Quality and satisfaction in customer service: Challenges for public administration

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

MORAIS, Heliel Barros [1]

MORAIS, Heliel Barros. Quality and satisfaction in customer service: Challenges for public administration. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 05, Ed. 11, Vol. 24, pp. 42-57. November 2020. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/business-administration/quality-and-satisfaction ‎

SUMMARY

The Public Administration has many challenges ranging from decision-making bodies to the difficulty of managing with few resources. These aspects, very relevant whose path permeates the customer satisfaction, which is the focus of any organization. Thus, in this article, the proposed objectives are to demonstrate that satisfaction in customer service is fundamental for them to feel satisfied and have their expectations exceeded; to present suggestions for improving the methods used in the service and, finally, to discuss propositions to answer the questions of the clients. As a field of research, the analyzed environment takes place in a public service sector of a Brazilian Navy Military Organization, in which the main problems encountered in the service were raised. The study focuses on the purpose of demonstrating possible actions that may contribute to the target audience being able to feel fulfilled within their expectations and feel satisfied with the work done. To this end, we sought to analyze how the organization implements the culture, within its structure, the influence of good service, observing the objectives of accountability, in the provision of the requested information with maximum transparency of actions, in addition to compliance, which guide the application of how the work is performed in the provision of the service. As there are other public organizations that serve the public and have similar dynamics, the notes presented here will serve as a contribution to other entities.

Keywords: Public administration, satisfaction, quality of care.

1. INTRODUCTION

Excellence, precision, perfection are some of the ideas whose meaning is related to the meaning of quality that, regarding customer service, corresponds to the expectations of a well-performed treatment, in which the client can feel well, satisfied, happy and excited about the result.

Consumers of goods and services, whether in the public or private spheres, have become increasingly competitive and, therefore, the scenario presented to public and private organizations is of demanding customers, aware of their expectations and expectations, who disclose their opinions on social networks and, therefore, can be considered the main responsible for the success or failure and the future of any organization.

According to this, serving the customer with quality means exceeding expectations, strengthening relationships, winning their loyalty and making them marketers of the product or service to others.

It is through this loyalty that it becomes possible to form spokespersons, a low-cost and very efficient dissemination tool, attracting new stakeholders and disseminating the good image of the brand.

When we look at public organizations where profit is not the main objective, all efforts have been focused on improving the provision of services to society with the greatest possible efficiency and quality. Therefore, public organizations have been adapting quality policies in various sectors of public administration, at the three levels, Federal, State and Municipal. This is due to the fact that society is increasingly active, aware of its rights and exerting a greater charge to public organizations providing service to the citizen, making the organization updated to ensure and meet the needs of society.

So, how to perform this service so essential for the existence of the organization with excellence? How to please customers with such individual expectations, so different? How to measure the level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction in a face-to-face service? These topics will be presented in this article, in addition to talking about a little quality, customer service and public management.

2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

This work seeks to draw attention to the analysis of aspects related to the importance of the quality of care for customer satisfaction, making an approach of four fundamental concepts to understand the core of the questions raised by this study. Therefore, we will address four concepts that are directly related to the objective of this study, which are: quality, customer, service and public management.

2.1 QUALITY

The emergence of quality dates back to the post-World War II period, with edwards deming and Joseph M as its main creators. Juran who presented quality as “doing what is right and in the right way” (DEMING, 1990, p. 38). Juran (2000, p. 26) points out that quality refers “to what meets the needs of customers; or, it is the absence of deficiencies.”

The various studies that emerged from the concepts presented by Deming and Juran left the factory environments and were inserted in other sectors, such as service and customer service. As Vicente Falconi (1999, p.98) states: “a product or service with quality is one that always meets perfectly and reliably, in an accessible way, in a safe way and at the right time to the needs of the customer”.

Quality in services can be defined as the degree to which customer experiences are met by their perception of the service provided, that is, quality needs to be understood from the consumer’s point of view, as this is the one that will evaluate the service through their perception (GIANESI E CORRÊA, 1996). This adaptation for service providers can be complemented by Kotler, when he states that “quality is beyond a simple reduction of defects: it means; therefore, satisfy the desires and needs of customers better than competitors.” (KOTLER, 1998 p. 56).

Several private and public organizations are seeking to align themselves with the philosophy of quality management in their processes and services, thus seeking accreditation of quality standard certificates, such as those developed by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO 9001), which establishes the seven principles of quality: focus on the client; leadership; people’s engagement; process approach; continuous improvement; fact-based decision-making; relationship management.

Therefore, quality is a basic factor that should be observed in all institutions that aim to survive today. Only with one service, one service, a quality product will contemplate the realization of the main reason for being of any organization, the customer.

2.2 CUSTOMER

Every organization, whether public or private, exists to meet the needs of its customers. As Marques (2000, p.33) defines it, “a customer is a person who buys company products, for his own consumption, or to distribute these products to end consumers, as the most important person in any type of business”.

Customer satisfaction can be defined as an affective state generated by the emotional reaction to the experience with a product or service. (OLIVER, 1980).

Another important note of the dimension of the importance of the client to the organization is highlighted by Chiavenato (2007) who states that the business exists to meet the needs of customers and, therefore, the success of the business determines the size of the success of the sector. Therefore, the importance that the organization dedicates to the client will delimit the success achieved by it, as Almeida (2001, p. 25) points out. “The current customer is the real boss, to whom they should focus and meet all expectations.”

Therefore, understand the customer, take the customer problem as the organization’s problem will corroborate to your satisfaction. And seeking customer satisfaction is paramount to the organization’s continued success. Therefore, the key to this success is realized in the first contact with the client, which is through its service.

2.3 ATTENDANCE

Customer service is the organization’s first contact with its main object and, for this, it is important to pay a very special attention to this organizational sector. Therefore, create an organizational culture focused on meeting with the adoption of measures such as Hopson and Scally presents (1995): Customer service initiatives are much more than training events. Training is a component in a complete approach of the organization to the pursuit of excellence in service. To do so, it is necessary to implement the policy as Kotler (1998 p.110) suggests “it must be the responsibility of all to ensure that they satisfy their customers and, to this end, improvement in the services provided”.

An important point to be introduced refers to what Albrech Karl (1992), in his work, defines how the seven sins of the service provider: to show apathy; demonstrate rejection or unwillingness; demonstrate coldness; demonstrate air of superiority; demonstrate robotism; too attached to norms; demonstrate push ing game. Therefore, these sins must be fought to seek satisfaction in care, as Rossi (1995) states: customer satisfaction is therefore expressed from their perceptions regarding the performance of a set of factors that, when evaluated, exceed or fall short of expectations.

When the client realizes that the organization essentially advocates a quality service, the resolution of problems becomes easier and more affable. For this, a humanized service with a dose of empathy is fundamental for customer satisfaction.

In public organizations, where the number of users is the population as a whole, to seek an efficient service, it is necessary to implement in its structure a quality public management policy from the Brazilian program that will be reported below.

2.4 PUBLIC MANAGEMENT

At the end of the 1980s, with the opening of the market, Brazil began to seek mechanisms and methods that prepare and update companies and the public service in relation to quality and productivity.

In this environment, the Brazilian Quality and Productivity Program (PBQP) was created in 1990.  In 1995, with the State Reform, the Quality and Participation in Public Administration Program (QPAP) was created, “focusing on tools and the beginning of a discourse focused on quality as an instrument for modernization of the state apparatus”

The Quality in Public Service program, created in 1999, using the learning of other programs, established standards of service and integration of care systems through SACs – Citizen Service Services.

In 2005, the Federal Government launched, by Decree (No. 5378, of 02/23/2005), the National Program for Public Management and Debureaucratization – Gespública, unifying the Quality Program with the National Debureaucratization Program.

These programs have formed a state policy to transform public organizations into a diffuser of quality culture, using improved systems to make services more efficient for citizens.

As presented in this program, new principles and concepts were developed by the program to improve citizen care such as:

Focus on the public value given to the citizen; simplicity; agility; economicity; scalability and availability of proposed solutions; adaptability and social learning; openness and transparency; cooperation and inter sectoral. One of Gespública’s main objectives is the mobilization of the Brazilian public administration in the direction of generating results. (GESPÚBLICA, 2020)

On 18/07/2017, the Gespública Program was repealed, after the publication of Decree 9.094/17, which had the purpose of contributing to the improvement of the quality of public services. However, with the publication of Decree No. 8,936/16, which instituted the Digital Citizenship Platform and with the recent creation of the National Council for Debureaucratization, gespública’s tools were improved. “The government has established that the top priority is the simplification and digital transformation of public services offered to citizens and businesses. This movement incorporates the learning of Gespública and amplifies the potential for gains for society”, says Gleisson Rubin. (Secretary of Management of the Ministry of Planning).

The great challenge of the public manager is to have the ability to manage its sphere of activity, providing a quality service with limited human and material resources and deliver an efficient service. Being aware that the user is the most important piece of your gear and serve you in a dignified manner is a must. Unfortunately, one of the major bottlenecks of the public thing is corruption throughout the process chain, which makes it difficult to implement this quality policy.

3. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES

Aiming to observe a problem and seek solutions, using scientific procedures, this research aims to discover and interpret the difficulties and analyze the routine actions of the Public Service Group (GAP) of the Port Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ), object of analysis of the present work.

Therefore, this will be an applied research, because the physical phenomena that involve the objectives of this study will be investigated in order to propose actions and solve existing problems.

As for technical procedures, the processes are managed by an internal system that allows monitoring the progress of care managed by GAP.

The population surveyed consists of users served from January to July 2020, based on the monthly evaluation reports of the sector, prepared by the Sector Management Council. In it, from the generation of the protocol for opening the service process, it is possible to verify its history, from the first service to its completion.

Similarly, the results of user opinion surveys, conducted during the first half of 2020, will be analyzed through its own form.

According to this, this study is based on a research with an explanatory approach, considering that it intends to find explanations for the problems and difficulties faced by the sector.

According to Birochi (2002, p. 28), “the explanatory research aims to find the causes for the occurrence of phenomena, that is, the connections between the causes and the observed effects, with the objective of explaining the object studied”.

With a qualitative focus, the proposal aims to measure the reality of the sector, especially because the researcher is inserted in the context of the research and uses specific methodological procedures to observe, report and reflect on possible changes that may improve the work routine of the department in question.

It is noteworthy that this analysis deals with human relations and, therefore, the subjectivity intrinsic to such relationships makes the explanations complex and more difficult to report.

Thus, two approaches are adopted regarding research procedures: survey research, used to confirm or deny certain information within a given group, and bibliographic research, used to support the study based on books and other academic publications related to the theme in questions.

The main objective is to analyze the influence of good service for customer satisfaction that uses the services provided by this public organization, as well as to explore this good service within the public organizations themselves.

Other consequences of this work consist in presenting propositions to answer the questions of users of the services provided by the Public Service Group (GAP), of the Port Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ), and to understand how is the routine in a public service sector. Therefore, this work focuses on analyzing the main problems faced by the sector, which, by analogy, covers a large part of the public offices that provide public service, such as INSS, DMV, Irs, Courts, among others.

The specific objectives of this research are: to propose suggestions for improving the methods used in the service; to know and serve the client, employing the maximum empathy to meet their needs, as well as the aspects related to accountability, related to the aspects of transparencies and access to information, in the provision of information, already guaranteed by the law of access to information.

As an intermediate objective, we propose to analyze the work routine and the means of which employees have, such as standards, regulations, process mappings to set up a well-directed plan.

In the organizational environment of the Brazilian Navy, which determines the quality management guidelines for the organizations that are part of its structure, there is the Neptune Program, aimed at implementing and directing measures in order to improve public management and quality within its jurisdiction.

This work in which has as background the systematic record of a research applied in the area of public management.

The present study is justified by considering relevant that every organization should be concerned with care, considering that it is connected, in some way, to all sectors because it is the gateway to requests and activates all sectors ranging from production to delivery of the service. It is this service that will embody the culture of the organization, through it that contacts occur between customers, users, suppliers and, therefore, deserve maximum attention for the longevity of the organization. It is through the service that organizations receive the demands, through which the needs for the operationalization of all activities are elaborated.

Finally, the article proposes as the theme to analyze the quality of public care, addressing the main problems faced by the Public Service Group (GAP), of the Port Captaincy of Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ), the measures adopted to face their difficulties and possible measures for the optimization of care.

The Public Service Group (GAP) is a sector of the military organization Captaincy of Ports of Rio de Janeiro (CPRJ) of the Brazilian Navy, branch of the armed forces responsible for conducting marine operations.

The CPRJ is subordinated to the Command of the 1st Naval District and

its mission is to contribute to the guidance, coordination and control of the activities of the Merchant Navy and related organizations, with regard to national defense, the safeguarding of human life at sea, the safety of navigation, in the open sea and inland waterways and the prevention of environmental pollution by vessels, platforms or their support facilities. (MARINHA DO BRASIL, 2019)

As recommended by law, the CPRJ, as legal representative of the maritime authority, for the control and supervision of maritime activities, carries out several actions in partnership with agencies such as the Federal Police, The Federal Revenue, Ibama, Inea, Military Police, among others, as well as performs various services to society, affectionately known as the maritime community, that is, those people who work, fish, dive, navigate and have fun in the various areas of navigation , such as beaches, rivers, lakes, etc.

The attendance to the public is carried out through gap attendants, in thirteen ticket counters, in a specific place of the Captaincy of Ports. The service team consists of fifteen employees who perform primary care to users who wish to acquire or regularize their situation with the maritime authority, or to those who wish to regularize the registration of their vessels.

GAP is therefore responsible for receiving the documentation that will form the process that will result in the issuance of documents of interest to the maritime community.

For maritime professionals, the main demands of service are related to the Registration and Registration Book, Diver Registration Book, Certificate model DPC-1031, Homologation of Embarkation on foreign flag ships, Aquarius Identification, Registration Book of the Dynamic Positioning Operator, Certificate of War Services and License of Amateurs – CHA (issuance, renewal, second way and concession) , among others.

With regard to vessels, GAP’s service demands refer, above all, to the Equipment List and Port List, to the Full Vessel Certificate, to the Registration, to the Property Registry, to the revalidation, to the second copy, to the transfer, change), the Crew and Safety Card (CTS), the Safety and Navigation Certificate and the Free Edge Certificate.

There are also services related to the Registration of Diving Companies and the Registration of Nautical Companies.

This research is limited in the observation of the routine, in the statements of GAP employees and in the monthly evaluation reports prepared by the Management Board. The difficulties and mishaps found in the routine of the users’ care were reported and opportunities for improvement in the work developed were observed.

According to GAP employees, customers who seek their services, because they are a category of professionals in which it is necessary to prove certain requirements for their processes to be contemplated, when they do not have such requirements, have some resistance in accepting this proposition and becomes a frequent situation faced by GAP attendants , in which users do not understand that by filing a process missing these requirements, they entered a situation of requirement.

Bezerra (2013, p. 12) describes that:

satisfy a consumer is not easy. Believe! What is satisfactory for one person can be unsatisfactory for another. Clients are individuals who have diverse characteristics, opinions and tastes (…). We will never be able to satisfy 100% of customers, but we need to make the utmost effort to achieve the minimum satisfaction expected by them.

Based on the statements taken by the attendants, other problems reported were: the insistence of users not to read the standards, wear and tear with “discussion”, difficulty in accepting not being able to enter the request for lack of document, complaint by few attendants, difficulty not knowing about the schedule or having difficulty in computing, attempting to circumvent the system scheduling one thing and wanting to enter several services , bad mood on the part of the public.

These reports are the most frequent in the day-to-day life of GAP, and trying to get around this situation is one of the challenges to be implemented by the organization.

According to Kotler, Hayes and Bloom (2002, p. 58): “Everyone likes to be treated like someone important. The ability to make each client feel special and important is the crucial point in establishing empathy.”

Another challenge faced by the sector concerns the time of service. To minimize such dissatisfaction on the part of users, with the computerization of the public sectors allowed an improvement in this aspect from the implementation of an internet scheduling system in which customers are the executing agents of the system, bringing users closer to the desired services, eventually minimizing the problems previously mentioned, making the service requester choose the best time of their service , thereby reducing the level of dissatisfaction.

According to Fresneda (1998, p. 46), “the proposed methodological framework for the use of IT, in the process of transformation of public organizations, is mainly based on the following points: customer orientation; simplicity; focus on few targets of change.” The author also highlights:

For an effective transformation process to take place in a public organization, it is imperative that its customers (current and potential) are considered the largest stakeholders in it. This means that it is necessary to bring to the public area, with the appropriate adaptations, strategies, methods and processes similar to those used by private organizations to gain and keep customers satisfied with their products and services. (FRESNEDA, 1998 p. 46),

Based on the analysis of the reports of indicators of waiting time, from the implementation of electronic scheduling in December 2018, the waiting time showed considerable reduction. The waiting time is classified as shown in Table 1:

Table 1: Reference measures of the wait time analysis

Source: GapManagement Board half-yearly report

Considering the above indicators, we observed that, during the period from January to July 2020, a survey conducted by sampling analyzed 1066 visits (Graph 1):

Graph 1: Analysis of waiting time in the visits performed by GAP in the period from January to July/2020

Source: Gap Management Board half-yearly report

According to the data presented, it is possible to notice that the GAP reached satisfactory rates in more than 90% of the visits, a result that is quite expressive about the visits performed without scheduling, with the use of passwords. On the other hand, other problems have arisen, such as the difficulty of the elderly, in which the difficulty in adapting to new technologies, either for reasons of affinity, or because they do not have access. However, to meet this specific demand, GAP provides attendants for these cases.

Despite the scarcity of resources, personal and material, according to the reports of employees in the sector, the efforts employed to meet in the best possible way is both rewarding and frustrating. Still according to them, if in a day of care nine people are served satisfactorily and one can not be met, by his negative campaign can throw away the effort of hard work.

The customer to feel satisfied has the need to feel heard and that their problem is understood and feel at least an attempt on the part of the attendant to solve it. Failure to meet the needs and expectations of customers is assumed to cause dissatisfaction (ZEITHAML, 2003).

Therefore, another tool that can not fail to be mentioned is the question of the answers to complaints made by customers, demonstrating that their discontent is being observed, heard and studied to be solved, as Rubens Pinto Lyra points out:

It is well known that the ombudsman, when efficient and autonomous, opens the “black box” of the administration, seen, as a rule, by the complainant, as something inaccessible and not transparent. It penetrates the bureaucratic intricacies in which the processes of those concerned are entangled (and where they often lose themselves), ensuring them unrestricted access to them, as well as the information they have about them. (LYRA, 2009, p. 58).

The tools that the organization has to have a direct contact with users has become an essential tool for organizations to implement their improvements, because only those who are on the other side of the table have the feeling of what can be improved. And a good relationship with these channels are increasingly adopted today.

4. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

What does a customer expect when searching for a service? If it is a private service, he expects his service to run perfectly and even then the level of satisfaction is quite high, because directly he is paying for the execution of the service. When it comes to public service, the client already has in his mind factors such as delay, bureaucracy, procrastination, bad will of the attendant, among others.

To achieve the level of satisfaction of a user seeking the public service is, in a way, easier than in private service, due to the prejudice of the client. When he seeks an organization and receives a service in which his needs are met, receives the product before the deadline, and perceives in the entity factors such as organization, cleanliness, humanity, empathy, commitment, his level of satisfaction reaches the maximum level and this user will be positive advertisement of the organization.

Seeking these concepts serve as a parameter for any public service delivery entity. Actions that in a way are simple and their impacts are very positive.

Because it is a very complex and diversified theme, this work was concerned with showing aspects presented by a specific sector, however, by analogy, it can be extended to several public and private entities and somehow contribute to the promotion of the debate on the use of quality in the care of the public of the public thing. Even knowing that public organizations have to follow compliance and need to be in reliable compliance with laws and regulations, they are living organisms and, in order to remain operational, must be attentive to changes and, therefore, invest in quality excellence in service, quality and customer satisfaction are increasingly present.

Therefore, invest in a specialized, personalized service, in which the customer problem becomes the problem of the institution, try to encourage users of the importance of anticipating deadlines and salaries, not to leave for the last minute, optimize for simple problem solving in a simple way, and most importantly, constantly expand the dissemination of the electronic scheduling system of service with maritime companies , marine navigation agencies, nautical schools, etc., to encourage their audience, to the use of electronic scheduling, the latter already adopted by the organization. It is a way to strengthen the accountability offered to the user, as it favors the credibility of the institution.

As for the questions of the clients, the channel of connection between the client and the organization is the ombudsman, in which the answers seek to clarify the doubts and solve any problems that may have occurred.

In conclusion, it is salutary that public organizations prioritize customer satisfaction as much as private companies, considering that good service is an essential tool for customer satisfaction and increasingly exert greater influence in the market and demand excellence in the quality of service, especially in a time when social networks function as spokespersons of both praise and criticism , reaching other potential customers or losing. It is expected that this work has contributed in some way to foster the debate about the quality of service and satisfaction of the greatest good of any service provider, the client.

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[1] Graduating in Public Administration from UFF.

Submitted: September, 2020.

Approved: November, 2020.

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