Impact generated in micro and small enterprises due to social isolation

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SILVA, Patrícia do Carmo Saturno [1], SANTOS, Wilton Ferraz dos [2]

SILVA, Patrícia do Carmo Saturno. SANTOS, Wilton Ferraz dos. Impact generated in micro and small enterprises due to social isolation. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year. 06, Ed. 11, Vol. 11, pp. 157-174. November 2021. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link:


With the emergence of COVID-19, to avoid the contagion of the population, social distancing and subsequently the lockdown was established, which is a restrictive measure of contact. This measure aims to slow down the contagion of the virus, thus generating a strong impact on the economy as well as on business organizations. In this context, this article aims to discuss the impact of the pandemic, through the elaboration of a literature review, in medium and small companies, aiming to answer the guiding question: What were the negative and positive points that micro and small enterprises suffered during the COVID-19 pandemic? This is a narrative review of the literature, of exploratory character and qualitative approach. To elucidate the study, searches were performed in the Google Scholar database, applying as a main filter, publications that varied between 2020 and 2021. A total of 7,930 articles were identified through the search, but the choice of studies respected the inclusion and exclusion criteria established and, after reading the title, reading the abstract and total content, 32 articles were selected to make the present review. It was concluded that micro and small enterprises had high rates of service closures, some were forced to perform the termination of contracts with their employees, being then responsible for a significant share of unemployment in the country in this period, as evidenced by the difficulty in accessing loans and state aid and the low participation in reduction programs, in view of the programme criteria and low dissemination. However, the impacts suffered by certain organizations do not only involve negative factors, given that sectors such as delivery, ecommerce, home and construction, computer products and essential services have demonstrated significant growth.

Keywords: Administration, COVID-19, Economics, micro and small enterprises, Pandemic.


In a period marked by numerous technological advances, in a highly globalized world scenario, the emergence of COVID-19 has had a strong impact in all sectors, due to the absence of contagion control because it is a new virus with high lethality potential (AVENI, 2020).

For containment against contamination, strict control measures were adopted throughout the world in order to avoid a possible worldwide outbreak due to the new coronavirus, and alternatives of restriction to circulation as lockdown were applied, through the blocking of the opening of commercial establishments, aiming at the real effectiveness of the social distancing proposed as disease control (JUNIOR; SANTA RITA, 2020).

As a result of the deliberations established for COVID-19 control, a global crisis inevitably established that presents humanitarian, social, economic and cultural repercussions, where government, business and individual sectors have been exposed to previously unseen challenges (GARCIEL; NETTO, 2020).

The impacts generated by COVID-19 are not yet measurable or predictable, and the established crisis has different characteristics from other economic crises in history, or even from the ancient plagues. Thus, the projections made about the impacts generated by the disease are mistaken, due to the constant advance of the disease (PACCHI, 2020).

In the current scenario, the decision-making process carried out by economic agents involving companies, investors, employees and consumers in the public sector is directly related to the consequences of the actions of the government sector to contain the spread of COVID-19 (CARVALHO; LIMA, 2020).

According to the WTO (World Trade Organization), it is believed that the projections of expectations for world trade in 2021 present uncertainties, because due to the new variants of COVID-19 the outlook is not clear, because in 2020 world GDP fell -5.2%, the United States -5.9%, the European Union -7.5%, China -1% and Brazil had a drop of -8% (PEREIRA, 2020).

Data collected by IBGE (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics[3]) show that during the second half of 2020 in Brazil, coronavirus had a negative impact on 37.5% of non-financial business organizations. This impact was maintained when compared to the first half, in which a percentage of around 36% was seen, and the retail, consumer goods, automotive, real estate, electricity, oils, gas and petrochemicals, mining, steel and public sector sectors showed a reduction in activity and income during 2020 (RAMOS; DELDUQUE; ALVES, 2020).

On world levels, governments have put out measures to mitigate the consequences of the pandemic. Thus, a particular concern is notable for defending small businesses that play a significant role in the supply of jobs and in the continuity of goods and services (DE SALLES, 2020). In Brazil, small businesses in 2019 accounted for 54% of the formalized jobs in the country, in addition to representing 27% of Brazilian GDP (EL KHATIB, 2020).

In 2020, government-created and targeted aid programs for small businesses, which promised to offer a credit facility, were launched. The companies enrolled in the proposed programme state that despite the promised facility, access to credit was not so simple, as 64.4% of small organizations were denied the aid; in relation to medium-sized companies, it was identified that 30.5% of these did not have access to the credit offered and 5.1% of large companies did not have access to the proposed government aid program. It is believed that one of the biggest obstacles to lending is bureaucracies and banking requirements, in addition to excessive interest rates (DUARTE et al., 2020).

One of the alternatives to ward off the lockdown consequences was the popularization of online sales in much of the commercial segments. Thus, in 2020 e-commerce gained great notoriety, considering that the consumer receives the product at home, reducing the risks of contact between individuals and respecting the measures of distance (PREMEBIDA, 2020).

In Brazil, online shopping showed significant growth, and essential products began to be purchased by its consumers online (PEREIRA; AZEVEDO, 2020). Since the beginning of the pandemic in Brazil, online supermarket sales have increased by around 16%, in addition to the average conversion of this sector, which has increased 8.1%. On the other hand, companies operating in the natural food segment obtained greater visibility, in addition to the 27% increase in sales. Organizations operating in the area of homewares showed an increase in access in their e-commerce by 33%, in addition to the types of delivery, including websites and delivery applications that showed a high growth rate (REZENDE; MARCELINO; MYAJI, 2020).

In view of the above, the objective of this study was to analyze through a literature review the main impacts generated on micro and small enterprises in the pandemic period, through social isolation, and the effects of these factors on the economy. The main question was: “What were the negative and positive points that micro and small enterprises suffered during the COVID-19 pandemic?”.


This is a narrative review of the literature, of exploratory character and qualitative approach. In this context, the present study used as the theme the impact caused in micro and small enterprises due to social isolation. The elucidation of the present study took place from February to October 2021.

Based on this premise, a search was carried out in the Google Scholar database, applying as the main filter publications with a publication range between 2020 and 2021, written in Portuguese and English, thus enabling an updated approach to the proposed theme.

The selection of articles was from the observational study of the title and abstract of the articles that presented the following descriptors: Administration; COVID-19; Economy; micro and small enterprises; Pandemic. Case studies, descriptive and observational studies, reviews of simple, systematic and integrative literature, books, book chapters, books, were used as inclusion criteria. Exclusion criteria were scientific papers such as theses, monographs, abstracts of annais e cartas to the author.

The articles used followed the search strategies adopted, through the inclusion of descriptors in the databases and the identification of articles with the theme and objective of the study. The realization and screening of articles occurred through the Software Mendeley Desktop® (USA, 2016). It is important to point out that the process was carried out by two reviewers independently, so that no divergent results were obtained.

A total of 7,930 articles were identified through the search, but the choice of studies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria established. After reading the title, reading the abstract and reading the content, there are 32 articles to make up this review.



The establishment of the lockdown due to the emergence of COVID-19, with the objective of promoting social distancing, generated an impact not only on public health, but also on organizations from all countries affected by the restriction measures. The impacts suffered by companies may present themselves in different ways. These factors depend solely on where the organization will operate (CARVALHO; LIMA, 2020).

The possible worsening of the pandemic character can lead to the occurrence of phenomena that involve: interruption in the organization’s supply chain, scarcity of labor and/or impairment of production capacity, interruption of demand, among others. It is important to note that sometimes some organizations, to a lesser extent, get opportunities for growth, such as the fall in competition or positive effects of the pandemic itself on the market in which it operates. Thus, for some niches, the effects of the pandemic and lockdown, in general, can be positive. An example of this is companies that sell goods considered essential, which includes supermarkets and pharmacies. There are organizations that use this period to change the focus of the company. This is due to the need to readapt the needs presented by the market (AVENI, 2020).

Brazil reached the mark of 10 million cases of COVID-19 even before the first case of this disease, confirmed in February 2020. The World Health Organization said throughout 2020 that every three minutes a Brazilian had a positive diagnosis for the new coronavirus. Inevitably, the indexes cannot be unrelated to the economic data presented, given that the national GDP in 2020 fell about 1.5% in the first quarter due to the decline in services (SALLES, 2020).

One of the factors of greater perception during and after the health crisis with strong economic impacts will be the high unemployment rate. This problem arises through the inability of managers to maintain their revenue. Thus, there is a commitment of funds and the administrator is led to make mass layoffs (PREMEBIDA, 2020).

In this context, it is relevant to state that companies tend to have reduced teams. In addition, the automation process is being solidified in the most diverse organizational sectors, so that many functions will consequently be replaced (GARCIEL; NETTO, 2020).

COVID-19 has been a major challenge in estimating the impacts exerted by the virus during this period in the face of the economic environment. The current scenario is one of uncertainty, given that there are no comparative references to the current scenario. This makes the current crisis unprecedented, so the uncertainty that hangs over the organizational environment requires short, medium and long-term planning. This planning includes the current scenario, as well as the post-pandemic period (RAMOS; DELDUQUE; ALVES, 2020).

Studies indicate that the impacts of the pandemic will be one of the largest ever experienced worldwide, given that projection measures carried out in April 2020 showed that 50 million people currently live below the poverty line. Additionally, in June, the same projection showed that more than 70 million individuals survive below the poverty line (JUNIOR; SANTA RITA, 2020).


The emergence of the pandemic in 2020 affected several sectors due to the measure of rigid distancing, called lockdown. All states and cities adopted this approach at different times, aiming to reduce the incidence of COVID-19. Thus, it was required that the commercial sector also undergo a process of readaptation so that its performance was not compromised, but not denying the impacts that the crisis established by social isolation and lockdown would cause (CALDAS; SILVA SOUZA; BUZOLI, 2020).

Although several sectors have in fact had their incomes compromised, according to Oliveira Souza (2020), areas such as delivery, essential services, computer products and home and construction developments showed exponential growth during this period.


The delivery service obtained great expansion during the pandemic, given the fact that the consumer cannot leave the house. Therefore, companies that did not offer this service began to make delivery available at home (WEISS, DUARTE, 2020).

Companies such as Ifood®, Uber Eats®, Rappi®, among others, have expanded considerably due to the supply of home delivery, which gives convenience to the purchase and risk reduction due to the fact that the consumer is not forced to leave the house to feed (MELO et al., 2020).

The delivery policy was already widely known, as this feature pre-emptoses the pandemic. The expressive use of the tool has always been characteristic of food companies, being small, medium or large. However, after the pandemic, the essential sector expanded this tool that was already used, and new segments began to adhere to this resource (BOTELHO; CARDOSO; CINNAMON, 2020).

The growth of specialist delivery companies such as Rappi®, Ifood® Uber eats® and 99 taxis® (the latter two of which are not limited to food delivery, but also parcel deliveries), showed growth of 149.1%, 81.9%, 91% and 73%, respectively. The percentages presented show that the delivery sector has one of the best impacts during the pandemic (REZENDE; MARCELINO, 2020).

The aforementioned applications also presented greater accreditation of bars, cafeterias, restaurants and individual entrepreneurs, who chose to adapt to the scenario imposed by the health crisis. Currently, about 72% of the companies that operate in the food industry are registered in the delivery applications, and the others already have private delivery (ABRANCHES; LANA, 2020).


It is in the administrative sector’s domain to influence the needs and priorities on the purchasing decision-making process. Thus, with the emergence of coronavirus and the change of scenery, the objectives and priorities of the entire world population have changed. Social distancing and lockdown forced individuals to be at home, and then the home office was formed. This new modality, added to the anxiety of an unknown scenario, and associated with the need to be at home, caused the population to consume a greater amount of essential items, such as food, hygiene products, cleaning in general, in addition to pharmaceutical items (SCHNEIDER et al., 2020).

The pharmaceutical sector showed a growth of 13.6% in 2020, when compared to the year 2019. The retail market sector showed an expansion of 16.2%. One of the factors that draws attention is the adoption of these sectors to the offer of delivery, as in Brazil, delivery apps registered an average higher than 55% during 2020, when compared to 2019, as well as food retail companies showed an increase in around 52% in 2020 when compared to 2019 (PELLEGRINI, 2020).


With the increase of the home office, due to social distancing, the consumption of computer products showed relevant growth through the need to invest in equipment that met the demand imposed by the work routine (MENDONÇA et al., 2020).

Several organizational sectors began to invest in its resources so that their employees could develop the necessary activities, even if far from the organizational environment. Thus, the acquisition of computer instruments and resources during this period intensified. A by-product presented responsibility for this expansion, this being cloud computing, used for storing data in the security and information cloud, which provides assurance about productivity, in addition to the organization of the released data, in view of the benefits offered by the resource in centralizing information, optimizing space, in addition to minimizing investment in hardwares and softwares (ORTEGA; ROCHA, 2020).


The home and construction sector, like the others mentioned above, showed a significant growth during the pandemic, due to the reduction in the basic interest rate Selic, in addition to the government program “Casa Verde e Amarela”, which aims to help individuals who have low income to the conquest of their own home. Given the factors exposed, the moment is considered conducive to investment in buildings or civil constructions, a fact that directly influences the trade of decorative articles and building materials (PEREIRA; AZEVEDO, 2020).

The logic is based on the possibility that the purchase of real estate has been intensified, and there will be an increase in the trade in decorative articles and building materials. With the emergence of coronavirus and the pandemic, the population in general began to consider the need to own its own property, having a space that met daily demands. In addition, this impulse aroused the desire to carry out renovations or purchase of new items from home and decoration (REZENDE; MARCELINO, 2020).


E-commerce expanded in a way that was evident during the period of the pandemic, which, although already known, was not as relevant. It is believed that in Brazil, the region of the South center is more prominent in the realization of sales through e-commerce, with values higher than 66% in 2020, when compared to 2019. The expansion of e-commerce was a factor of great surprise, becoming a new trend, being considered an irreversibly adhered modality (FREITAS BAUER, 2020).

In Brazil, in general, 2020 increased by about 50% of sales through e-commerce when compared to 2019, based on data presented by the metrics committee of the Brazilian chamber of digital economy. Despite the high annual growth rate presented by the central South region, in December 2020 the Northeast region was the one that made the most sales through e-commerce, adding an increase of 78%, followed by the South region with 66%, the Southwest region with values higher than 48%, Midwest with 46.99%, and finally the North region that has 39.25% (SILVA; SILVA; OLIVEIRA, 2020).

The positive experiences experienced by consumers through e-commerce purchases boosted the sales tool by breaking down psychological barriers, such as the furniture sector, in which consumers were limited to making the purchase only in person, due to the need to glimpse the object in person. However, due to the non-opening of the trade for a long period, the consumer was obliged to make their purchase online and succeeded with it. Thus, the segment is consolidated in the country and demonstrates its efficiency and benefits of its use directly to the consumer (MACEDO et al., 2020).


Micro and small enterprises configure the enterprises that have the highest mortality rate in Brazil, through research by the Brazilian Support Service for Micro and Small Enterprises[4] (Sebrae). The analyses are presented using the data offered by the federal revenue, which show that the interruption of MSE’s services in the first five years is 29% (CALDAS; SILVA SOUZA; BUZOLI, 2020).

In comparison, companies that operate in this field and that remain in the market after the above mentioned period involve the management capacity, experience and knowledge of the area in which it operates (SALLES, 2020). The emergence of COVID-19 has generated numerous changes in the functioning of Brazilian micro and small enterprises, because, according to Sebrae (2021), about 31% had their functioning altered, but the most alarming factor involves the interruption of activities, temporarily, of more than half of the country’s microenterprises (CALDAS; SILVA SOUZA; BUZOLI, 2020).

Despite the difficulties faced with the pandemic character, installed as a result of COVID-19, the significant evolution of micro and small enterprises to remain alive in the market was noted. Empirical studies showed that around 42% of companies, due to social distancing, started operating exclusively online. On the other hand, 41.2% of the companies adhered to the reduction of working hours, as well as 21% began to exercise their work practices through the home office (REZENDE; MARCELINO, 2020).

One of the alternatives adopted by some entrepreneurs through the emergence of distance measures was the performance of a time relay for employees. This share involves the rotation among employees, a measure adopted by a percentage of MSE’s, around 15%. For shopping malls,it was implemented as a measure for the continuity of its activities at drive thru. This option was adhered to by about 6% of micro and small enterprises (GONÇALVES et al., 2021). The measures presented were taken due to the need to comply with the suspension stipulated by the government of the country, a factor that interfered around 80% of the MSE’s, but around 20% chose to interrupt the performance of face-to-face services on their own account, considering that they were not involved in the list of expendable activities (DUARTE et al., 2020).

The data presented by Sebrae (2021) showed that the situation of companies with regard to financial gains, showed that the situation, in general, of micro and small enterprises were no longer favorable, even before the state of calamity installed due to coronavirus. This factor is justified by the replication of entrepreneurs who classified the company’s situation as reasonable (49%) and bad (24%) (CALDAS; SOUZA SILVA( BUZOLI, 2020).

The Getúlio Vargas Foundation[5], responsible for monitoring the impact of the pandemic on micro and small businesses, currently shows a great concern about the increase in production costs, given that companies have not supported values that involve rent, fuel and not even insums (CALDAS; SILVA SOUZA; BUZOLI, 2020).

Despite the significant advances in relation to COVID-19 disease, it is commonly observed that the actual revenue has increased, however, inflation has been intensifying, which impairs the planned resumption process. Vaccination was in fact one of the major beneficiaries of the resumption process, but it is necessary that new aid measures be carried out for the companies involved, as well as the granting of loans and credit to these organizations that represent a large part of The Brazilian GDP (PEREIRA, 2020).

Studies conducted after the relaxation of restrictive measures by Sebrae show that although the current flow in trade was unauthorized due to the speed of vaccination, it is evidenced that 79% of micro and small enterprises still have a loss in their revenues, a percentage that remains the same since the first quarter of 2021. Furthermore, the analyses showed that micro and small enterprises in general showed a 43% drop in their revenues when compared to the period prior to the pandemic (GONÇALVES et al., 2021).


The support service for micro and small enterprises, Sebrae (2021), states that the health crisis with economic impacts has caused a commitment never seen in the last century in relation to the financial development of the most diverse segments (CALDAS; SILVA SOUZA; BUZOLI, 2020).

The data presented by Sebrae indicate that of the 65 million companies classified as MSE’s, about 30% may close in the coming months due to the impacts of the pandemic, because due to the lack of revenue, managers are unable to maintain the company’s expenses. In addition, Sebrae also states that during the pandemic 25% of the companies presented instability and 50% said they considered themselves stable (CALDAS; SILVA SOUZA; BUZOLI, 2020).

Despite the factors related to the impact of the pandemic, it is believed that the resumption process will happen, because during the pandemic the ability of micro and small enterprises was observed with the objective of financial restructuring (GONÇALVES et al., 2021).

It is believed that MSE’s should adopt cash flow control as a primary resumption alternative. Thus, it is necessary a self-assessment of the expenses that the company has, in order to observe the feasibility of maintaining the business, or if the best option is to close the activities, or just restrict the company’s performance to the necessary levels (VITÓRIA; MEIRELES, 2020).

An alternative of relevance is to negotiate deadlines, as well as the search for better conditions for payment of loans, rents, among other negotiation measures aimed at further dilating the economy (GONÇALVES et al., 2021).

As an alternative to resumption, alternating measures that generate revenue should be included, a factor that has become a reality throughout this period. It is possible to observe that the managers of The MSE’s are using creativity to generate innovative solutions. Thus, it is possible to notice the adaptation of small schools to conduct online classes, adhering to the delivery system by bars and restaurants, and these are some measures for the resumption of this business segment (CALDAS; SILVA SOUZA; BUZOLI, 2020).


Surprisingly, the economic analysis sectors state that for the year 2021, the outlook is positive worldwide, and global projection levels involve GDP of 5.2% (PEREIRA, 2020).

The resumption of the United States, as well as the scenario experienced by the country, is expected to be around 4% of GDP by the end of 2021. The factor can be justified through the tax package that presents values around U$ 900 billion dollars, being considered a favorable impulse to assist, which is being used in the process of resumption of consumption (GARCIEL; NETTO, 2020).

China presents that the conduct to contain the spread of COVID-19 was positive for resumption, given that they contributed to the control of economic spending imposed by the crisis. Thus, GDP for the country is around 2% due to low investment in the economy itself, but it is still a positive expectation (EL KHATIB, 2020).

Brazilian GDP forecasts for 2021 are around 4.2%. This factor is related to the wide vaccination of the population associated with the pretension of high expenditure, in addition to monetary relaxation, which can create jobs and assist in the process of resuming the economy (DE SALLES, 2020).

In Brazil, the main factor seen as an economic impulse is the generation of employment, and then the normalization in the labor market is considered, one of the main factors for the resumption, because the decrease in the unemployment rate consists in the optimization of consumption and population support (DUARTE et al., 2020).


According to Salomé et al. (2021), in its exploratory research of quantitative approach, the impact of COVID-19 on the financial management of micro and small enterprises was evaluated through the application of a semi-structured questionnaire. It was evidenced that the study sample showed financial growth in the period prior to the pandemic, as well as payments being kept up to date. Already after the emergence of COVID-19, companies began to present difficulties in fulfilling their financial agreements. Thus, in the sample studied by Salomé et al. (2021), it is demonstrated that the impacts exerted by COVID-19 were negative from a financial perspective.

Sales; Macêdo (2021) affirm that the resumption of the country’s commercial sector depends directly on the state, thus making possible the reestablishment of business and the resumption of the economy, but the authors highlight the need to carry out a slow resumption process, where administrative strategies and policies of valid and real incentives should be applied so that the management of these organizations has financial strengths to remain positioned in the market.

Duarte et al., (2020) present credit lines with the objective of promoting reflections in relation to financial practices for the possibility of financing MSE’s, in the face of uncertainties caused by COVID-19. The authors in their study equipped the current moment of crisis with the other shocks already experienced and reiterate that the proposals presented by the state demonstrate little adherence by organizations due to the demands imposed by the government.

Similarly, Duarte et al. (2020) raise the need to promote the diversification of possible aid tools offered by the state in order to offer a greater variety of expansion of credit subsidies, in addition to the exemption of interest and fees added to the judicious evaluation of the organizational profile.

Vitória; Meireles (2021) evaluated through a bibliographic research, the economic impact caused by coronavirus, on micro and small enterprises, as well as the consequences for the economy in general. The authors state that the MSE’s had, in the vast majority, the service practices interrupted, some temporarily, others definitively, due to the financial losses related to the crisis. Thus, Vitória and Meireles (2021) show the high number of layoffs associated with the interruption of the activities of micro and small enterprises.

Schreiber; Moraes; Stasiak (2021) , which assessed the impacts of COVID-19 on micro and small enterprises, demonstrated that the crisis was not observed in this sector, but in all business areas. In addition, it was evidenced by the authors that the companies evaluated in their quali-quantitative study demonstrated financial commitment through a drastic reduction in their revenues. In addition, half of the total sample of 21 companies reported having reduced the number of employees, but the fact of great curiosity evidenced by the study is that only four companies reported having used the reduction aid offered by the Brazilian government.

According to Silva; Silva; Oliveira (2021), the existence of digital marketing caused the disclosures and sales of services and products of small and micro enterprises to reach a larger audience and consequently increase their profitability. This expansion of consumer contact directly with companies came to be seen as a positive point in this pandemic period, since they are able to offer their products in this new scenario.

According to Premebida (2021), the use of digital marketing should be carried out with care, because the performances and posts are rigorously analyzed by citizens, who have the openness to give a positive opinion as a negative, shaping the company’s reputation.


The preparation of the present study allows us to conclude that, with the emergence of coronavirus and the installation of the pandemic character, all organizational sectors suffered economic, financial and social impacts. It is important to point out that the impacts suffered by certain organizations do not only involve negative factors, considering that sectors such as delivery, e-commerce, home and construction, computer products and essential services have shown significant growth, but such statements must be monitored, given that the impacts of this crisis will be observed for the next 5 years, on a low average. In this way the long-term benefits can be excised.

Based on the leading question of the study, established as: “What were the negative and positive points that micro and small enterprises suffered during the COVID-19 pandemic?”, it is possible to state that it was evidenced that the emergence of coronavirus generated significantly negative impacts on the financial scope of MSE’s, but some of them were able to develop viable alternatives for the continuity of their services, what was indeed a challenge, being one of the main alternatives adopted, the use of digital resources, in addition to the adoption of delivery and tools such as drive-thru.

It is also important to point out that micro and small enterprises had high rates of service closures, as well as companies in this sector were forced to perform the contract closure of some of their employees, being then responsible for a significant share of unemployment in the country in this period, as well as the difficulty in accessing loans and state aid, as well as low access to reduction programmes, in view of the programme criteria and low dissemination.


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[3] Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (IBGE).

[4] Serviço Brasileiro de Apoio às Micro e Pequenas Empresas (Sebrae).

[5] Fundação Getúlio Vargas.

[1] Graduation in Business Administration. ORCID: 0000-0001-6968-4744.

[2] Advisor. Specialist in Tax Management. ORCID: 0000-0002-2300-2311.

Submitted: November, 2021.

Approved: November, 2021.

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