SILVA, Evaldo Alves Da. PÊGAS, Jhonne Gonçalves Teixeira. ALVES, Sirlene Siqueira. The Leadership Profile – Research carried out in a slaughterhouse in the city of Paraíso do Norte (PR). Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 06, Ed. 04, Vol. 14, pp. 40-56. April 2021. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/business-administration/slaughterhouse-in-the-city
The role of leadership is intended to influence and encourage their followers within organizations, the leader is seen as someone who serves as an example and inspiration in the lives of individuals under his command, in this way these individuals are no longer mere employees performing their daily duties to become employees engaged in their tasks and seeking to do their best by having their leader as their model. This work aims to identify the profile of leaders based on the six leadership profiles already commented on by other authors and what type of professional currently exists within the organization in which they cooperated for this article. The article demonstrates through quantitative, qualitative research and case study, it is possible to conclude that effective leaders in the organization act and integrate within the criteria defined by the institution’s values, regardless of the leader’s leadership profile within the organization, it is understood that the leader is the subject who will help the team member so that he can develop his strengths and strengthen his weaknesses.
Keywords: Leader, Leadership, Profile, Organization.
Leader or leadership, on this subject this article seeks to explain through studies of other authors the meaning of these words and identify individuals with capacity and/or basic characteristics of this function.
Leader according to the Dictionary Michaelis of Portuguese language is the person with power to decide and obey, is the individual with the ability to influence the ideas and actions of other people and Leadership is the result of the individual who exercises the function of leader, who reveals authority.
However, in the literature, some definitions such as Chiavenato (2000, p. 107) can be found, where it emphasizes that “leadership is the interpersonal influence exerted in a situation and directed by means of the human communication process to achieve a certain objective”.
While Canastra and Ferreira (2012, p. 79) say that “to lead is to create an environment in which people want to be part of the organization and not just work for it, they want to do and not have to do”.
Canastra and Ferreira (2012, p. 79) still say that leadership depends on appropriating professional/general knowledge and skills – such as skills, intuitions and information – are fundamental to develop skills, being used and inserted strategically in each situation.
Terry (2012) explains that leadership is the activity of influencing people to be willing to fight for the group’s goals.
For Gil (2011, p. 220) “leadership is nothing more than the form of direction based on personal prestige and acceptance of subordinates”.
Based on this information this article aims to exemplify the types of existing leaders by monitoring the production routine of a specific case.
2. LITERATURE REVIEW
The following topics will cover the themes of leadership and leadership, which means the role of the leader in the organization and what leadership profiles exist.
2.1 LEADER AND LEADERSHIP
The theme of leadership or leader is not one of the innovative themes, in fact this theme is allowed to be timeless, because if we look in the older literaturewe will see how the great thinkers, philosophers, feudal lords, monarchs, generals and spiritual leaders dealt with the theme in question; for General Tzu (2006) to lead meant having in mind five crucial factors: doctrine, time, space, command, and discipline.
For Vergara (2007, p. 3) “leadership is someone’s competence to exert influence over individuals and groups, so that tasks, strategies, missions, are performed and results obtained.”
Bowditch and Buono (2006) see leadership as a process in which there is influence over one group or person by which it guides another to achieve future goals.
For Manola and Moreira (2014) leadership is a dynamic process in which the leader influences the leader, as well as the leader can influence the leader and may be this positive or negative influence, which makes this process a two-way street.
It is from this point as Chiavenato (2000, p. 89) came to the conclusion that “to lead is to exert influence on people or groups in the efforts that the objectives can be fulfilled in a given situation”.
Gil (2011, p. 239) comments, “A basic ingredient of leadership is the passion for vision, combined by passion for the profession”, this author treats this issue in a simple way, but makes clear his line of reasoning by exemplifying several other authors who support their statements by studying the behavior of successful personalities, such as Alexander “the Great” , Napoleon Bonaparte and Julius Cezar.
It is possible to perceive at work the relationship between the profiles of inborn leaders and trained leaders, which leads to an understanding about the existence of characteristics typical of people who were born with talents for leadership, specific traits, particularities of these personalities and as for trained leaders, they cannot be placed on a level of disadvantage, because despite the cream characteristics mentioned by him , there are other characteristics for successful leadership that can be aggregated through training and learning.
One of these characteristics, according to Gil (2011, p. 238) describes itself as follows, “leaders generate dreams, so they should have the ability to create a vision that can be transformed into reality and that encourages people to change.”
2.2 LEADERS: ROLE IN THE ORGANIZATION
The leader is the main character of the productive history of an organization, being fundamental to the alignment of the systemic patterns of the organization and employees, engaging the behaviors of these organizational vision. (NIEMEYER; CAVAZOTTE, 2014).
The leader is the individual who has the ability to make people practice what he wants using his good influence, who knows how to handle the conversation well, whose image before others is that of those who cause some difference, personal impact on the professional life of the leader. (HUNTER, 2004)
Another ability of the leader is the ability to motivate people, generate dreams, transmit security, self-confidence to generate a spirit of loyalty/fidelity. (MAXWELL, 2007)
According to Hunter (2004) leadership must understand the ability to influence people to work enthusiastically to achieve the objectives identified as being for the common good; in this way it can be understood that the leader needs to relate well, in fact this is the pillar of his successful conduct.
According to Hunter (2004, p. 33) the healthy conviviality with his team, seeking to listen, being attentive, ethical, responsible, without intending to be absolute or infallible makes his commandeers not only accept well who goes ahead – directing the team – as he gives him authority and power, “In simple words, to lead is to get things done through people. Working with people and getting things done through them, there will always be two dynamics at stake – the task and the relationship.”
The leader manages to bring the team together so that everyone works like a clock where the pieces – whether smaller or larger – fit in order to make the machine work well simply by the authority it exercises in its leadership as Hunter (2004) describes it by explaining that authority is expressed by the ability to move individuals to the desire to do willingly what you want simply by personal influence. perceived by the other in you.
It can be said then that the leader is the person with the sensitivity to see everything around him, scratch on them and seek the best of every thing and individual; is the one who knows his weaknesses and especially his strengths, can work well with each of the skills he possesses, as Vergara explains (2007, p. 3):
The people to whom the manager/leader leads have different motivations, values, expectations and life histories from each other, and this differentiation needs to be taken into account. What motivates an individual may not motivate another, so it takes sensitivity of the manager/leader to capture this differentiation and transform motivations into actions.
Some authors say that to be a leader you must be born a leader, to possess the gift for such, others claim that a good leader can be trained to be good at what is expected of him as in Vergara’s learned theory of leadership (2007, p. 5):
Leadership is the competence to exert influence over individuals and groups. As such, it is expressed in a set of knowledge, skills, attitudes and actions. This set is characterized as a process – and not as a finished product – that needs to respond to changes, some fast, some not so much, that characterize contemporary time-space.
What can be understood from both ideas is that they are gifted or trained; everyone will need at some point to be empowered in some way at a more fragile point, so no human being is complete or 100% (one hundred percent) good, it is necessary that the leader seeks to be better and better to lead the led to be the best. Vergara (2007, p. 5):
In the perspective used here, this learning occurs on three fronts: the learning of the manager/leader about himself, about the other and about the context. Of course, to develop on these three learning fronts, our manager/leader does not have to be a hero; a little commitment, sensitivity and desire to respond to the height of what your world asks of you today is enough.
2.3 LEADERSHIP STYLES
Leadership is how the individual (leader) is willing to direct, direct, guide and manage a group, Gil (2011, p. 220) states that leadership is simply the form of direction based on personal prestige and acceptance of subordinates.
There are several leadership styles, some of them where the leader is more focused on the process, others more focused on people, some open and liberal, others centralizing and closed. For Chiavenato (1994) leadership is a very common social phenomenon that exists only in social groups.
It is understood as an interpersonal influence exerted in a situation and directed through human communication to the achievement of one or more specific objectives. However, Soares (2015) says that leadership is the way the leader sees and faces the future, which he understands from this future vision and leads his leaders in this engagement.
According to Soares (2015) there are six leadership styles here in Brazil, among them the coercive, the manager, the affective, the democratic, the modeler and the coach. But in addition to being clear, the characteristics of each style are briefly followed:
The coercive leader is the individual who usually likes to send and who demands obedience over what he says in this way also becomes controlling and is not part of his character to praise the successes of his team, but when it comes to criticizing mistakes, he does so with great effort. (SOARES, 2015)
The leader has the ability to see the horizon of his work, his long-term vision is clear and objective, he can also make his leaders walk together in the right direction to achieve the results. Usually this leader shows the way, the goal and allows his leaders to do whatever it takes to achieve the expected results, this is the style of leadership that has generated the most impact with positive results in companies and organizations. (SOARES, 2015)
The affective leader is the one who values people the most in the process. There is a harmonious environment around him, his leaders feel good about working alongside him, because this individual acts with good treatment with each of the members of his team, because he believes that people will deliver their best in performing the tasks while they are well treated. (SOARES, 2015)
The democratic leader is the individual who does not make decisions alone, on the contrary, brings together his team and together decide on what to do in this way the responsibilities in all situations are divided between them. This individual has the practice of seeking the opinion of his team on what and how to achieve the goals and objectives of the organization. (SOARES, 2015)
The modeling leader adopts an inflexible posture and does not admit another way of managing and/or working, because he has in his mind that only his way is that it generates results and can work, considers himself a model to be followed, so he makes his team work his way and does not accept opinions. (SOARES, 2015)
The leading coach invests most of his time coaching his team, applies all his effort to develop his team, he knows well the fragile areas and strengths of each of his leaders, and knowing where to be improved seeks the improvements of all combining the tasks according to the needs of each. (SOARES, 2015)
Chiavenato (1994) in turn considers only three leadership styles: the autocratic, the liberal and the democratic.
This article follows Soares’s vision (2015) in understanding each of the styles present in our country, such as:
Coercive style is the kind of leader who is constantly watching his team one by one, is critical, usually hard and acidic; their leaders feel cornered and afraid for their way of leading with a certain kind of punishment. (SOARES, 2015)
The leader works with a long-term vision, values communication, develops transparent and motivational leadership, is a visionary and knows how to direct his team well. (SOARES, 2015)
The affective is an individual more attentive to people than to tasks, knows how to treat his commanded to the point of being called “super daddy” by his team; the democratic seeks the best of his team by dividing the tasks and responsibility among his leaders. (SOARES, 2015)
The modeler is thorough and detailed with a high level of demand, this individual always tries to find the best way to complete a goal;
The coach manages his time and effort to know the strengths and weaknesses of his group, he assesses his members and their particularities, seeks to know everyone, acts as a team coach, his goal is to provide the growth of everyone on his team and if possible enable them to enable. (SOARES, 2015)
This article studies the existing leadership profiles in the organizational environment of a particular food company. In the form of quantitative- qualitative research, case study and bibliographic review, this article brings results of research applied by method of personality identification through assertive.
The survey was conducted 09\06\2018 within a food industry in the city of Paraíso do Norte at GTFoods Company.
The choice of the modality of research by case study is based on the principle mentioned by Yin (2015, p.4) that emphasizes the importance of using this research modality for the contribution of everyone’s knowledge about phenomena, whether individual, group, organizational and also in the social, political and/or related field.
Yin (2015) also states that this research method is naturally presented as support in some areas, including: psychology, sociology, political science, anthropology, social assistance, administration, education, nursing and community planning.
In this article, the modality of quantitative and qualitative research was also used, because it was followed by the view of Deslandes (2002) by explaining that qualitative research has the concern to answer very deep and particular questions, giving due attention in the area of social sciences with what cannot be quantified, the level of reality , where what can be worked as the author emphasizes is the universe of meanings, motives, aspirations, beliefs, values and attitudes, with a view to the area of relationships of processes and phenomena not reducible to the operationalization of variables.
As for Fonseca’s quantitative research (2002, p. 20) explains that:
[…] quantitative research results can be quantified. As the samples are usually large and considered representative of the population, the results are taken as if they constituted a real picture of the entire target population of the research. Quantitative research focuses on objectivity. Influenced by positivism, it considers that reality can only be understood based on the analysis of raw data, collected with the aid of standardized and neutral instruments. Quantitative research uses mathematical language to describe the causes of a phenomenon, the relationships between variables, etc. The joint use of qualitative and quantitative research allows us to collect more information than could be achieved in isolation.
As for the bibliographic research Boccato (2006, p. 266) states that:
bibliographic research seeks to solve a problem (hypothesis) through published theoretical references, analyzing and discussing the various scientific contributions. This type of research will provide support for the knowledge about what was researched, how and under what approach and/or perspectives the subject presented in the scientific literature was treated. For this, it is of paramount importance that the researcher perform a systematic planning of the research process, comprising from the thematic definition, through the logical construction of the work to the decision of its form of communication and dissemination.
In this article the applied research demonstrated the leadership profile based on Soares’s theory (2015) in which he lists the six leadership profiles.
The results of the research allowed an analysis of the profile of the leadership present in the food company.
The respondents of the survey were all the leaders who make up the sectors of the company, being them: industry leaders, managers and supervisors.
The application of the research followed a standardized method for all respondents. Each was granted a time of fifteen (15) minutes to respond to the survey. For each respondent, a quiet and uninfluenced environment of other leaders was allowed.
The analysis of the answers followed in a confidential manner, without identification of the respondent so that there was no influence on the results of the research.
As for the content of the research, 18 (eighteen) assertive statements divided into groups of 3 (three) were constructed about the leadership profile. Each assertive group defining a profile described by Soares (2015) as can be seen in (Appendix I). All the statements of the research were elaborated by the authors of this article based on the work of Soares (2015), as can be observed in (Appendix I).
4. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
For this model, the following approach is used: the respondent receives a list with a number of assertions, he is asked to point or classify each of the information with a certain note where the minimum 1(one) represents “totally disagree” and 4(four) represents “totally agree”. For each profile there are specific statements. The sums of the notes demonstrate the propensity or inclination to one of the profiles. The higher the sum of the points, the more inclined to the profile the respondent is. A (Table 1) demonstrates each profile and assertions related to sums of points:
Table 1: Method for identifying leadership profiles
|coercive||In addition to the notes of questions 1, 2 and 3|
|leader||In addition to the notes of questions 4, 5 and 6|
|affective||In addition, the notes of questions 7, 8 and 9 are|
|democratic||In addition, the notes of questions 10, 11 and 12|
|Modeler||In addition, the notes of questions 13, 14 and 15|
|trainer||In addition, the notes of questions 16, 17 and 18|
Source: Soares (2015, p.242).
This work also seeks to provide academic scientific growth with experience in field study and that of the intellectual organization in which it participates with the results described here. Add knowledge and growth to the partner organization – local company – with regard to its employees, positively influence society through intellectual contribution and mainly identify the main characteristic of the leaders of the city of Paraíso do Norte and region, installed in the local company.
In partnership with the local company, the leaders were observed: their personal characteristics, difficulties, skills and particularities as a leader of work teams.
This article provides a brief analysis of leadership profiles based on the literature sands of people management, leadership and the history of production management to understand what are the positive points of local leadership and its most fragile areas.
For this work, the case study of the local company allows identifying the leadership profiles using specific assertive scripts.
Having as collaboration part of the leaders of the company Gonçalves and Tortola S.A., a sample of the profiles of the leaders of the Northwest region of Paraná was obtained, taking into account the fact that the partner company in this work employs people from various cities in the region.
Located in the city of Paraíso do Norte, GTFoods Group’s poultry slaughterhouse today employs employees from nearby cities such as Mirador, São Carlos do Ivaí, Tamboara, Paranavaí, Rondon, Guaporema and others.
Beyond this reality, the region has received people from various states of Brazil looking for work. In the Paradise of the North plant are people migrated from Mato Grosso, Alagoas, Ceará, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Santa Catarina and others. For this diversity and cultural plurality, GTFoods Paraíso do Norte is the ideal place to apply the research and conduct the case study.
With the results of this work, it is perceived the occurrence of a dominant profile. Profile that speaks louder than the other.
Within Soares’s profile theory it can be seen that there was a good distribution and combination of the profiles. The following is table 2 of the profiles:
Table 2: Summary- Leadership Profile by Soares
|Profiles||Dominant or Primary||secondary||tertiary|
Source: Research conducted through statements elaborated by the authors (2019)
This table highlights the trainer profile as being the dominant profile among the leaders of the GTFoods company. It is noted that most of its leaders perform a leadership in which their concern has been to stimulate their leaders to the path of a production of technical and safe quality, fact is that, this profile does not bring with it only this idea, because for each profile there are strengths and weaknesses.
As one of its weaknesses it can be said that it is the fact that this profile works with long-term perspectives and constantly exposes itself to risks, even if controlled.
The reality of long-term perspectives makes this leader vulnerable to criticism from both his bosses and his leaders, as he usually seeks improvement in both process and people. This causes the people involved to leave their comfort zones, which can provoke many discussions.
Another point to be highlighted is the secondary profile that predominated the organization’s environment, which is affective.
It is noted that GTFoods leaders balance their leadership by the affective profile, which scored 40% of respondents by secondary profile and 66% in the tertiary profile, with this it can be seen that even if there is general concern about the entire production process and there are technical standards of quality and health, the leaders of this esteemed company have in mind the importance of caring for their employees.
All respondents to this research are part of the leadership body of the esteemed company and all were given the same treatment for the application of the research. They were allowed to explain and guide the survey and were also granted the same time for the return of the questionnaire.
After the analysis and resolution of the research a simple report was prepared and delivered in the sectors where respondents develop their functions so that they could have access to the content of the report, thus providing, knowing a little more, the weaknesses they discovered and improving the strengths.
5. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
Thus this article can show that all leadership profiles described by Soares (2015) are present in some way in the organizational environment of the company Gonçalves and Tortola S.A. emphasizing more the Profile Coach and the Affective.
This work lists the three profiles that predominate in the organizational environment of the researched company and is noted greater presence of the coach profile, where most of the leaders surveyed score with maximum score the three statements related to this profile, which allows this a percentage of 46.6% of the answers.
For the profile that is determined secondary, the affective profile with 40% of the answers is higher than the highest percentage.
The third profile, the third highest score and the percentage of this profile reached 66.6% of the affective profile.
The results of the research together with the studies conducted show what are the existing profiles in the researched company and also reaffirms the role of leader and leadership.
It is important to affirm that there is no single profile that is the most appropriate and assertive, because the productive process is dynamic because it is dynamic because it is in people, in which the level of education, experience, limitations (physical and intellectual) and even generations diverge.
There is no formula that determines which profile fits for each organization or branch of the organization, but rather the balance of the profiles in the leaders through the situations presented to them. The constant analysis and personal improvement, in strengthening weaknesses and continuous improvement of strengths, evidenced a successful leader and consequently a successful team.
For the GTFoods group, the mission presented by them is to be a reference in product quality, to generate jobs and value for people and society, transforming the local reality with sustainability and commitment to health and safety.
Its vision is to be among the 3 largest (production and marketing of fresh birds) and best (profitability and quality) companies in the poultry sector in Brazil by 2025, with strong international performance and diversification in the food market.
And their values are classified as 9 (nine) key points being them: people make a difference; focus on results; quality; ethics; we like challenges; we dream big; we make a difference; commitment; health and safety.
The leader is the person by whom all the objectives of the organization will become the focus and desire of the leaders. The person of the leader who has sought the balance of all profiles and professionalism will bring to their commanded the feeling of belonging to the group, where they will seek to follow the same vision, mission and values of the organization, assuming the DNA of the company presented by the leadership in an inspiring, persuasive way and giving due importance of the process when necessary and people.
So the leaders will do what their leaders do and not just what their leaders want, overcoming the sense of responsibility and assuming the will to be useful in the environment in which it belongs.
Thus, it was perceived through this research at Gonçalves and Tortola S.A. that the leaders present in the organization understand and act within the criteria determined according to the values of the institution and that the profiles presented by the research prove the effectiveness of their efforts and commitment.
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|Rate each of the information below with a score of 1 to 4, as follows:
1 – I totally disagree 2 – I disagree in parts
3 – Partially agree 4 – Totally agree
|1||I sometimes realize that when i approach my leaders, they appear to have traces of discomfort, fear, or anxiety.|
|2||I practice leadership always remembering my leaders of their duties and constantly charge excellence of service.|
|3||I feel more comfortable giving the orders or passing on the rites of work than raising opinions for some execution.|
|4||I usually give the coordinates of the work so that the team understands, for this I use the same language as them.|
|5||I like to make the work environment more attractive, encouraging my leaders to improve while maintaining a friendly relationship at work.|
|6||I have strong characteristics and clear goals and i don’t need to tell people the level of professional I want for my team.|
|7||I have great appreciation for the faithfulness of my leaders to me.|
|8||I take good care of people, I have a sincere feeling for them.|
|9||I create an environment of harmony and closeness to people.|
|10||The people on the team know that they are co-responsible for the result.|
|11||In every possible way I seek to make my team into a cohesive high performance team within a harmonious and pleasant environment.|
|12||I follow in the line of thought that the oldest employees or with more time working in the role have the ability to add good information and practices to the younger or inexperienced, raising the level of the team jointly to leadership.|
|13||I firmly accept the ideology that my role as a leader is to elevate people to levels that even they themselves would not believe they can be capable of, is to be able to give them a new professional horizon and as a consequence, personal.|
|14||My way of speaking and giving an order are clear, in this way I have to be hard, firm and even demanding for it to run the service the way I requested without errors and excuses.|
|15||I believe I have great ideas based on my experiences, so if those around me adhere to my way of making it happen they will be effective.|
|16||I analyze each of my leaders and seek to detect their strengths and weaknesses in order to improve the strengths and improve the weaknesses, for me this is right investment.|
|17||I like to get close to people and get to know them well, each of my leaders in a unique way just like they are.|
|18||I feel very comfortable to form other new leaders.|
 Bachelor of Directors.
 Bachelor of Directors.
 Master In Technology Development.
Submitted: March, 2021.
Approved: April, 2021.