ALMEIDA, Onilvanda Maria da Penha Naiff de; OLIVEIRA, Euzébio de. Municipal solid waste management-participatory Action in Marapanim/Pará. – Multidisciplinary Core Scientific knowledge Magazine, 1 Year. Vol. 5, pp. 5-23, July 2016. ISSN:0959-2448
With the growth of the urban population of disorderly fashion, combined with the intensification of the industrial process and the consequent demand for consumer goods, automatically increases the generation of municipal solid waste. This article aims to analyse the management of solid urban waste in the households of the municipality of Marapanim/PA, and through the SWOT model show strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities that are in waste management in the city, since the collection process to the final disposal of such waste. The methodology used was divided into two phases: the bibliographical research conducted along the books, scientific articles, works on display at conferences, monographic papers and dissertation, among others. The second time was performed a field research that involved an interview with population and the municipal public power. The main results show that a lot needs to be done so that the municipality of Marapanim can be regarded as a model of waste management. The population shows uninformed when it comes to the environmental issue. The Municipal public power does not take actions related to preservation of the existing landfill in that municipality. Thus, this analysis model demonstrates that new strategies of public policies must be put into practice to improve the environmental and social life of the region and thus their population. It appears to be environmental Manager is a great challenge today, manage needs and technical actions with responsibility, in addition to great personal commitment and professional.
Keywords: management. Solid waste. Public cleaning. SWOT Analysis.
Solid wastes, commonly called junk, contain a portion of each material that reaches the interior of homes, companies, establishments, among others, and a broad spectrum of pathogenic organisms, in addition to numerous toxic elements that represent risk to human health and the environmental conditions (SANTOS, 2010).
With the growth of the urban population, coupled with the intensification of the industrial process and the increase in purchasing power in General, comes by actually Instrumenting the accelerated generation of large amounts of solid waste, mainly in large cities (LERINO et al., 2009). One of the biggest challenges considered by modern society is solving the issue of municipal solid waste. In addition to the significant growth of this waste generation, especially in developing countries, there are also over the last few years significant changes arising from the adopted development models and in the patterns of consumption.
Due to the large volume of waste produced by the population, the proper final disposal of municipal solid waste is currently considered one of the main problems of environmental quality of urban areas in Brazil (ALBERTE et al., 2005). Urban cleaning is a big challenge for the Government, whether in any sphere, but is not to just remove the waste from public parks and buildings, but precisely to give a proper final destination and the waste collected. However, it is common to observe in the presence of large open-air dumps, i.e., places where the garbage collected is released directly on the ground without any control and without any environmental care, polluting the soil, air and groundwater and surface water (GOLDMEIER neighborhoods; JABLONSKI, 2005).
In Brazil are generated approximately 240,000 tons of waste per day. Of this total, 100000 tonnes correspond to household garbage, only partially collected. About of 70% is often deposited in the open (FEHR et al., 2001). The State of Pará also fits in this national problem, showing serious deficiencies in dealing with solid waste, especially in the metropolitan region of Belém (RMB). The production of urban waste in the region increased by 24%, with an average of 2.3 pounds per household per day and 0.58 pound per person per day (SNIF, 2006).
The municipal waste management is the subject of many discussions, especially with regard to the requirement for your collection, treatment and final disposal. And it is in this context that the present work aimed to do a study on the management of municipal solid waste from households, generated in Marapanim/PA, from the perspective of participative action.
The research is structured in two main parts. Initially did the review of literature on the topic under study. This review was based on various scientific articles published in national and international journals in databases as SciELO, Lilacs, as well as waste Sanitation Manual of the National Health Foundation (FUNASA) and Waste management of the Federal Government, in addition to books, monographic works, Master thesis and PhD who discuss this subject.
In the second stage, from the perspective of participative management of solid waste, a field study took place in the months of July to December 2015, with the challenge of analyzing this problem in the city of Marapanim-PA. This was a study of observational, transversal nature, primarily descriptive and diagnosed based on the method of SWOT analysis-Strengs, Weaknesses, Opportunities, Threats (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats), following the methodology of Kotler and Keller (2006). According to SEVERINO (2007) field research, is when the source object is discussed in its own environment, is held at the site where the phenomena exposed in data collection, ranges from the surveys, which are more descriptive, even the most analytical studies.
Access to the dump area was granted with the consent of the Secretary for the environment of the municipality and monitoring of a fiscal agent. The interviews were conducted in structured form to the municipal executive, Secretary for the environment, fiscal agent, Coordinator of public cleaning, garis, scavengers, middleman, Secretary of education, Director of school, teachers and the local community. Was done photographic record, in addition to constant observation of customs and local culture.
Through bibliographical research and field it was possible to identify the basic features or more apparent in a study environment, thus creating a SWOT analysis model.
AREA OF STUDY
The survey was conducted in the urban area of the municipality of Marapanim, Brazil salgado, State of Pará. According to the IBGE (2010), the municipality has a population of 26,605 inhabitants distributed as follows.
Marapanim has a land area of 796 Km ², with an average elevation 40 m. Presents a equatorial climate with an annual average temperature of 27° C, being December the hottest month of the year. Precipitation is relatively high, with about of 2700 mm. Local vegetation is characterized by traces of secondary latifoliada, capoeira and mangroves (PARÁ, 2008). The main river is the great basin Marapanim stretching over its neighboring municipalities, passes through the town and empties into the Bay of the same name (Figure 1).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
METHOD OF ANALYSIS OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT IN THE CITY OF MARAPANIM
To analyze the management of municipal solid waste in Marapanim, adopted a method consisting in four steps: direct observation, interview with the related public, achieving a SWOT analysis and application.
In step of observation was considered the authors ‘ point of view on the subject, what you understand about the solid waste management in the municipality of Marapanim. According to Deer; Bervian; Da Silva (2007, p. 31), “observe is to apply carefully to the physical senses to an object to obtain a clear and precise knowledge”.
In the second step of the analysis were made interviews with the municipal public power and population, who generally had the basic structure, analyze the information that served as support, reinforcing the direct observation and facilitating the construction of a model applicable to solid waste management. Gil (2006) States that the interview is a form of social interaction, more specifically, is a form of asymmetrical dialogue, in which a party seeks to collect data and the other is presented as a source of information.
Conducting SWOT analysis is the point at which the results obtained during the field research are associated with this type of analysis, so are designed, the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. By the time the results are generated and designed after the trial and the time information is collected, prepared an analysis that allows a greater understanding of the theme.
The application is now intentional, with suggestions for improvement of the weaknesses found in the SWOT analysis. In this phase, it is possible to check how much real and applicable are the data obtained. Through the application of the method of analysis described above in the management of municipal solid waste in Marapanim/Pará, it was possible to establish the SWOT analysis (table 01).
Table 01: SWOT analysis
-Participative Master Plan with laws geared to stop waste management;
-Collection of sweeping, mowing, weeding and pruning of trees in public parks;
-Health services collection;
-Collecting debris and construction material.
-Creation of cooperatives of collectors and processors;
-Environmental education campaign in schools.
-Absence of recycling;
-Absence of selective collection;
-Absence of the incineration process;
-Absence of the composting process.
-Local culture and misinformation of the majority of the population.
Source: research protocol, 2010.
FREQUENCY OF GARBAGE COLLECTION
The city of Marapanim is among the 144 municipalities in Pará practicing continuous garbage collection. According to the data provided by the municipal government, the average amount of municipal waste produced and collected daily in Marapanim is approximately 4 tons. In volume, represents 69% of organic waste and 31% of dry waste or, when related to the mass, 85% of organic waste and dry waste 15% (Figure 2 and 3).
The city is organized in secretariats, being the Municipal Environment (SEMMA) responsible for the management of municipal solid waste (MSW). The home collection is held every day throughout the urban area, with the exception of Sunday. The same is done twice a day for two buckets of the Town Hall, the morning circulating in the central area and the afternoon in the outskirts, thus making the whole process of gathering in every town. For the home collection, has two drivers and six collectors. There is large volume of trash without proper packaging, arranged in plastic bags piled up in front of the residences. In relation to garis, the precariousness of working conditions, for example, as regards the use of personal protective equipment. They don’t have uniforms, don’t use masks and not all make use of gloves, putting at risk their health.
In the interview the local community 95% of the sample think efficiency by the public cleaning service has matched the timetables foreseen. As soon as the city seeks to keep the city clean.
PARTICIPATIVE MASTER PLAN
In the municipality of Marapanim doesn’t exist a plan with public policies aimed at improving the management of waste. It is known that the creation of a master plan in municipalities with more than 20000 inhabitants and the city of reference has more than 26mil inhabitants (IBGE, 2010). It is essential to ensure that the entire community can be aware of the obligations and duties of their rulers, as well as being an instrument of law with the effective participation of a large number of people. It is believed that the formation of associations and cooperatives would help the city but also would contribute to the progress and development of the city.
This situation was justified by SEMMA, stating that the municipality is still designing in the environmental issue, because this secretariat was created in the management of the current mayor with the Municipal law nº 1,695/2009 and so this operation. To contribute to the formation of municipal policies and programs of environment and sustainable development was created the Municipal Council of Environment (COMMA) in 10/21/2010, since the execution was made in 11/11/2010 according to the Municipal law.
COLLECTION OF SWEEPING, MOWING, WEEDING AND PRUNING OF TREES IN PUBLIC PARKS
Are executed on a regular basis: the sweepers are 05 in number, they do the sweeping on alternate days in some paved streets, in the squares, in the Mall, the municipal market and bus station from Monday to Saturday, while the farm, weeding of public parks there was little action of public cleaning agents, as well as the garis doesn’t have adequate mechanical instruments and don’t make use of protective material. About the pruning of trees, they are commonly made, as well as in many Brazilian cities, the trees make the city more pleasant environment so that they need to be cared for.
The collection of this waste is made as soon as the end of the work of the garis, because the form of disposal of this waste is aggravating. The bucket carries this material and deposits on the banks of the river Marapanim. According to the city doesn’t think is right, but there’s no other solution, has already applied for the State Department of environment (SEMA) to guide it in the right way of the fate of these residues (Figure 4).
In the interview with the residents noted the indignation of several, one of them identified himself as a fisherman. The question: if they knew who had all that stuff on the banks of the river? And unanimously responded that is the public service of the Town Hall.
HEALTH SERVICES COLLECTION
According to the Health Department, collecting material is packaged safely and shipped by a third party company of Castanhal-PA, which makes the search of this material, once a week, and your final destination follows for incineration plant from the same location.
COLLECTING DEBRIS AND BUILDING MATERIALS
According to the Secretariat of the environment these residues are reused, because 90% of these materials collects bucket and makes donation to small works and 10% are lost in the fronts of the houses.
ABSENCE OF SOCIALLY INTEGRATED MANAGEMENT
Refers to the issue of effective participation to all the people of the city, the contribution that they can provide within the processes regarding educational issues, as well as participation in selective collection and recycling, but there are no programs developed by the Government involving the citizens. When asked about the use of selective collection most respondents answered that does or doesn’t know.
In the municipality there are no recycling plants of any type of material. It is considered a weakness towards the global reality of sustainable practices, aimed at making maximum use of recyclable materials with responsibility, moreover, there is no step in the recycling process, nor the separation at source by the generator, not the existence of PEVs, or recycling plants and separation. The Manager claims he has knowledge of this technique and you think it’s a great solution for the amount of waste produced in this town, however, was never done a study to assess the feasibility of creating this project in Marapanim.
This process of disposal does not exist in this municipality, the form ensacolado trash collection and all mixed, organic waste, dry garbage, especially as it relates to domestic refuse. According to the survey, it was observed that there are interests of housewives in managing your own trash practicing selective collection.
The municipality needs to fit in Federal Law No. 12,305, August 2 2010, establishing the national solid waste policy. Art. 18. The development of integrated management of Municipal solid waste. Will benefit by incentives or financing the municipalities:
II-deploy separate collection with the participation of cooperatives or other forms of Association of reusable and recyclable materials collectors formed by individuals from low-income families.
The implementation of selective waste collection will benefit the whole population in General, as well as to improve environmental conditions and public health, prolongs the life of the landfill, reduces the costs for the treatment of waste, contributing to the education and sensitization of the population, decreases the exploitation of renewable natural resources and non-renewable and also contributes to the generation of direct and indirect jobs through recycling industries.
The process is the most advisable to certain waste as, for example, of health. Its use in the municipality would prevent the waste of health were sent to another incinerator, in addition to not perpetuate pests or bacteria. In the municipality, there is an incinerator which would make the process with the most dangerous waste, which could verify was that such waste were also found at the dump, on banks of the river and sometimes in Marapanim ditches off the streets. This presents a danger, since it’s not done a control of bacteria.
This process stands out in the reuse potential of organic coated waste are used as organic fertilizers, the agricultural potential of the municipality. The absence of this practice is obviously a weakness that makes even more the profitability of local farmers. The compost could be a solution to combat the greater cost of agricultural production.
CREATION OF CONTROLLED LANDFILL
The creation of landfills that make control and disposal sites leached water treatment as well as the slurry is key in any landfill in Marapanim doesn’t exist, however the city claim to do a consortium with the municipalities of Curuçá, Terra Alta, São João da Ponta, for best solution of solid waste. The law regulating the public consortiums is the Federal law April 2005 11,107. Second Junqueira, (2006) consortia are entities that bring together various municipalities to carry out joint actions which were produced individually, they could achieve the same results or would use more resources, as well as require more time. According to City Hall, the city doesn’t have the resources for this purpose and how costs are too high, the solution is the Union with the neighboring municipalities for the formation of a consortium, aimed at the implementation of landfill and joint management of the same.
CREATION OF COOPERATIVES OF COLLECTORS
During the research it was found that there is no solid waste pickers cooperative, but also there is no collectors on city streets, but in the area of the dump has met a lot of people picking up waste that can be recycled, to sell to a middleman that somehow helps to reduce the waste that would be grounded, as well as, the cash values that each of them receive , as collateral for these families that live in poverty and have found a way to survive, but also to develop an activity that provides important benefits to society: recycling of cardboard, plastic, glass and metal. Not being released into the soil, rivers, collaborate to environmental preservation (Figure 5).
There’s no way to specify the number of collectors, due to the large access in the area of the dump in search of recyclable materials, these social extracts compete with several neighbors in the vicinity of the site. The presence of these agents in the area of the dump is inhumanely, what is observed is the lack of protective materials, they expose themselves to any risk of disease and not have this consciousness. Therefore, to perform the interview there was some resistance from some of them, because of the fear of being taken from their work, because it has what has been collector 7 years, and they say satisfied with what you do, is there that takes away the livelihood of the family.
The main types of solid waste collected at the landfill to recycling and processing the approximate weekly amount KG (table 2).
Table 2: separate Recyclable Material at the dump.
|Type of waste||Kg/week|
Source: MORAES, 2010.
The middleman who operates in the market of buying and selling of these residues, pays very low prices than the one that will be paid by the industry. This indicates, in addition to the more intense exploitation of the scavengers, the level of the middleman in the economic circuit of purchase and sale of these materials, namely, the lowest prices are generally practiced by those who have to resell the goods to other larger with storage and power of direct marketing with the industry (table 3).
Table 3: prices paid For recyclable waste.
|Type of waste||Price paid by Kg (R$)|
|Pet bottle||R$ 0.30|
|Mineral water||R$ 0.30|
Source: MORAES, 2010.
According to the middleman, these materials are transported to the town of Bethlehem and sold to an industry in São Paulo. This trade between the fence and the collectors of waste contributes to harmonic form to the natural process of the raw material, because these products would spend many years to decompose if it wasn’t reused (Figure 6).
ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION CAMPAIGN IN SCHOOLS
Educational dimension should be on the implementation of educational programs and campaigns in a process of awareness and respect for the environment. According to the City Department of education, some schools are already acting on environmental education projects. During the research it was found that these schools only work the issue of garbage in environment week, or through the cross-cutting issues data in the classroom. Some teachers make classes with his students, so they can awaken the critical sense to reality that lives the marapaniense society in the absence of environmental education. To hairstyle, (2007, p. 94). The school is a place, among others, where not only the students but also the teachers exert your citizenship, that is, they behave in relation to their rights and duties.
INADEQUATE MANAGEMENT IN THE PROCESSES OF COLLECTION AND DISPOSAL OF WASTE
It was noted in the survey that the collection process and waste disposal do not meet the standards and rules, according to NBR 10,004, 2004 Association of technical rules – ABNT. The disposal of MSW in Marapanim is made into a ” dump ´ ´ in the open up the road for recess on Highway 318 to PA 14 Km from the uban Centre, in business for 16 years and with an area of about 2 ha. The waste is deposited directly into the soil, where it has already been opened a large pit and when the area reaches a high volume of garbage, the mechanical shovel makes the process of with no grounding technique (Figure 7).
It was also verified that the access space to the entrance of the bucket to the waste Depot is opened, which leaves free many people from entering the landfill. Next the same there is a bayou, which serves as a locker room not only for the people who live on the edge of the road, as well as to the tourists who pass through there. This River receives big load of manure during periods of rain, offering potential risk to population.
LOCAL CULTURE AND MISINFORMATION OF THE MAJORITY OF THE POPULATION
According to the interviews, it should be noted that the residents of Marapanim, in General not developed yet the awareness of the need for environmental preservation practices, as it does not have the habit of managing your own trash, i.e. are not educated to this practice. It was observed that in places of greater movement of people where certain foods are sold, there is no garbage collector, giving space for this material to be played directly on the floor. The environmental secretariat has justified all the bins placed on street corners, in the squares, are stolen or damaged. On this issue, it is imperative that a management plan with educational programs with schools and communities. Through the interviews made to a part of the local population, it was found that most of the people interviewed, don’t really understand the importance of the practice of solid waste management, and unaware of the consequences, which may entail both for the population and for the environment, when it is not applied the correct techniques of such waste management.
Asked if they know the correct final disposal techniques. 90% said they do not know and 10% said they know (Figure 8).
The quality of services of urban cleaning systems existing in Brazil, when compared to that of countries with greater technological and cultural development, is still far from ideal. The management of this problem for the municipalities depend on above all political will on the part of rulers and a plan of actions to be undertaken to seek alternatives that reduce par excellence the environmental impacts generated by solid waste.
This article sought to analyze the management of solid waste in the city of Marapanim, who is also one of the Brazilian cities that live this problematic, and through a SWOT analysis model it was possible to identify the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats within the waste management applied in the municipality. The solid waste management is very poor, poor planning and attention to the measures, particularly as regards the conditions of collection and storage of waste, because the conditions found in the landfill are not ideal and does not correspond to the standards regulated by the CONAMA.
It is important that the city keep its political strategy in preparing the participative master plan focused on waste management. Because the situation of the municipality in relation to environmental and social degradation, in the case of scavengers present in the landfill is aggravating. Are social actors that contribute indirectly or directly from an innocent, in their empirical knowledge to decrease degradation, and the pursuit of survival portrays this situation.
The lack of integrated management implies a public policy that is focused on the environmental issue, it is essential that schools, and public authorities are engaged in the process of training for citizenship, and through educational programs and campaigns make an awareness to encourage students and the local community to develop the selective collection in the region. This practice reduces the large amount of waste deposited in the landfill, increasing the lifecycle of the landfill and generates better environmental conditions, public health and sustainable development.
In order to find a better solution for the final disposal of municipal solid waste in the city of Marapanim, is the conscience of each manager to manage your own trash can have the dignity to demand of each ruler that responsibility of environmental and social life
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 Geographer. Specialist in environmental education and the use of water resources. Brazil Amazon Integrated College (Fiber). Faculty of elementary and secondary public school in the State of Pará, Brazil. Email: [email protected]
 Biologist. Master in environmental biology. Doctor of medicine/Tropical Diseases. Professor and researcher at the Federal University of Pará – UFPA. And researcher in Tropical Medicine core Developer of the UFPA. Email: [email protected] (corresponding author).