Burnout Syndrome in Professors 

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ARRAZ, Fernando Miranda [1]

ARRAZ, Fernando Miranda. Burnout Syndrome in Teachers. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. 03 year, Ed. 06, vol. 07, pp. 34-47, June 2018. ISSN:2448-0959

Summary

Burnout syndrome has been considered as one of the great social problems, in addition to cause a deterioration in the health of teachers, and may lead to serious physical and mental disorders. Professionals who maintains a constant and direct relationship with other people for a period of overexertion in small intervals for recovery are more prone to a prolonged exhaustion, decreased interest in work activities and State of physical and emotional exhaustion. Among these professionals is the teacher, who are subjected to various stressors in the context of the work, being a phenomenon composed of three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low professional fulfilment, affecting the educational context and teaching-learning process with serious repercussions for social development. Starting from these considerations, this work seeks to provide your contribution showing the description of the context of the burnout syndrome in teachers.

Keywords: Teachers, Burnout Syndrome, work, health.

1. Introduction

Burnout syndrome it is a serious problem that currently reaches professionals who maintains constant contact with people, arising from the excessive relationship with these individuals. Making these lose the sense of your relationship with the profession. The high incidence is among professionals in the area of education and health, because of characteristics of these professions that require contact with other individuals.

Second Ballone (2005), the burnout syndrome is known as a set of symptoms that cause wear on the job, being seen as one of the most notable effects of professional wear.

Since your origin to contemporaneity, highlighting the importance of School to society, because this educational institution makes valuable role in the formation of those who pass by it (SILVA, 2003; CARLOTTO, 2003).

When treating of the purposes of educational institutions, Perez Garcia (2000) argues that the school has socializing character, once it becomes a means of exchange for various socio-cultural contexts, providing the establishment of values, behaviors, postures and appropriation of ideas and opinions. Establishes that has instructive function, instrumentalized by the teaching-learning process, systematic and intentional and, finally, protects the educational mission of the School, by providing individuals the construction of thought as a product of critical reflection.

On this educational reality, the professor emerges as mediator and Foundation for the consolidation of this proposal by the organization. This means that, on a daily basis, these professionals are challenged to resign their pedagogical practices, attributed by scientific and technological transformations of society, so articulate to productivity and the qualification requirements Professional for them.

Second Baptist (2010), in view of these requirements, demand that teachers possess a range of skills, which enables them to carry out contradictory roles among themselves, i.e. the academic preparation and discipline of the class; dealing with social and emotional characteristics of students, as well as conflicts related to the expectations of parents, administrators and community. On the other hand, the work is usually carried out under stressors factors, such as: low wages, lack of resources and teaching materials, excessive workload, overcrowded classes, lack of security, lower participation in policies and institutional planning.

The combination of these trilógicos stressors individual, organizational and social –-has produced in a low perception of teachers professional valuation, autodepreciativa, that culminates with the development of Burnout Syndrome. This syndrome is considered as resulting from the deal in front of the professional interaction of environmental factors, such as educational policy, social and historical factors and psychological factors related to self-esteem and self-perception as performing activities ( CARLOTTO, 2002).

To Maslach et al. (2001), burnout is a psychosocial phenomenon, an illness that arises as a response to chronic interpersonal stressors occurring in work situations. Burnout syndrome is currently regarded as a predation of the quality of life of the wage earner in order to thread your physical and mental health.

This article aims to awaken us teachers the need of preserving health, know the causes of the professional exhaustion, more specifically the Burnout Syndrome, developing attitudes that enable them to remain pleasantly their teaching activities.

Based on this vision, I decided to do a search through bibliographical revision, in which will be demonstrated concepts and studies done by reputable authors in themed addressed regarding in professors bornout syndrome, in which the intention is not to exhaust the topic proposal, given your scope and your complexity but rather offer a benchmark of individual relations improvement-organization (school) and a consequent improvement in the quality of health of the teacher.

2. History of the Burnout Syndrome

Second Jbeili (2008), the term Burnout is English, composed of two words Burn which means "burn" and Out to mean "outside", "outside". In literal translation means "burn out" or "consumed from the inside out", and may be better understood as "complete combustion," which begins with the psychological aspects and culminates in physical problems, compromising the performance of the whole person . Subsequently, the burnout slang was used by health professionals to designate the State extremely weak and compromised of drug users.

The word Burnout was pronounced first by Freudenberger, medical psychoanalyst, who explained this phenomenon as a sense of failure and exhaustion caused by excessive wear of resources and energy, once understood the manifestation of emotional stress and physical symptoms by workers. The first research on this syndrome permeated the study of emotions and ways to deal with them on the part of professionals, which, by the nature of your work, needed to connect with people on a daily basis (CARLOTTO; HOUSE, 2004).

Until the 1970, studies about Burnout were empirical in nature, often based on personal experiences of the authors themselves, case studies, interviews and narratives. Only in 1976, the research on this syndrome acquired scientific character, performed by building theoretical models and tools suitable for the record and understanding of same. The Association of the term burnout to swindle by chronic stress just happened in 1974, by psychiatrist Herbert Freudenberg.

Second Freudenberger (1980, apud SALIBA, 2004) the professional exhaustion is represented as a devastating fire, a "internal fire" which reduces to ashes energy, expectations and the self-image of someone deeply enthusiastic and dedicated to job. This representation corresponds to the syndrome that Freudenberger termed burn out or "professional exhaustion", based on numerous case studies. Freudenberger identifies that especially two kinds of people are exposed to Burnout: people particularly dynamic and prone to assume leadership roles or of great responsibility, and idealists who put great efforts to achieve goals often impossible to hit, very demanding of himself.

Over the years, there was an approach to a process of deterioration of labour relations involving the care and attention of the professionals of the service delivery organizations. The chosen name in Portuguese was Burnout, representing something like: ' lose the fire ', ' lose ' energy or "burn out" (a more direct translation). This syndrome of "burning" has become established as a response to stress, chronic labour by attitudes and negative feelings.

During this progress, there was a unanimous definition about this syndrome, allowing a consensus to consider that your appearance in the individual is a kind of a response to stress. It is a subjective experience, internal feelings and attitudes and that has a negative countenance to the individual, since they involve in changes, problems and psicofisiológicas dysfunction with harmful consequences for the person and for the Organization.

In professions where activity is spare care or teaching, has been described the installation of a true intolerance to contact with those who were targeted by the dedication of the professional. It's like I've been hit a saturation emotional state in which it is no longer possible to support the date with the need of somebody else, because now is the professional himself who is in a State that is often of despair.

According to Farber (1991), the social psychologist Christina Maslach was the pioneer in developing research on Burnout in social service and health professionals. Through the results provided by this research, she found that the carriers of the disease showed negative attitudes and personal estrangement, showing a springboard to popularization of propellant Burnout as a major issue s social being discussed.

In Brazil, according to Bala-Pereira (2002), from the Decade of 1990, with plenty of scientific papers in the field of knowledge is that the syndrome is now included in the list of occupational diseases set out in the regulations of the pension plan Social (RPS). However, the identification of the disease on the part of health professionals is still limited, treating patients as suffering from depression or stress and, therefore, linking to the personal characteristics and disease not related to work.

The Ministry of health currently recognizes the Burnout Syndrome as a mental illness, requiring, therefore this category professional deployment of policies of prevention and health promotion. Due to the challenges that education professionals are faced with the speed of the new social demands in the current downturn that is the educational system. So with new policies would be possible these professionals achieve their projects both personal life, how the professional projects, with the intention of improvement in your quality of life, as well as all individuals participating in the system educational.

3. Definitions of Burnout Syndrome

Burnout Syndrome is defined by Maslach and Jackson as:

A reaction to chronic emotional stress generated from direct and excessive contact with other human beings, particularly when these are concerned or in trouble. Take care requires emotional tension constant, perennial attention; great responsibility lurk every gesture in professional work. The worker involves effectively with its "customers", wears out and, at one end, quit, can't take it anymore, comes into burnout. (MASLACH; JACKSON, 1981, p. 21).

The Burnout is seen as a psychosocial phenomenon caused by physical, mental and emotional exhaustion brought on by prolonged, constant and direct relationship with other people in the workplace (source, 2011).

Second Maslach (2003), installs, from chronic exposure to stress at work, when the individual is confronted with the dyad – expectations/personal and professional motivations and the resources that the job offers to match the same.

The model proposed by Maslach and employees is the else declared and used by the researchers devoted to the study of burnout. The model highlights the merits of particularities of the cause factors of job burnout syndrome and evaluates an event composed of three dimensions: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and low professional achievement (MASLACH; SCHAUFELI; LEITER, 2001).

According to Bala-Pereira (2002), Burnout is a term (and a problem) quite old, popular English parlance, refers to what crashed by total lack of energy. A metaphor to mean that, or that which reached your limit and, for lack of energy, there is no physical or mental performance conditions.

For Paganini (2011), the Burnout consists of three dimensions, which refer to the clinical manifestations and consequences of this syndrome, they are: emotional exhaustion, Depersonalization and low professional fulfilment.

The first dimension, emotional exhaustion, is characterized by apathy and feelings of exhaustion at work, having as main causes of the conflict in interpersonal relationships and work overload. Is considered a primordial component of the syndrome, for physical and psychological consequences for the worker.

So the Depersonalization, psychic state-appointed dimension in which the teacher presents concealment affective, impersonality, disengagement with results, irritability, discouragement, alienation, development of attitudes derogatory and cynicism. Appears to be coping response to stressors, however, ends up generating distancing on the part of students, for being target of objectifications of the relationship and by desarmonizá them with psychological pressures. And, as in a vicious cycle of impotence, the professor goes to question your performance and professional competence.

The last dimension deals with Low professional fulfilment, qualified by the tendency of the teacher evaluate themselves negatively. Shows a decline in feeling of competence and success, as well as thoughts of failure and low self-esteem, followed by the intention to abandon the profession.

In Burnout, these dimensions often coexist, however, is a process that develops gradually and rarely presents acute episodes. Is almost never seen in the early stages, having your principle perpetrated over a long period of tension.

People or patients with burnout syndrome have the spirit eroded by discouragement, the will of accomplishments reduced slowly, until you reach the most banal gestures, minimizing the achievements, giving way to even bother everyday, for distinguished that is the day to day work (CODO; VALERIE-MARK, 1999).

The consequences are Burnout Syndrome, seen your impact, potential of involvement, the areas affected and sometimes your irreversibility. These manifest themselves in addition to the personal-professional ball, reflecting on school organization and relationship with students, sparking a deteriorativo process of the quality of the relationship and of your professional role.

In addition to the individual implications, this involvement causes consequences in the organizational field, linking, vehemently, the enterprise of high costs arising from the Educational System due to high turnover, absenteeism, low productivity and implications for the quality of education (CARLOTTO, 2002).

According to Silva e Almeida (2003), burnout is a term that has been used frequently to conceptualize that situation work environment in which a person under heavy continuous pressure can no longer connect properly. For authors often burnout has attacked professionals who provide direct assistance to patients or dealing with care for dependants. Among the groups most affected by this syndrome, include: teachers, doctors, nurses and psychologists. The phenomenon of burnout can be identified in response to chronic exposure to environments marked by charges and changes.

According to Bala-Pereira (2002), people with the syndrome of burnout they observe all the symptoms. Symptoms include:

# physical order-constant fatigue and progressive; sleep disorders; muscle pain or disorders; headaches, migraines; gastrointestinal disorders; immunodeficiency; cardiovascular disorders; respiratory system disorders; sexual dysfunction; menstrual changes in women;

# Psychic order-short attention span, concentration; changes of memory; lentificação of thought; feeling of alienation; feeling of loneliness; impatience; feeling of insufficiency; low self-esteem; emotional lability; difficulty of self acceptance; asthenia; discouragement; dysphoria; depression; mistrust; paranoia;

# behavioral order-negligence of scruples; irritability; increase of aggression; inability to relax; difficulty in accepting changes; loss of initiative; increased consumption of substances; high-risk behaviour; suicide; defensive symptoms – tendency to isolation; feeling of omnipotence; loss of interest in work (or leisure); absenteeism; irony, cynicism.

Thus, the burnout syndrome reaches the educational context and influence educational outcomes expected by institutions, leading professionals to a selling method, cynicism, apathy, fatigue, health problems and a desire of abandon the profession.

According to Codeiro et. Al. (2003), burnout syndrome causes significant adverse effects on the educational system, especially the students and the quality of learning.

4. Burnout Syndrome in professors

The brazilian educational policy comes passing through important changes that are reflected in the micropolitics in schools, however and Mariano Muniz (2006) state that the Brazilian educational scene still has deficit framework as regards issues related to teachers ' health and working conditions, training and professional practice teaching of public education.

Currently the school and the teacher meet relevant role in the socialization of the individual. The good performance of the activities teachers depends on the emotional conditions favorable, being that the professor, in your role as an educator, is a reference to his students, a model in their attitudes, in your character, in the way they treat the next.

According to Carlotto (2002), at work teaching some stressors are typical of the nature of the function and others are caused by the context where the same is carried out. These psychosocial stressors, if persistent, could lead to Burnout Syndrome.

Burnout Syndrome in education is a complex and multidimensional phenomenon resulting from the interaction between individual aspects and working environment. This environment does not concern only the classroom or institutional context, but all the factors involved in this relationship, including the macro social factors as educational policies and social and historical factors. Their occurrence in teachers has been considered a relevant psychosocial phenomenon, because it affects not only the teacher but also the educational environment, interfering in getting the teaching objectives, since the professionals affected by develop a process of alienation syndrome, dehumanization and apathy.

According to Lee (2011), is always assigned to blame teachers when something goes wrong: If students are who BACKTALK, impolite and do a lot of mess in the classroom, it is the teacher who has no authority, strong pulse and or stiffness; and if students don't learn the problem, professor's fault, who couldn't explain properly, IE, was incompetent. If, more than teaching, the teacher do the student learn, he has competence for the task.

Burnout Syndrome in teachers educational environment affects and interferes in getting the goals, taking these professionals a process of alienation, dehumanization and apathy and causing health problems and absenteeism and intent of abandon the profession.

For the teachers ' quality of life, the personal and professional context, conquered or restored, propelling actions should be developed with a view to creating programs centered on each individual responses to stressful situations, without focus on elements relevant to your occupation; programs to work, to search for better conditions of work environment, programs focused on the interaction of the occupational context and the individual, and, in the latter, the Burnout understood as relational product between labor and the individual in question (MASLACH; LEITER, 1999).

Although both the stress as the Burnout in teaching certainly occur a long time among teachers, your recognition as a serious problem, with significant psychosocial implications, has been more explicit in the last 20 or 30 years. Burnout is not a new phenomenon; what might be new is the challenge of this professional category to identify and declare the stress and Burnout senses (CARLOTTO, 2002).

The interest for Burnout grew due to three factors. The first of these were the changes in the concept of health and the emphasis given to improving the quality of life by who-World Health Organization. The second was the increase in demand and the requirements of the population with respect to social services, education and health. And finally, the awareness of researchers, government agencies and clinical services with regard to the phenomenon, understanding the need to deepen the studies and the prevention of your symptoms, because it was more complex and harmful than if projected in the initial studies (PERLMAN and HARTMAN, 1982, apud CARLOTTO HOUSE, 2008, p. 153).

Second Orsi (2006) teachers are one of the professional groups that possibly more are affected by Burnout Syndrome, because the conditions under which work end up contributing to deplete your energy during the school year. All this adverse situation is manifested by the feeling of helplessness in the face of reality, and guys, rooting the discouragement and resignation professional level.

Moura (1997) explains that to keep in balance the psychic functioning, teachers develop forms of resistance or confrontation as the demand for self-regulation. So, while the teachers evaluate the profession as a game that challenges and gratifying, also qualify as an exhausting profession, exploited and undervalued, terming this attitude as pathogenic normality suffering humanity.

As scores Codo & Jacques (2002), many efforts have been made to draw a profile of the educator who is most susceptible to feeling of Burnout. These efforts are justified, in so far as the severity of the syndrome in teachers is currently higher than the health professionals, which places the Magisterium as a high-risk professions to incidence.

Several factors are associated with the wear of the teacher. Jin et al. (2008) identified six sources of daily stressors present in the practice of the profession of the teacher:

  • The behavior of the students;
  • The pressure from directors and supervisors;
  • The great curriculum tasks demand;
  • Extra-curricular;
  • The workload and;
  • The lack of recognition.

Many teachers have a workday of more than 8 hours, depending on the policies adopted by the public sector. In addition, the organizational factors also affect directly the interests of teachers, such as: wages considered inappropriate; decisions that interfere with the routine of work; lack of autonomy; inefficient communication; accumulation of tasks; poor organizational support and recovery by results. All these factors bring concerns and anxieties to the teacher's life.

Burnout Syndrome interferes directly in the relationship of teaching and learning since it causes damage in his own condition of teachers interacting with their students, with their peers and, consequently, the quality of pedagogical work. The education professionals faced with the need to perform multiple roles, often contradictory, they require balance in various situations.

To relate the teaching activity with the burnout syndrome in relation to context experienced by teachers in public schools, the problems are even more serious, due to the indifference of the authorities of the State and other factors, such as: physical violence and psychological and disrespect the teaching function, which favors the illness of teachers (CARLOTTO, 2002).

Teachers exposed to burnout syndrome see your everyday professional unstable and completely pointless, contrasting with what I had as a priority at the beginning of your career. This phenomenon affects both the individual as the educational environment as an interference in the interpersonal relationships of the professor, leading to a process of alienation, cynicism, fatigue, coldness, health problems and a desire to abandon the profession.

According to Farber (1991), the signs of burnout in teachers can be divided into individual symptoms (sleep disorders, fatigue, feelings of alienation, impatience, low self-esteem, cynicism, absenteeism, among others) and professionals ( abandoning the profession, deterioration of the socio-professional relations, physical and mental overload, conflict in teacher-student relationships, among others). In General, teachers spend to feel physically and emotionally finished, exhausted, usually are angry, anxious, angry or sad.

However, for Jasiulionis (2009), the teaching profession is paved by facts and events, such as: professional growth and career plan to gain significance in the career of professor. These events contribute to the effectiveness of professional progress. Similarly, to the extent that there is a progress in the career of professor, professional attitudes and behaviors that can motivate high levels of pressure, interfering directly in your pedagogical practice and in your everyday life.

In this perspective, it is advisable to understand the everyday teaching professional and the relationship that the teacher establishes with your work, linking the dimensions of burnout syndrome to personal and professional trajectory of your exercise activity.

Currently, the teaching profession is characterizing as a target of several psychosocial stressors profession existing in the context of your work. Until then, the teaching activity was understood as a vocational profession of great personal and professional satisfaction and today has given way to the teacher pedagogical and administrative task overload, with less time to perform the work, leisure and social conviviality etc.

Final considerations

You can't run out this discussion on the subject, on the grounds of your complexity and multidimensionality, so that society can understand and recognize this reality, and, if position of vehement manner, on the verification of cases of the disease, by construction of health care policies.

This study, for your time, attention to the complexity of variables that may prevent or cause Burnout Syndrome in the category research and raises the importance of intervene on industrial and psychosocial variables inherent to occupational illness.

The teacher realises your role as an active person and co-responsible for your own professional development, and for the development of its students. However, transform the everyday responsibility not only do, being necessary to invest in your training, without blame at conformity, the apathy that prevails in day after day. Each teacher must have the opportunity to reflect, express your emotions, feelings, discussing their practices, and therefore better for a performance that has abused as one of your goals to your quality of life and, consequently, the quality of the teaching-learning process.

Insofar as we understand this psychosocial phenomenon such as better process, identifying their steps and dimensions, their most important stressors, their explanatory models, we can envision actions that allow prevent, lessen or stop the burnout. In this way, can help the teacher to continue realizing your personal and professional life project with a view to improving the quality of your life and of all those involved in the educational system. Becomes of fundamental importance stressed that the prevention and eradication of burnout in teachers is not lonely in this task, but must include a joint action between professor, students, educational institution and society. The reflections and actions generated must be aimed at the pursuit of alternatives for possible modifications, not only in the sphere of microsocial your work and their interpersonal relationships, but also in the wide range of macro factors that determine organizational aspects constituents of organizational and social culture in which the subject carries your professional activity (CARLOTTO, 2002, p. 27).

The teacher must try new discoveries, new challenges, that dip into the school as a space that is your, you confront your feelings and thoughts with each other, thus contributing to this professional notice and intervene in order suitable on their difficulties in carrying out your work. The school must also comply with your paper, in order to draw up and develop educational policies that may have a more magnified on the aspects involving the teaching work, but also about the person of the teacher that the exercises, contributing to think differently and improve relations of the institution's support to teachers.

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[1] School management Integrator: Administration, guidance, supervision and inspection FACEL school (College of business administration, science, education and letters). Institutional pedagogy FACEL (College of business administration, science, education and letters). Tutoring in distance education FETREMIS (College of education and technology of the Missionary Region). Special education and Neuropsicopedagogia UCAM (Universidade Cândido Mendes). Educational guidance FETREMIS (College of education and technology of the Missionary Region)

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