POUBEL, Aryanne da Silva. SILVA, Loise Pereira Sousa da. FREITAS, Maísa Santos de Souza. Activities developed by the people management sector of the INSS of Duque de Caxias / RJ. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 05, Ed. 10, Vol. 09, pp. 05-25. October 2020. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/business-administration/management-sector
The changes that have occurred in People Management in the public sector are realities in the face of new challenges. This study aims to evaluate the activities performed by the People Management sector of the INSS (National Institute of Social Security) of Duque de Caxias, pointing out organizational diagnosis, improvements in server deficits, new trends in People Management in the public sector and the social security strategic plan. Through documental analysis, bibliographic research and with the use of qualitative methodology, non-participant observation was performed for data collection and content analysis in order to understand the communication of the systems. The increase in the effectiveness and efficiency of the organization is seen from the study of the sector with emphasis on the new tools and models of Strategic Management. It is concluded that the new measures and trends are unable to meet the current demand and it was observed that the granting of public tenders to fill the size of personnel deficit as well as competent management are solutions to these issues.
Keywords: People Management, Public Sector, Strategic Management.
This article is guided by the reality of People Management in the public sector, one of the areas that have undergoing changes the most in recent times. The changes are part of the history of humanity as evolution and the reasons are varied: economic, political, social, cultural, technological. The management of people in the public sector is very important for organizations, since the challenges are enormous and this is a complex issue, because employees are not hired equal to private entities, but through a public tender. And for the server to progress in its career, fulfill its functions effectively it is necessary that there is involvement, development, participation and training of the same.
According to Oliveira and Medeiros (2012, apud BARZELAY, 2005; VERGARA, 2007) published, awareness of the role of the public sector is essential for management in the sector. This means that implementing Policies and Practices of People Management aims to promote commitment to quality and effectiveness, stimulate productivity and produce results for users of public services. In addition, it is essential to work by managing skills so that the results satisfy the public and the servers as well. (LIMA; CARNEIRO, 2015)
The study will be carried out in the Personnel Management Operations Section, in the Executive Management of the Social Social Security Agency (APS) at the Duque de Caxias unit, located at Rua Marechal Deodoro, 1119, Jardim Vinte e cinco de Agosto, in the state of Rio de Janeiro. According to Resolution No. 695 of August 8, 2019, this sector is responsible for committing administrative efforts, especially technicians, logistics and human to ensure the full quality of public service. Thus, it is verified the importance of this sector for public administration because it is responsible for fostering knowledge management, development, skills focused on institutional performance and promoting the strengthening of careers and health and quality of life at work.
According to Chiavenato (2014), managing people is taking responsibility for managing and also managing the company’s human capital. Moreover, it stated that the human factor is the most important resource of an organization, since through it it is possible to achieve the objectives and goals proposed. Therefore, the objectives of this article are: to present organizational diagnosis, propose improvements related to the deficit of servers, to know and understand the new trends of People Management in the public sector, to verify the strategic management model used by the public agency and the Social Security Strategic Plan.
2. CASE PRESENTATION
Brazil acquired a legal framework so that the social security system could actually be implemented in the country through the approval of the Eloy Chaves Law, which is Legislative Decree No. 4,682, of January 24, 1923, although this mechanism had existed since the time of the Empire. Initially, the objective was to support workers in the period of inactivity, but over the years there were some changes due to the growth of the urban population and the expansion of unionism, which consequently resulted in a tendency of social security organization by professional category.
The need for a single social security system started from the problem of distortion among the various institutes, a fact generated by the strengthening of institutes representing categories with higher income. Thus, after numerous changes, there is unification through Decree No. 77,077 with the Consolidation of Social Security Laws (CLPS), and in the following year, the creation of the National System of Social Security and Assistance (SINPAS). The inclusion of the concept of social security began through the Federal Constitution of 1988, and was created on June 27, 1990, through decree no. 99,350, the National Institute of Social Security (INSS).
It is worth mentioning that this organization was linked to the Ministry of Social Security and Social Assistance (MPAS) and currently the municipality is linked to the Ministry of Economy. Moreover, its main characteristic is to provide social security services to Brazilian society, ensuring appropriate care for the insured and beneficiaries. The organizational structure seeks the balance between administrative decentralization and the chain of commands at different levels (strategic, tactical and operational) in order to print agility in decision making.
These decisions are part of the strategic planning and according to Decree No. 3,081/1999, the former Executive Management were decentralized, reflecting only in the PPA (Multiannual Plan). However, in 2005 based on the Balanced Scorecard methodology, the INSS built the Strategic Map. Thus, its mission is to guarantee protection to citizens through the recognition of rights, with the objective of promoting social well-being, being the vision of being recognized for excellence in the provision of services to the citizen and the values are: ethics, respect, security, transparency, professionalism, social and environmental responsibility.
The Executive Management serves 14 municipalities of Baixada Fluminense, totaling 16 branches. In general, the Operational Section of People Management has two parts: administrative and technical. The servers are responsible for probation, retirement, vacation, among others in the first part. The second is responsible for health and quality of life at work, social service, PEP (Social Security Education Program) and CEFAI (Center for Training and Improvement of the Server).
3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
3.1 HISTORICAL EVOLUTION OF PEOPLE MANAGEMENT
According to Moura e Souza (2016), the term “strategic management of human resources” appeared as early as the 1980s, among academics and managers, at first, expanding to job advertisements, courses and specialized literature. He was concerned with strategies for managing people in institutions in order to gain competitive advantage. According to Paauwe (2004), the issue took great proportions and, in the 1990s, became a “mantra” among managers and academics, which contributed to the dissemination of the area. The strategic management of human resources, in the contemporary context, stresses that policies and practices tangent to people management should be interconnected and integrated with organizational strategy, resulting in a more proactive posture, as highlighted by Boon et al (2007); Kepes and Delery (2007).
The creation of a work environment capable of promoting the development and improvement of skills was desired (ZARIFAN, 2003; CARBONE et al, 2005), as well as aimed at achieving organizational sustainability (FREITAS; JABBOUR, 2010. SANTOS, 2009). The expectations and needs of the people were also considered (BURKE; COOPER, 2006; DUTRA, 2008). As Moura and Souza (2016) allude, people management has entered the most diverse spaces and contexts that discuss the improvement and effectiveness of public services. Amaral (2006) and Carvalho et al (2009) stress that the public sector has been under constant pressure in relation to public accountability, control of spending and the quality and adequacy of services offered to citizens. According to Legge (2005), given the introduction of the management model, the public sector further increased these pressures.
With this, it began to incorporate essential issues to people management, drawing attention to the strategic performance in public institutions, as well as to the urgent need for the modernization of the personnel structure (SCHIKMANN, 2010). However, in Brazil, the strategic actions took shape late, although the literature already recommended the strategic treatment in the area of people management (MOURA; SOUZA, 2016). In the Brazilian nation, historically, the RH (Human resource Management) dimension is involved with normative attributions, which are not very strategic (BARBOSA, 2005). Even if managers agree that the strategic position is something relevant, they cannot define what they consider as a strategic action, and there are even confusions regarding operational actions, which cannot be considered as strategies (CÉSAR; BIDO; SAAD, 2007; MOURA; SOUZA, 2014).
Historically, managers often state that they act strategically, however, in practice, this is not the case (FIGUEIREDO et al, 2008), which proves that there are ambivalences between theory and practice in the field of people management. Even with the sophistication of the models of labor relations and management, it is observed in the corporate daily life, even today, the adaptation or development of its own methodologies (DIAS; LOPES; DALLA, 2007). The tendency is for the country’s institutions to take over fads and import foreign management models, which contributes in part to the inconstancy in this area. Although the import of these models and management tools confer, in fact, a modernity to RH (Human resource Management), there is a disarticulation and lack of alignment of these with the entity’s strategy (MOURA; SOUZA, 2016).
Debates about the relevance of human resources are often not supported by the real routine of management (TANURE; EVANS; CANÇADO, 2010). At other times, the organization’s management begins to define the model of people management without having little or no presence of specialized literature (MOURA; SOUZA, 2016). This is explored only in the operationalization of the model, becoming an supporting element (BARBOSA; FERRAZ; LOPES, 2002). This situation causes a historical difficulty to realize the potential for greater status, influence and results, which has fostered a growing crisis of mistrust and loss of legitimacy in relation to those responsible for people management (MOURA; SOUZA, 2016). The general framework indicates that the use of management techniques has been provisional, opportunistic and fragmented (LEGGE, 2005).
The implementation of the concept of management in Brazilian soil incorporated into public management was sanctioned in 2006, with the promulgation of Decree No. 5,707/2006. The device instituted the Personnel Development Policies and Guidelines. It is a document that acts as a matrix for the management of people in the public sector (CARAVALHO et al, 2009). However, even with the advances, public management, even today, is far from contributing, effectively, to the adequacy of the profile of public servants with the current demands, which, every day, become more diverse and complex, which demands, from the public sector, effective actions and satisfactory results (MOURA; SOUZA, 2016). The implementation of the new models also implies an urgent break with certain management standards in force for a long time and that are no longer as effective (SCHIKMANN, 2010).
Therefore, it is perceived that it is necessary and crucial to rethink the aspects resulting from a historical formation aimed at the formation of the Brazilian public administration, since these models, still widely used today, reiterate the cultural traits of the people management sector, which delays modernization (SCHIKMANN, 2010). It is noted, therefore, that, due to historical reasons, there is the absence of a systematized, as well as coherent set, which is capable of offering general and specific guidelines for the current Brazilian federal public sector (MOURA; SOUZA, 2016). It is also perceived that this attachment to conventional models contributes to more operational and reactive actions, which ultimately hinders a more strategic performance, and, consequently, dynamic and in accordance with contemporary demands (MOURA; SOUZA, 2014).
3.2 NEW TRENDS IN PEOPLE MANAGEMENT IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR
People Management is responsible for managing and managing the human capital of organizations and for all personal processes of all employees. According to Milioni (2002, apud DUTRA 2009, p.10), people management is based on strategies and techniques with achievements aimed at “mobilizing talents, potentials, experiences and competencies of the staff of an organization, as well as the management and operationalization of internal and legal incident standards”.
The sector of people management in the public sphere is important for both the servers and the population, because it enriches the work environment, achieves great achievements and advances. According to Oliveira e Medeiros (2012, apud BERGUE, 2007), the management of people in the public sector is a process of orientation, aimed at maintaining and supplying the needs and conditions observed in the environment in which they are located and the development of people in public organizations, taking into account constitutional and legal opinions.
Some new Public Sector People Management trends are being implemented to extract more efficiency and potential from your employees. According to Banov (2012), the tendency is to work selection and evaluation processes, taking into account the competencies of employees. Organizations in general seek new management models in order to align them with organizational goals, and condition them to their mission, vision and values.
3.3 STRATEGIC MANAGEMENT IN THE PUBLIC SECTOR
Strategic Management refers to methods in which organizations design as strategic decision-making so that they achieve their objectives through software, strategic planning, action plans. Thus:
Strategic Planning consists of the development of processes, techniques and administrative attitudes, which provide a viable situation of evaluating the future implications of decisions present in the light of organizational strategies that will facilitate decision-making in the future, in a faster, coherent, efficient, effective and problem-effective way. (PEREIRA, 2012, p.38 apud GAJ, 1986; 1990; OLIVEIRA, 1988a; ANDRADE, 1988).
Some factors are still challenging for the Brazilian public administration due to the historical context of the country such as the new Gespública, decentralization, implementation of managerial practices in the public sector and ending the extinction of debureaucratization by Decree 9.094/2017. Thus, it seeks to simplify the care provided to users of public services and increase the efficiency of the State with improvements and new instruments.
According to Longo (2007), it is necessary that the public manager be able to align the employees strategically, in order to have a good organization and management, which can therefore provide concrete results for the citizen.
One of the objectives presented in this article is to verify the Strategic Management model and the Social Security Strategic Plan, and then, we searched for an Operational Model used by the organization according to the Multiannual Plan of 2016-2019, which is the Strategic Map structured in the Balanced Scorecard methodology – BSC.
4. METHODOLOGICAL PROCEDURES
This study is based on a qualitative research strategy, which according to Zanella (2013) is characterized by the non-use of statistical instruments in data analysis, based on theoretical-empirical knowledge. The research is classified as applied scientific and descriptive, because it seeks to know the facts and phenomena of the reality studied in order to propose means of solving difficulties, as explained by Zanella (2013, apud FERRARI, 1982).
Based on the general objective, which is to evaluate the activities performed by the People Management sector of the INSS of Duque de Caxias, the types of bibliographic, documentary and case study research are used. As composition of the bibliographic database, the themes are “People management in the public sector”, “Strategic management” and “New trends” found in scientific and periodic articles, in databases such as Scielo and government websites.
The non-participant observation tool, in which the observer investigates the studied reality without integrating with it, was applied for data collection. After the information is collected, the results will be compiled and analyzed using the content analysis technique proposed by Bardin (2007). After pre-analysis and exploration of the material, the content was interpreted with the objective of understanding the message through communication analysis techniques, applying systematic procedures.
5. ACTION PLAN
5.1 ORGANIZATIONAL DIAGNOSIS
From the experience of residency in public management and the interview with the person responsible for the sector, it is observed the need for a public tender to appoint public servants and occupy the vacancies of public positions. There are many problems caused by the shortage of servers, such as accumulated processes, huge queues for service, delay in granting benefits to thousands of beneficiaries, lawsuits.
The accelerated modernization of the INSS in 2018, through the digitization of all services, aimed to speed up and reduce waiting time, expanding citizens’ access to requests for benefits, in addition the demand for internal systems is one of the factors for the queue of requirements in the agency. This digitization process has caused the number of applications that reach the agency to increase, especially in the race to retire before the pension reform, which was enacted on November 12, 2019. Thus, more than 6,000 civil servants retired by the end of 2019.
It is important to highlight that by mid-2015, the model that had in the INSS became obsolete and the service queue already existed and was at least six months. With the new trend in people management in the public sector and strategic management, measures were implemented to minimize the delay in serving the population, such as the Strategic Map structured in the Balanced Scorecard – BSC methodology and the evaluation of individual and institutional performance, in addition to the new GDASS (Social Security Activity Performance Bonus).
According to the current model of Strategic Map of INSS 2020-2023, the intensification and digital transformation of services and automatic granting of benefits, combatfraud and the qualification of citizen registration information are measures to ensure protection to the citizen through the institution’s updated mission and vision. Thus, digital support is expanded, operational expenses rationalised and institutional technology is improved to ensure efficiency in meeting the queue population and consequently the reduction of the queue; and according to Gurgel (2020), the latest data released on March 2, 2020 by the president of the National Institute of Social Security – INSS, Leonardo Rolim, from 1 million 873 thousand went to 1 million and 300 thousand people.
The evaluation of individual and institutional performance is of normative instruction No. 58 of 01/25/2012 – INSS – in which it ensures “the criteria and procedures for the evaluation of individual and institutional performance, for the purposes of the measurement of the Social Security Activity Performance Bonus – GDASS, due to the members of the Social Insurance Career” (BRASIL, 2012). The purpose of this mechanism is still to offer actions and training of professional development, in addition to trust, commitment, motivation, results, among others provided for in this normative instruction.
Moreover, this evaluation defines the value of the variable portion of remuneration and mainly aligns the performance to the mission, objectives and institutional goals according to the strategic management in the public sector and the Strategic Map. These parameters will be used so that the quality of the services resembles the finalistic activity. The evaluation period is six months, in a computerized system provided by the DGP – (People Management Board) – in order to promote the allocation of people oriented by competencies.
The GDASS- (Gratification of social insurance activity performance) – aims to encourage the improvement of services to the final activity of the INSS and will be calculated according to the results of the evaluations of individual and institutional performance according to Article 45 of The D.O.U 26/01/2012. The GDASS is distributed with 20 points (through the results of the individual performance evaluation) and 80 points (through the results of the institutional performance evaluation).
GDASS is the one that characterizes most of the server’s remuneration. Because it depends on the performance of the public employee and also on meeting targets in the workplace, there is no guarantee that the amount in its entirety will be paid. Half of the employees, in early 2019, retired and incorporated the full bonus they previously did not take to retirement, providing a huge server deficit. The online system (INSS Digital), created to help and help, only receives the documents, however it is necessary that someone make the grant of the benefit.
Provisional Measure 871 was issued in January and converted into Law No. 13,846 on June 18, 2019 with a series of measures to encourage INSS servers, who had requirements to retire to continue active, create tools to increase productivity such as bonuses, telework, semi-face-to-face work with centers specialized in benefit analysis. However, only in the second half of 2019, these measures were effective with the approval of changes in the budget law and the budget guidelines law. Therefore, there was a reduction in the number of active servers, accumulation of services and delays in the granting of benefits administered by the agency.
The manual of consolidation of standards and procedures of people management updated by Decision Order No. 621 DGP / INSS, of 12/29/2016 is outdated in relation to the services provided by the INSS in SOGP – (Section of Personnel Management Operations), in the Executive Management. This manual aimed to consider in an accessible and transparent way the entire normative structure applicable to personnel matters, providing its application by the Personnel Management Units.
Currently, SOGP has a shortage of servers and due to the modernization of the system, some services provided there have been changes, for example: the residence allowance, which consists of a paid portion paid to the public servant, exercising an effective position who has implemented the rules for voluntary retirement, remain in activity, according to EC no. 41, of December 19, 2003. This service is not applicable at this time.
In the table below, there is a comparative table of the regulatory structure applicable in 2016 X 2019/2020:
Table 1: Comparative table
|Standards and procedures||2016||2019/2020|
|Accumulation of positions||ü|
|Clearance for training course||ü|
|Removal for elective mandate||ü|
|Removal to participate in national sports competition or call to integrate national sports representation, in the country or abroad||ü|
|Utilization and availability||ü|
|Certificate of contribution time||ü||ü|
|Contribution to the server’s social security plan||ü||ü|
|Designation and dispensation function: fg, fcte fcpe||ü||ü|
|Right to plead||ü|
|Transportation and external service indemnity||ü|
|License to adopter||ü||ü|
|License to accompany spouse or partner||ü||ü|
|License for political activity||ü|
|License for mandatoo-class ist performance||ü|
|License to deal with private interests||ü||ü|
|Health treatment license||ü||ü|
|Sick leave in person from the family||ü||ü|
|License award for attendance||ü||ü|
|Appointment and dismissal of committee positions||ü|
|Appointment in public office of an effective nature||ü|
|Vacancy of effective public office||ü|
Source: Prepared by the authors
After observing this comparative picture, it is noticed that the changes occurred were numerous. These transformations have adapted to the INSS Strategic Map and the technological modernization seen previously. Although there are measures to reduce the public service queue, there is a lack of incentive and strength of active public employees to continue the work. You can represent the service process through the flowchart below:
Given this catastrophic scenario that the Institution has suffered for years, the government has taken steps to make this situation a different course with legal and technical support. The INSS created the task force to reduce the stock of benefits on hold, as the delay directly impacts the economy. The legislation provides that no insured person should wait more than 45 days to have the benefit analyzed. If it exceeds this period, the office may have a loss, because it will have to pay the amounts retroactively with the monetary correction.
On February 28, 2020, due to the urgency, the President adopted Provisional Measure 922 for the temporary hiring of employees of exceptional public interest, creating new possibilities for all federal agencies and amending Law No. 8,745 of December 9, 1993. Specifically the INSS, it is a more economical instrument as an emergency measure and strategic plan for reducing procedural liabilities or accumulated workload. The hiring is inactive public servants and inactive military in broad competition and public call notice directed to the service to the public and the granting of analysis of administrative processes of social security benefits provided that do not require legal prerequisites.
The forecast for the benefits queue waiting for an INSS response to be zeroed between August and October. However, in early February the COVID-19 pandemic arrived in Brazil, confirming community transmission on March 20, 2020. Thus, measures were taken and the closure of agencies would be necessary to control the new Coronavirus.
Even with all agencies closed for public service, INSS employees are working from home because of quarantine, directed for benefit analysis, including those servers that were on the part of the service. According to the president, Leonardo Rolim, and according to the latest data of April 7, 2020, the total number of requests awaiting answers is 1.805 million, 505,000 of which have already analyzed, which, however, lack some information or complementary document of the insured. Currently, BPC (Benefit of Continued Benefit) for disabled people ranks first in the index of number of waiting requests, with 485,000 requests in line. While in second place, there are 333,000 requests for retirees by contribution time and thirdly appears 298,000 applications for retirement by age.
The analysis of this article indicates that the deficit of servers is one of the problems faced by the INSS currently and, in turn, promotes others such as the delay in the analysis of processes, queues in agencies and accumulation of services.
According to Law 8.112, of December 11, 1990, the hiring of servers is by prior qualification in public tender, but in order to reduce the number of lawsuits on hold, on February 28, 2020, the president adopted Provisional Measure 922, on an emergency basis.
In opposition, despite being economically more suitable for the current moment, it vetoes the possibility of generating new jobs for civilians through public procurement. That said, it is important to evaluate the importance of solving the problem in the root cause, taking into account the consequence of these long-term decisions.
Through Decree No. 9,739 of March 28, 2019, the competence for authorization to conduct public tenders in the organs and entities of the direct, municipal and foundational federal public administration is assigned to the Minister of State for The Economy.
From Recommendation No. 19/2019, the Federal Public Prosecutor’s Office recognizes the need for a public tender for the INSS, however, considering the fiscal situation of the country, the possibility of opening a new notice decreased considerably, and in this scenario, the Ministry of Economy did not authorize the request. However, when assuming the position of the INSS, President Leonardo Rolim declares in his first exclusive interview, the need to hire qualified public servants and tenders, even if it is not possible at this time.
Although measures such as new trends in people management and strategic management have been implemented, the low number of active servers is unable to effectively meet. Therefore, it is emphasized that the servers can achieve their individual goals, but this is insufficient to meet the current demand, resulting in the overload of these employees.
Emphasizing the need to find a redarguição to the absence of their capacity to meet the growing demands and be effective in meeting the needs and needs of their users, it is reached the definition that the solution to these problems definitively, is in the granting of public tenders to fill the size of staff deficit. However, during the current period, in which there is no possibility for this, the Institution needs competent management in order to coordinate the situation, seeking solutions at a given time.
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 Graduation of Public Administration.
 Graduation of Public Administration.
 Graduation of Public Administration.
Submitted: September, 2020.
Approved: October, 2020.