In the organizational circumstance, the relevance of knowledge is a subject on which there are no more debates. Knowledge has a strategic duty to create products and jobs or that respond to the continuous changes in the needs and wills of customers. This knowledge as such is not found in the institutions, but rather is a portion of the individuals, of the people who constitute them. Although something clear appears, the transfer of knowledge from the individual to the organization is, in fact, a challenge. This is because people’s knowledge is not necessarily aligned with the needs of the organization. This research aimed to identify which resources or strategies can be used to develop sharing acts, based on knowledge training procedures. He also sought to explain the theoretical divergence that exists between transference and distribution of knowledge, demonstrations several times confused in the action. The distribution of knowledge is an act of the individual within organizations. It was essential to know the important barriers that make such acts impossible. These obstacles may be related to the way of behaving of the subject’s own or happening at the organizational level. For the execution of this study, action research was adopted as the main characteristic of the individuals involved in the study. Thus, from the research methodology developed, one can identify important barriers, both individual and organizational that affect the sharing of knowledge.

Keywords: Knowledge management, knowledge sharing, individual barriers, organizational barriers.

1. INTRODUCTION

The important role of knowledge in the performance of organizations can be considered as consensus, since several disciplines have been dealing with this theme in recent years. The search for differentiation in the market and innovation has led entrepreneurs to invest in these issues. The way organizations acquire, generate and share knowledge is part of the possible response to the scenario that is now being lived. This process of knowledge creation is accomplished through conversation between people, exchange of information and experience, in an environment in which the relationship between them is stimulated, fostering collaboration and trust.

However, it is necessary to consider that in addition to the institutional mechanisms of how this management can be done, there is a key piece in this discussion that is the subject that is part of the organization. Knowledge is of the subject, not of the organization. Therefore, it is necessary to conduct the discussion on knowledge management from the perspective of how to extract or better take advantage of this individual knowledge.

Adopting as a paradigm the eastern view that the subject who learns must appropriate the object of learning, we seek to identify with this research the importance of sharing for knowledge management. What resources or strategies can support sharing actions, what relationship can be established between these and the phases of the SECI knowledge creation process (TAKEUCHI and NONAKA, 2008) and, finally, what barriers can impact this whole process.

Considering the importance it has in the process of knowledge creation, it will be essential to understand how knowledge sharing happens in organizations, what elements, what actions can be identified, treated and improved aiming at Knowledge Management.

To carry out this research, action research is adopted as a methodology, where the participation of the people involved is considered fundamental, from the moment of planning to the demonstration of results. Participation is a way to carry out the practice of social relationship where the parties involved have knowledge that, even if they are different, can be integrated. Every person who is able to recognize and evaluate their experience is capable of producing knowledge (TENÓRIO, 1990; THIOLLENT, 1996; GIL, 2008; GILBERTONI, 2012; SAMPIERI; COLLADO; LUCIO, 2006).

This study will be carried out in a Private Higher Education Institution, located in andean country, involving staff of directive level and administrative technical team that manages processes of academic services, pedagogical support and university extension. Traditional processes that are being structured and formalized at this historical moment of the Institution will be considered, that is, they exist, but informally. It is understood that the knowledge and activities carried out are isolated in people or groups of people separated by departments.

A bibliographic research will be carried out to understand the fundamentals of knowledge sharing actions as well as to know the main barriers identified today.

As methodological tools for the development of research will be applied participatory observation, focused interview (GIL, 2008) and application of research.

As structuring elements for action research, the following dimensions will be considered in the observation:

Table 1 – Dimensions of participatory observation.

dimension definition Application in action research
Space The physical place Private Technical University of Store – UTPL – located in 84 cities – Ecuador.
Actors People involved Operations Direction, Academic Directorates, Directors of Regional Centers and Sub-centers, technical and functional team.
Activities The set of actions that people take Realization of processes to support academic, pedagogical and university extension management.
Objects The physical things that are part of the observed reality Use of resources and application of strategies for knowledge sharing.
Acts Simple actions that people do Definitions of actions in each process; joint planning of actions; application and controls.
Events The set of activities that people perform Events defined in institutional calendar.
Time The sequence that takes place over time The times are defined according to the planning of activities and institutional calendars.
Goals The things that people are trying to accomplish Align and promote improvements in outcomes to students.
Feelings The emotions felt and expressed. Dissatisfaction with results; frustration with the perpetuation of poor performance.

Source: personal collection.

2. DEVELOPMENT

Knowledge Management – Fundamental Knowledge

Knowledge Management is part of the global context of a world without borders, where traditional territorial boundaries are no longer as relevant to the management of organizations. According to Ishikura (2008, p. 165) “National borders mean less today than before, because customers can access information and buy products from around the world”.

This global economy, ‘connected’ and founded on knowledge gains strength with each generation, transferring importance to what is intangible, to the detriment of what is tangible and concrete. “The indispensable asset for today’s companies is not the factory and the equipment, but the accumulated knowledge and the people who own it” (ISHIKURA, 2008, p. 166). Companies start competing in the market based on their knowledge and intellectual assets (MASSARO, 2013; ISHIKURA, 2008).

In the context of organizations, knowledge is defined as ‘a justified belief’ that enhances a company’s ability for effective action. This definition is considered more appropriate than a philosophical definition of knowledge, as it provides a clear description of the underlying knowledge in organizations (PEE, 2009; NONAKA, 1995). Knowledge Management, on the other, can be understood as the process of identifying and leveraging collective knowledge in organizations to help the organization remain competitive in the market (TAKEUCHI; NONAKA, 1995; PEE, 2009).

The model of knowledge creation presented by Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) considers it essential to rely on tacit knowledge of the subjects as a starting point to create a new organizational knowledge. This model presents the transition of knowledge into two dimensions: the ontological dimension, which is the transition of knowledge from the individual level to the organizational level, and the epistemological dimension, which presents the transition between tacit knowledge and explicit knowledge. The authors called this movement the Spiral of Knowledge. It represents the possible changes for the creation of knowledge considering 4 modes of conversion: Socialization, Outsourcing, Combination and Internalization – SECI.

In each of these modes there is the transition of the types of knowledge, generating a movement of evolution. In Socialization there is the relationship between tacit and tacit knowledge; in Extenalization, from tacit to explicit; in combination, from explicit to explicit; and internalization: from explicit to implicit.

Tacit knowledge for Polonyi (1966) is the apprehension of a given entity, constituted by the parts that form it and its entirety, that is, when the observer understands the object observed considering its parts and characteristics – proximal term – and its integrality – distal therma. Although not detailed, specified and with this level of consciousness, tacit knowledge is what the subject knows through his perception and intuition, and is therefore not formalized or systematized. Also according to the same author, the perception is individual, unique, because it is influenced by personal experiences.

In contemporary studies, the tacit knowledge of the subjects is a differentiated resource, which, becoming conscious and spread throughout the organization, leads to innovation and the solution of concrete problems. Tacit knowledge of the subject is the basis of the creation of organizational knowledge (NONAKA and TAKEUCHI, 1995).

Therefore, it can be understood that in the organizational context that there is the moment of knowing about something, then a awareness and its respective direction or application and then the possibility of sharing this knowledge.

Knowledge Sharing

According to Castañeda, (2015), knowledge sharing is a fundamental behavior in the creation and application of knowledge, especially for organizations. It is a common and essential behavior, identified in the organizations that learn. However, this is not an automatic behavior, depending on the will of the subjects involved, stimuli and spaces consciously prepared for this.

Knowledge sharing emerges as a chain of events based on the identification of the necessary key knowledge, the people who need this knowledge and the resources that can support it, all based on the social interaction of those involved. Communication is therefore the basis for the sharing of knowledge. (LÓPEZ-FRESNO and SAVOLAINEM, 2015; ŠÁRKA, 2014).

By its own characteristics, communication cannot be avoided, but one can act directly on it to limit or improve the learning opportunities that are generated from it (ŠÁRKA, 2014).

It is also found that knowledge sharing refers to the provision of information about activities and knowledge to help others in the organization, collaborating in problem solving, developing new ideas, or implementing policies and procedures (WANG and NOE, 2010, GAÁL 2015 and IPE 2003).

From these concepts, it is understood that the sharing of knowledge is a human act, intentional, directed to the creation of knowledge, which uses collaboration for this construction and that can be identified in each of the modes of knowledge conversion or within each step of the process of knowledge creation.

From the research conducted on specialized bibliography, some common elements are identified in several authors that contribute to the sharing of knowledge. These elements are both structural and individual elements. These elements are organised in the following table.

Table 2 – Elements necessary for the sharing of knowledge.

Elements Authors
Confidence López-Fresno and Savolainen (2015), Nesheim and Gressgardm (2014) and Šárka (2014)
Space for formal (meetings) or formal (social networks) relationships López-Fresno and Savolainen (2015), Wenger (2002), Caimo and Lomi (2015), Gáal (2015)
Shared values Šárka (2014)
Promoting dialogue between high and middle management Massaro et al (2014), Simons (1995)
Storytelling Šárka (2014), Takeuchi and Nonaka (2008)
Presence Probst, Raub, and Romhardt (2000), Nesheim and Gressgard (2014)
Repetition of actions (good examples) Šárka (2014)
Virtuality Nesheim and Gressgard (2014)

Source: personal collection.

Difference between knowledge transfer and knowledge sharing

Although there is some confusion between them, knowledge transfer is not confused with actions for the sharing of knowledge. In the transfer of knowledge there is a focus, a clear objective, and the unidirectionality of the action, while in sharing actions can take place unintentionally in multiple directions without a specific objective (BELLEFROID, 2012; IPE, 2003).

Therefore, the transfer has always an intentionality and occurs as a result of a research process or the generation of new knowledge that will be applied in certain realities. On the other hand, sharing is a means, it is a way and a step for the generation of knowledge. It is the common actions of sharing among the subjects of the organization that generate each of the stages of the SECI process.

Sharing is an action or set of actions that can happen at any stage of the knowledge creation process, using means for sharing. The sharing takes place through a dialogical and collaborative relationship from the initial moments of the process of knowledge creation, when the subjects involved in the process exchange their tacit knowledge or even those that are already explicit, conscious and already applied.

Barriers to The Creation of Knowledge

Despite the growing importance of knowledge-sharing activities for organizational competitiveness, several barriers make it difficult to achieve goals and improve competitiveness in the global market of organizations, affecting their profitability (CHONG, 2014; LINDSEY, 2006). The main barriers identified in the bibliography and current research are presented below.

Two levels of barreas are identified, individual ones and organizational barriers. The former are related to the behavior and actions of the subjects and are identified.

Table 3 – Relationship of individual and organizational barriers to the creation and sharing of knowledge and their respective sources.

category barrier Source/Origin
individual Lack or low capacity to absorb and deal with new situations, events, information and different contexts; internal resistance. Kazuo Ichijo – Takeuchi and Nonaka, Dixon (2000), Barson et al. (2000)
individual Kind of lives. Kazuo Ichijo – Takeuchi and Nonaka
individual Individual experiences. Kazuo Ichijo – Takeuchi and Nonaka
individual Individual objectives at odds with organizational objectives; individual interest. Kazuo Ichijo – Takeuchi and Nonaka, Barson et al. (2000)
individual Personality, shyness, fear or insecurity (not being sure that personal knowledge is correct); Low confidence; difficulty or inability to realize that the proposed knowledge will add value. Kazuo Ichijo – Takeuchi and Nonaka and Massaro, 2014 (p. 121 and 122), Dixon (2000), Levina (2001); Barson et al. (2000)
individual Difficulty or inability to realize that knowledge fits into the current context. Dixon (2000)
individual Formal education level. Nesheim and Gressgard, 2014, p. 29
individual Professional experience; professional cultures. Nesheim and Gressgard, 2014, p. 29, Levina (2001)
individual Unwillingness to listen. Levina (2001)
individual Fear of exploitation; fear of contamination, or proprietary thinking. Barson et al. (2000)
individual Skepticism about sharing. Barson et al. (2000)
individual Become redundant. Barson et al. (2000)
individual Loss of power; loss of confidentiality; personal responsibility. Barson et al. (2000), Cabrera & Cabrera (2002)
Organizational Need for a legitimized language; absence of contextual clues, specialized languages and methodologies. Kazuo Ichijo – Takeuchi and Nonaka, Levina (2001)
Organizational Organizational histories; Paradigms of the company; factors of the operating environment, culture and national beliefs, local orientation; memory loss, discontinuity of progress toward goals, culture. Kazuo Ichijo – Takeuchi and Nonaka; Okunoye (2002), Levina (2001)
Organizational Procedures. Kazuo Ichijo – Takeuchi and Nonaka
Organizational Time dedicated to performing the work more significant than sharing; time constraints. Massaro, 2014 (p. 121 and 122); Weiss (1999)
Organizational The monitoring of work activities inhibits creativity and motivation for knowledge sharing; Control of activities and excess measurements; Culture, technology, measurement. Massaro, 2014 (p. 121 and 122); KROGH, George Von; ICHIJO, Kazuo; NONAKA, Ikujiro, p. 591; 1996 APQC
Organizational In the planning of projects and processes, no time is considered to perform knowledge sharing. Massaro, 2014 (p. 121 and 122), McDermott & Odell (2001)
Organizational There is no reward system identified for this activity; lack of rewards, lack of recognition, lack of reciprocity; Contribution, precision, recognition. Massaro, 2014 (p. 121 and 122); Weiss (1999); Ellis (2001), McDermott & Odell (2001), Barson et al. (2000), Cabrera & Cabrera (2002)
Organizational Dynamics of group operation; How the work is structured to be carried out and the definition of roles and responsibilities; Functions or positions with low level of autonomy; Degree of specialization of functions negatively affects the relationship; Membership, retribution (excluding reward); common practices in professional service; differences in unity: subculture, unit objectives, restrictions of a local problem; prevention of profiteers, reduction of knowledge search costs. López-Fresno and Savolainen, 2014, Nesheim and Gressgard, 2014, p. 29; Bock & Kim (2002); Weiss (1999), Levina (2001); Dyer & Nobeoka (2000), Cabrera & Cabrera (2002)
Organizational Working climate. López-Fresno and Savolainen, 2014
Organizational Limited management approach. KROGH, George Von; ICHIJO, Kazuo; NONAKA, Ikujiro
Organizational View that Knowledge Management is the manufacture of tools (tools and instruments); Knowledge Management based on detectable and quantifiable information. KROGH, George Von; ICHIJO, Kazuo; NONAKA, Ikujiro
Organizational Knowledge Management depends on a physical and organizational structure (Knowledge officer). KROGH, George Von; ICHIJO, Kazuo; NONAKA, Ikujiro
Organizational The lack of a knowledge sharing mechanism; Simplicity, access, usability, motivation to participate; ease of use. Fraser, Marcella & Middleton (2000); Buckman Model (1998); Hall (2001), McDermott & Odell (2001), Barson et al. (2000), Barson et al. (2000)
Organizational Network that motivates participation. Dyer & Nobeoka (2000)
Organizational distance. Barson et al. (2000)
Organizational Personality, shyness, fear or insecurity (not being sure that personal knowledge is correct); Low confidence; trust; risk; penalty. Kazuo Ichijo – Takeuchi and Nonaka and Massaro, 2014 (p. 121 and 122), Dixon (2002), Levina (2001); Barson et al. (2000)

Source: personal collection.

3. APPLICATION AND RESULTS

The research was carried out in a University that has as main characteristic distance education. The University, which has about 40,000 students, is located in an Andean country and in this context distance education plays a very important role, considering the difficulty of locomotion between cities. The University is located in 84 (eighty-four) cities in the country, with its units, serving the community and the social environment with teaching, research and linking actions (university extension).

If there is sought to identify the main individual and organizational barriers that influence the sharing of knowledge among people.

As part of the research objectives, is the identification of the main barriers found in the development of action research with the working group. In addition to the observation made throughout the research, it was necessary to validate with those involved the perception about barriers to sharing.

For this verification, the general relationship of individual and organizational barriers was taken and questions were created that, organized, were transformed into two questionnaires, whose objectives were to evaluate individual and organizational barriers, from the perspective of the people.

Evaluation of Individual Barriers

Individual barriers are those linked to the individual’s behavior in relation to the creation or sharing of knowledge. At this stage of the group’s work, the 30 (thirty) most influential people in the development of the actions were selected, located at the directive and tactical level. Fourteen of these population answered the questionnaire.

The following table shows the results obtained from the research conducted, with the indexes obtained from the evaluation, where TD is the most unfavorable position and TA the most favorable.

Table 4 – Questions applied in the action research and results of the application of the questionnaire.

Question on Individual Barrier TD D N D/N A A TA[3]
1) Personally read well with new situations or events 7,14% 14,29% 64,29% 14,29%
2) The knowledge generated by the organization contributes to my personal training 21,43% 42,86% 35,71%
3) The organization’s objectives coincide with my personal and professional goals 14,29% 71,43% 14,29%
4) My personal knowledge contributes to the development of the organization 50% 50%
5) My professional knowledge fits with the context of the organization 21,43% 42,86% 35,71%
6) My academic background is sufficient to add value to discussions and the generation of organizational knowledge 14,29% 21,43% 57,14% 7,14%
7) My professional experience adds value to discussions and the generation of organizational knowledge 7,14% 64,29% 28,57%
8) In general, I feel encouraged to listen or learn about new topics or situations. 7,14% 14,29% 78,57%
9) I consider it important and feel calm when I comment on my ideas with the people in my working group and also with other groups 57,14% 42,86%
10) Although my ideas have already been shared by others in certain discussions, I consider it important to speak out on the topics. 7,14% 14,29% 57,14% 21,42%
11) I consider it important that knowledge is in some way centralised to ensure its integrity 14,29% 21,43% 28,57% 35,71%

Source: personal collection.

In general, the answers show a positive trend in people’s behavior towards individual barriers. They perceive themselves open to new ideas and learn new subjects, understand that the professional profile is aligned with the needs of the University and that, individually, they see contributing to organizational growth and development.

This result represents people’s perception of their own behavior in relation to the sharing of knowledge. However, in the course of the observation, this was a confirmed trend, that is, from the individual point of view, of the subject’s action, positive actions are identified. Perhaps because it is an environment in which knowledge is the objective and mission of the organization, such a reaction was found in people.

The most impactful individual barriers observed during the research were mainly related to individual experiences and to the fact that people were aware that what they could share would actually add value to the work done. It was possible to identify this from questions two, four and nine, where we sought to know how people perceive knowledge within the organization and their own knowledge according to the whole and whether they feel free to manifest this individual knowledge. Similarly in questions three and five, where people affirmed an identification with organizational objectives and contexts, which can be a foundation or explanation of the freedom to share previously identified. There is also a high perception about individual professional experiences and how they contribute in the organizational context (question seven).

The most relevant individual barriers identified through research, questionnaire and observation were those listed in the following table:

Table 5 – List of individual barriers identified in the research as more relevant.

Individual barrier
Education
Relationship between individual professional knowledge and organizational context
Individual positioning in new situations
Knowledge generated in the organization for individual training
Stimulus to listen and learn
Centralization of knowledge

Source: personal collection.

Assessment of Organizational Barriers

The organizational barriers identified in the bibliographic research were grouped in the same way as the individual ones and served as the basis for the elaboration of the questionnaire applied to the same universe of people (sending the questionnaire to thirty people and 15 respondents).

Organizational barriers are possibly the easiest to identify and even the most difficult to be addressed, because they are part of the systems of each organization and its culture. Most of the barriers identified here are in the foundations of the management model and in the structure of organizations.

The following Table presents the questions applied about organizational barriers and the results obtained.

Table 6 – Questions applied in the action research and their answers.

Question on Organizational Barrier TD D N D/N A A TA[4]
1) In the organization, it is possible to identify a formal and legitimate process to share knowledge. 6,67% 40,00% 13,33% 33,33% 6,67%
2) Documents that formalize processes, procedures or any other work instruction are standardized in the organization. 13,33% 26,67% 26,67% 20,00% 13,33%
3) In general, the operation and daily activities are so intense that we are unable to share the knowledge with our team or with other work teams. 6,67% 6,67% 53,33% 33,33%
4) In general, management controls over activities and results do not interfere in the creation or sharing of knowledge. 6,67% 33,33% 20,00% 33,33% 6,67%
5) Planning and work schedules do not determine times for sharing information and knowledge 20,00% 6,67% 40,00% 33,33%
6) It is possible to identify some kind of reward when working towards generating and sharing knowledge 13,00% 40,00% 20,00% 13,33% 13,33%
7) The team or group of people with whom I work, in general has the habit or predisposition to share knowledge. 6,67% 26,67% 33,33% 6,67% 26,67%
8) The organizational climate of the place where I work is favorable to the sharing of knowledge 13,33% 20,00% 13,33% 33,33% 20,00%
9) The leaders to whom I report directly encourage the sharing of recognition 13,33% 6,67% 40,00% 40,00%
10) In general the themes of information and knowledge are treated as information technology themes 14,29% 50,00% 35,71%
11) In general I use some technological means to share knowledge 20,00% 60,00% 20,00%
12) I am part of a network of a group of people with whom I can share knowledge and, likewise, receive knowledge. 13,33% 20,00% 6,67% 40,00% 20,00%
13) The distance between the number of units and the units (centers) does not represent a problem for the sharing of knowledge 20,00% 33,33% 6,67% 26,67% 13,33%

Source: personal collection.

Regarding organizational barriers, there is a tendency in responses, pointing out that there is no consensus regarding organizational efforts to share knowledge. There is an equitable distribution of the answers between those who are totally in agreement and those who are totally at odds with the questions presented. It is noteworthy that this is based on the formalization and awareness of the processes of knowledge creation within organizations. Although they are not systematized, there are institutional actions of creation that encourage the sharing of knowledge.

According to the results of the questionnaire application, most respondents do not identify the formalization of knowledge within the organization. They also understand that activities aimed at the creation and sharing of knowledge are not prioritized in organizational activities. During the development of action research, in the observation, it was not possible to clearly identify the moments of sharing. The work planning does not include the evaluation of the activities performed. Regarding the question about reward systems (question six), most respondents cannot identify forms of reward for actions that lead to knowledge sharing. With regard to environmental aspects, most people understand that the climate of the environment in which they are inserted is favorable to the sharing of knowledge. That there is encouragement from immediate guardians (80%). By the nature of the institution, by the avant-garde with which it worked in the distance learning sector, it has a large set of technology resources that can be used for the sharing of knowledge. However, despite this scenario, the questionnaire respondents understand that the focus of Knowledge Management, knowledge sharing is not on the use of technological resources. But that, according to question eleven, understand the importance of using these resources as support for the sharing of knowledge.

Table 7 – List of organizational barriers identified in the research as more relevant.

Organizational Barrier
Time: non-prioritization and lack of activity planning for knowledge sharing
Lack of formal sharing process
Absence of a reward system
Vision linked between knowledge management and information technology

Source: personal collection.

4. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

Knowledge sharing is a social process (LIN, 2015), so more than any tool or resource depends on people’s initiative and organizational intent to make it happen and be effective.

When the research work was planned, the commonly used resources were surveyed. The initial categories were directed to collect information, control actions (execution of activities and tasks) and communicate (content base, blog, online community, evaluation criteria, organization of ideas and video and communication).

Being faithful to the inductive method, it was considered that the results can be universalized, however it is understood pertinent that the research be replicated in other contexts for deepening and validation.

The great challenge was to develop the vision that it was necessary to create a systematic with clear purposes and directed to the generation of knowledge. This went far beyond the use of resources, because it was about promoting the possibility of collaborating in the construction of something. In this perspective, creating the environment for the realization of the process of knowledge creation involved building trust among people, defining clear and shared objectives and participating in all decision-making.

The adoption of the SECI model of Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) for the creation of knowledge guided the realization of research work and respected the development of scheduled actions.

Understood that the sharing of knowledge is a social process, it was fundamental to know from the literature the individual and organizational behaviors that to some extent could prevent such actions. These negative behaviors, or barriers, are easily recognized in organizational management. To a greater or lesser extent, these behaviors influence the entire process of knowledge creation. Barriers do not arise only when one is performing actions of the process of knowledge creation, logically. They are part of organizational behavior. However, it was possible to identify that the fact that the work was carried out collaboratively and openly transformed the organizational paradigm and that this, in a way, affected people’s perception of barriers.

Considering the assessment made about individual barriers, people feel institutionally welcomed. They perceive an important part of an organizational construction process, feeding the institution and being fed by it. However, when the evaluation falls under the organizational aspect, the same people point out that they do not identify a formal process of reward for the sharing of knowledge.

Within the context of organizational barriers, it is not yet possible to identify formal processes of knowledge sharing. Logically they exist within all organizational actions, but it is not part of the work system, it is not perceived in its entirety and thus cannot be enhanced. This was identified by the lack of reward – as already mentioned, by the lack of formalization of the work schedule and by the controls required in the execution of the activities. However, the predisposition of leaders for sharing was institutionally identified, as well as the perception of a favorable organizational climate.

The duty of knowledge distribution, for the study performed, was defined from the identification of its concept and application in each of the stages of the process of knowledge creation. The resources and strategies researched were identified as support for knowledge sharing. They are means that can make the process more agile, however they necessarily depend on an organizational and individual intention.

Organizational and individual barriers act to make the process of knowledge sharing more difficult or non-existent. It understands them will help to understand where to act in a way that preventor combat them.

It is understood that there are many other situations or contexts in which the same research logic can be applied, that is, to evaluate the barriers both at the individual and organizational levels.

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APPENDIX – FOOTNOTE REFERENCE

3. Where TD: Totally at odds; D accordingly; N D/NA: neither in disagreement nor in agreement; A: accordingly; and TA: totally in agreement.

4. Where TD: Totally at odds; D accordingly; N D/NA: neither in disagreement nor in agreement; A: accordingly; and TA: totally in agreement.

[1] Master in Science in the Production Engineering Program of USP São Carlos, in the area of knowledge of Economics, Organizations and Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning. Specialist in organizational management according to the Excellence Management Model of the National Quality Foundation by SENAI/SC and also in distance learning methodologies by the Claretian University Center. Graduated in Technology in Information Technology Management from the University of Southern Santa Catarina.

[2] Advisor.

Submitted: May, 2021.

Approved: June, 2021.

Master of Science in the Production Engineering Program at USP São Carlos, in the knowledge area of Economics, Organizations and Knowledge Management and Organizational Learning. Specialist in organizational management according to the Excellence Management Model of the National Quality Foundation by SENAI/SC and also in distance learning methodologies by the Centro Universitário Claretiano. Graduated in Technology in Information Technology Management from the University of Southern Santa Catarina.

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