PIZZETE, Márcio. BIRCK, Elizabeth da Silva Mello. Leadership and management of people nowadays. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. 04 year, Ed. 06, Vol. 02, pp. 69-77 June 2019. ISSN: 2448-0959
This article aims to address the leadership and management of people nowadays. The study aimed to verify through the study of the already existing review on the theme the role of the leader, its importance, its main characteristics. The same is characterized as a bibliographic research, where we consulted books, magazines, scientific articles and material available on the Internet. Finally, it can be inferred that the leader, in the current conjuncture, plays an important role in the development of organizations mainly in the intervention of personal relationships, which usually cause the greatest conflicts in organizations. The leader in this sense has the role of managing human relations and making them the goals and goals of organizations, proposing to employees a joint development and growth work that provides the organization as a whole improvement and Organisational and personal growth. Today’s leader must always be democratic and fair, offering opportunities to all while managing the relationships between people and organizations in a hard and concrete way.
Words – Key: People management, leader, leadership.
According to some scholars of the administration, globalization has generated significant impacts on the organizational scope. The advancement of competitiveness has caused important changes in the composition of the production and consumption markets. A new economy is formed: the “knowledge economy”, where more and more companies start to demand their co-workers knowledge and skills.
From this it can be evidenced that we are living a new form of social organization, characterized by the diversification of economic activities, by its form of organization in networks, by the flexibility, insecurity and individualization of labor.
In this conjuncture, companies to resist the market, tend to increase their demands in relation to employees. It stands out in this way the role of the leader, or also known as people manager. Such professionals, to meet the needs of companies need to combine technical competence and interpersonal competence. While the first relates to the know-how, the second is linked to the ability to relate to people, further expanding the importance of leadership, motivation and teamwork.
Following this path, this article analyzes the importance of the leader and his role, conducting an analysis on what stands out and provides better conditions to deal with people. Also, through this search to show the role of the leader within the companies and what are some of the main features for this new scenario, which he must possess or develop throughout his career.
This article was developed through bibliographic research, analyzing articles, course completion papers, books and specific journals on the subject. Structurally this article is organized into three sections, including this introduction. The second section describes the theoretical review on people management, leadership, the types of leaderships, the role of the leader and the characteristics necessary for the new leaders, and the third section exposes the final considerations.
2.1 PEOPLE MANAGEMENT
According to Chiavenato (1999), people management is a compassionate area of thought that predominates in organizations. It is contingent and situational, because according to some aspects such as the intrinsic culture in each company, the organizational composition, the particularities of the environmental context, the Organization’s market of operations, the technologies used, among other Infinite variables that have an important impact on this process.
In this context, according to the author, we understand some of the Countermeans experienced in the business market. Perhaps as a professional the leader has already been presented to the famous phrase: “The theory does not apply to practice”, however, when there is a clinical and challenging look for an analysis and evaluation of culture, business, processes, investments, technologies employed , business quality, people, customers, in the search to relate and fix the objectives, mission and values of companies, it is worth the phrase.
Still according to Chiavenato (1999), people management is a union of policies and practices indispensable to govern the aspects of the position in which it is, of leader, mainly those related to “people” or human resources, such as:
A) Aggregate people: recruitment and selection of people;
b) Apply people: job drawings, performance evaluation;
c) Reward people: remuneration, benefits and services;
D) Develop people: training, change, communication;
E) Maintain people: discipline, hygiene and safety and quality of life, relationships
f) Monitor people: Database, management information systems.
These items described above were referred to as the six processes of people management, since they exploit and meet the policies and practices of people management.
Fisher and Fleury (1989) also expose the concept of people management, where they claim to be a set of policies and practices deliberate by an organization to guide people’s behavior and their relations in the workplace.
A model of people management, according to Dutra (2004), can be determined by the way a company establishes itself to manage and guide the behavior of its employees in the performance of their functions. Therefore, it is necessary that the company is structured by defining principles, strategies, policies and management processes, because, through them, guidelines and orientations about the styles of performance of managers in their relationship with employees are implemented.
According to Drucker (1967) lead is to have creativity, knowledge and cunning, and only its efficient applicability, can transform these qualities into effective results for the company. In this sense, when one speaks of leadership, there is a series of connotations and perceptions, which present several different concepts, considering that the word leadership exposes distinct concepts in different people (BERGAMINI, 1994).
For Souza (2011) Leadership denotes a process that influences individual and group activities in a way that achieves the expected result. Souza (2011) also emphasizes that leadership is a competence of a relational nature, which implies a relationship between several people, based on the exercise of influence. For the author, the rule is to make the desire, interest and encouragement in the other be awakened, so that people adopt behaviors or fulfill tasks, seeking to achieve the company’s objectives, especially those exposed by the company as being of common good.
According to Predebon (1999) leaders are people who influence the process of change, by their attitude of making things happen. Still according to the author, the leader is responsible for gathering and joining the energies of a group for the conquest and overcoming of challenges, is able to perceive the need of the group and react appropriately to it, becoming a point of support of collective desire.
Souza (2011) points out that the formation of a leader is constituted throughout a life story, the need for knowledge, continuous learning. In the area of organizations it is very important that leaders develop their skills to act firmly and securely in order to ensure that the business in which they work is the best and succeed. For Souza (2011), it is necessary that the leader actively participates in the company’s decisions, assumes responsibility and risks, becoming a mirror for apprentices and other collaborators. According to the author, “The true leaders are those who manage to associate innovative sense and business vision” (SOUZA, 2011, p. 3).
Souza (2011) also affirms that leading is to fulfill the needs of the company through people, their work and their ideas, but always considering that there will be two actions in motion, the task and relationship. For the author, to be a good leader is to have capacity.
A good leader is the one able to contribute to other people, who is able to know their individual needs, look at their goals and performance. To do so, it is necessary to establish effective communication, develop good teamwork and self-development, besides contributing to the development of others (SOUZA, 2011, p. 4).
Thus, the success of leadership is part of the leader in performing tasks while building good relationships. The leader needs to understand what motivates the collaborators and what are the expectations of these in the work environment, at the same time that they must know how to work and relate to the motivational differences of each one, respecting and accepting the own way of Each collaborator (BERGAMINI, 1994).
Souza (2011), says that to lead a team the leader needs knowledge and skills that enable him to be able to identify in the collaborator and team, strengths and weaknesses as well as opportunities to further exploit their potential.
In this sense, Souza (2011) exposes that the role of the leader in organizations is to promote motivation and increase and maintain the commitment among employees in a way that achieves the objectives, modifying strategies for the company’s plans Become concrete actions. Thus, the more skilled and prepared is the people manager, the chances of obtaining the desired results will be increasing.
From this reflection, Souza (2011) points out that all this preparation results from the fundamental importance of knowing each time, of seeking more knowledge, more tools available in the market, of participation in events of the area, of reading different Bibliographies, among others, seeking to relate and apply the knowledge acquired to the reality of the Organization and its personal experience.
As stated by Goffee and Jones (2001), leaders need to have vision, energy, courage and strategy to direct the company to its focus, among other qualities that must be developed to become effective leaders.
Still according to the aforementioned authors, for the leader, the capital issue is to develop the creative capacity in the work team. Thus, a leader can play and influence different impacts on his collaborators, being the agent of change. Companies live today in a period where the big challenge is to know how to cope and fight change.
Goffee and Jones (2001) also exposes that the ways in which these changes are happening are extremely bumpy, and increasingly challenging people and the market. With this, people move wildly to seek solutions to new problems, and administrators observing what happens begin to question how it is possible to make people succeed in environments where they do not normally Be motivated to produce?
Goffee and Jones (2001) affirm that the answer to the question is directly linked to the motivation of the collaborators. By working on the motivation in the organization’s environment, the motivator causes the employee to be awakened in an internal capacity to act. This internal capacity called motivation promotes a triggering of experienced interior moments, stimulating the individual to mobilize and work towards the realization of a certain result.
Goffee and Jones (2001) point out that according to the form of leadership, a leader can generate positive impacts, encouraging creativity, or negatively inhibiting the creative capacity of his team.
2.3 TYPES OF LEADERSHIP
“Many authors have been concerned about defining leadership styles[…]. Leadership styles are the recurring pattern of behavior exhibited by the leader “(CHIAVENATO, 2005, p. 186).
According to the author several types of leadership exist. Chiavenato (2005, p. 187) cites three forms of leadership divided into four stages, according to table 1.
Table 1 – The three leadership styles
The information shown in Chart 1 is based on a survey conducted in the United States, where it was found that the groups that had a Democratic leadership presented the best results, mainly due to the quality of work, which generated great Satisfaction to employees and the leader achieved a high rate of commitment and commitment to the organization. For Goes and Son (2010), Democratic leadership has been seen with a superior quality to others, especially because organizations seek to achieve their goals, and this way of leading people, or rather, professionals who are increasingly agile , who like people who support them, who constantly help them, charge them, encourage them, and face the problems together, has presented the best results to the objectives proposed by the organizations.
According to Goes and Son (2010), the Democratic leadership stands out also for the prevalence of democracy in the way it leads, that is, the leader exposes the objectives and shows what needs to be done, but interacts with the LED, asking and hearing suggestions and Allows the group to make some decisions.
Still as shown in Chart 1, Goes and Filho (2010) point out that autocratic leadership is based on a centralization in the leader, being the leader responsible for all decisions, not considering each element of the group and its opinions. For the authors, this model of leadership displeases the majority of the team members, making the collaborators unmotivated because they cannot participate or collaborate so that decisions are made according to the collective will. On the other hand, Goes and Filho (2010) Affirm that the Liberal leadership goes in the opposite direction to autocratic, given that, the leader has only the role of mediator. Most of the time this type of leadership presents good acceptance among employees in a general way, however this type of leadership makes it difficult to define rules of control, because it allows everyone to contribute with opinions in the process of taking Company decisions without a control that selects the best ideas for the group.
2.4 THE ROLE OF THE LEADER
According to Heifetz (2000 apud ALONSO, 2005, p. 1) The leader’s work is “to help people face reality, and mobilize them to make changes”.
For Hunter (2004), the leader needs to know and seek to satisfy the need of his collaborators and serve them in a way that does not satisfy the wills, but provides them with conditions to fulfill their needs. For the author, the leader, through his work, must know how to act to have cooperation between people. It needs to be able to develop, establish and maintain a direction, promoting the meeting and linking different perceptions, interests and objectives.
According to Heifetz (2000 apud ALONSO, 2005, p. 1) Every leader must possess five basic activities, and leadership should be characterized as a set of activities and not as a set of personal characteristics.
The first activity is the diagnosis of problems, the leader must know how to differentiate the technical problems of the problems of adaptation, because both require different treatments. According to the author, the technical and routine problems are solved by the influence of an expert and are usually works related to machinery and equipment. However, the problems related to adaptation do not present specific adequate responses; For this type of problem there are no procedures or personal experiences that can solve them. These problems lead people to innovate and learn, and demand leadership. In these situations of need for distinction between people and work, leaders need to identify and define three issues, which are determinants for the company’s growth and continuity of work, which are: which competences , cultural norms and values of the organization must be continued, which will have to be eliminated, and that innovative actions are necessary for the company to use its history in the best possible way and continue advancing towards the future.
The second activity, according to Heifetz (2000 apud ALONSO, 2005, p. 1), concerns the exposure of the challenges. For the author, the leader is not responsible in finding answers, and so little provide them for free, but rather should seek to formulate the appropriate questions according to the moments. The leader has as its main task to develop in the group of collaborators a creative, innovative spirit, so that people are encouraged to seek new challenges, so that they can obtain greater knowledge and experience in new and different situations.
Subsequently, the author infers about the need for the leader to create enthusiasm in the collaborators, in order to mobilize them so that they are able to assume their responsibilities and face the necessary changes and guide them on the topics difficulties, assisting them in resolving problems rather than avoiding them. For Heifetz (2000 apud ALONSO, 2005, p. 1), the leader needs to be courageous and encourage the other collaborators, so that they are committed to the company’s objectives. A leader who is not an enthusiast of achievements in whatever situation may have difficulty in obtaining respect and admiration from his employees.
The fourth activity cited by the author relates to regulating conflicts and disorder. The conflict, for the author, is one of the reasons for innovation and must be guided by a leader who has authority, so that his employees are productive and generate innovations. For the aforementioned author in the previous paragraph, internal conflicts tend to create and stimulate internal competitions which may end up interfering in employee income. However, if the conflict is well-managed by the leader, it may not harm labor relations and may become something productive for the company and for employees, but for this productive process to be fruitful, it is very important that the leader Have knowledge of how to work with each of their followers, setting rules and limits for competitions and internal relations.
The fifth activity mentioned by Heifetz (2000 Apud ALONSO, 2005, p. 1) aims to pay attention to the leader to the long-term vision. For this, it is the role of the leader to often remind the people involved what is the long-term vision of the company and to put the importance of their work to the organization. Expressing the company’s vision is a way to stimulate and motivate employees and to give them meaning for their efforts. With the exposure of the vision, the collaborators will also have greater clarity about which the leader and the organization need, and thus can also stipulate their own goals.
Rossi suggests that in today’s world, “the role of the leader has changed. Companies no longer seek a supreme chief, but a talent-articulator, who knows how to find the right people to perform the tasks and get Results “(ROSSI, 2013, p. 40).
And with the need for quick responses and obtaining results in shorter deadlines, the leader needs to have dynamism and be very engaged in the projects and objectives of the company to achieve the desired results.
3. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
When conducting the study on this topic, it can be inferred through the objectives proposed in this work that the leader in the current market plays a preponderant role in the development of actions and achievement of goals.
What can be seen from the construction of this article is that several authors highlight the role of the leader as being necessary within the organizations, because, it is he who performs the function of managing the actions of the company, as well as managing the existing conflicts. The leader in this way imposes itself as one of the main pieces of organizations due to the technical and personal knowledge of not only managing the financial part, but rather, knowing how to manage and deal with people.
Still on this path, throughout the text it was possible to verify that the leader has remarkable characteristics, among them, the knowledge to deal with people, know how to identify potentialities in their collaborators, demand according to the company’s goals and Ability of people, besides, among others, to know the time to reassess the goals and goals of the Organization and to divide tasks.
Similarly, the authors worked here emphasize that the leader cannot be stagnant in his time. It needs to be constantly evolving seeking new knowledge, new ways to intervene in the market and to relate, besides, develop the characteristics already internalized in a way that allows it to improve the performance of its function and Its work in front of the company and its collaborators.
Finally, it is inferred that the leader over time has had important participation in the development of organizations and currently this role has gained even greater importance in view that with the advent of technologies and the need for information, it is up to him the Role of linking people to the goals and goals of the company, making them key parts in the relationship within and outside the company so that everything goes according to plan, however, always seeking to be democratic and fair, offering opportunities to all at the same time in That manages the relationships between people and organizations in a hard and concrete way.
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 Master in Sustainable Rural Development-UNIOESTE, Mathematics Specialist, Physics-UNIPAR, People Management and Special Education with emphasis on Multiple Disability-UNIASSELVI, Graduated in Mathematics with emphasis in Physics-UNIPAR.
Posted: March, 2019.
Approved: June, 2019.