The female insertion in the labor market and its implications in the family's eating habits

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

SOUZA, André Luiz Alvarenga De [1]

SOUZA, André Luiz Alvarenga De. The female insertion in the labor market and its implications on the family's eating habits. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. 04 year, Ed. 07, Vol. 12, pp. 49-64. July 2019. ISSN: 2448-0959

SUMMARY

This article deals with the eating habits of women inserted in the labor market and those who work at home said "from home". The methodology used is quantitative, through convenience sampling, where the researcher made the distribution and collection of the questionnaires from the sending via Google Docs by e-mail and these emails were selected through a listing of Electronic mail referring to the researcher's own contacts. The questionnaire used was a structured questionnaire, where the respondents chose the answer options. The data analysis technique used was frequency distribution and data crossover. The research was conducted in the city of Campo Grande/MS, capital of Mato Grosso do Sul, which now has an estimated total population of 786,797 inhabitants (IBGE, 2010) with a projection for 2015 of 853,622 (IBGE, 2015). The guiding or problematic question of this article was to discuss the impact on the eating habits of families resulting from the insertion of women in the labor market.

Keywords: eating habits, labor market, women.

1. INTRODUCTION

The female population comes each day growing more and according to statistics of the Own (IBGE, 2010) indicates a total female population of 97,348,809 in Brazil, data that encompass from 0 to 80 years or more and of all races, already the male population in the same range and and races is 93,406,990. This demonstrates the great feminine demand for the most varied types of services, employment and income.

If we do a historical analysis referring to the insertion of women in the labor market, we can observe that in 1827 there arises the first law that allows women to attend schools and have some kind of social conviviality different from their domestic chores (EDUCATING FOR GROW,2009).

Brazil is a country with strong lack of records and historical information, but if we go deep we can observe that the struggle of the Brazilian woman for its recognition and subsequent entry into the labor market comes from long before the proclamation of the Republic, the Which culminated in the elaboration of two great laws, signed by Princess Isabel: (LAW of the FREE WOMB 1871) and (LAW ÁUREA 1888).

The woman has always occupied and occupied an important role in society and in families, in 1,962, with the entry into force of the statute of the married woman, the woman was freed from male authoritarianism, which culminated with successive laws in his favor until the promulgation of Federal Constitution of 1,988, which reinforces the role of women in society. Men and women are equal in rights and obligations, (ART 5 º C. F1988).

At this moment from the recognition of their rights women have had access to countless information and benefits related to society which contributes to the various modifications in the family structure that we can see nowadays. In the NINETEENTH century there was a movement referring to the feminine Cultural Revolution, which benefited the whole condition of the working women who gradually acquired rights and professional appreciation.

In verifying this historical context, we can affirm that the disappearance of the Artisan society led women to seek work in factories and industries, which forced them to accept wages lower than men. All this resulted in the exploitation of the feminine labor and the ills of the time linked to feminism which culminated in the insertion of women in industrial society.

With the occupation of the father and the mother in the jobs of the industry, the education of the children was in check, because the country (man) began to delegate the education of their boys the mothers, mothers who started working outside. In the First World War, by sending its preceptors to the battlefields women are obliged to perform the functions exclusive hour of men and also functions of offices, trades, public services and even liberal professions, which boosted The elevation of their degree of education and consequently their economic and personal aspirations, moving to perform another role within the family.

With the end of the Second World War, they see assured in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the consecration of their rights, without distinction of sex, equaling, for all intents and purposes, men and women.

As established (UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN RIGHTS 1948, ART 23):

§1.     Every person has the right to work, free choice of employment, fair and favourable working conditions and protection against unemployment.

§2.     Every person, without distinction, is entitled to equal remuneration for equal work.

§3.     Every person who works is entitled to a fair and satisfactory remuneration, which assures him, as well as his family, a existence compatible with human dignity, and which will add, if necessary, other means of social protection.

However, the female insertion in the labor market is one of the examples that can contribute to the alteration in the eating habits of women and their families, because still many women are responsible, even working outside, by the preparation and direction of Your family's menu on the day to day of the house. (LELIS, TEIXEIRA E SILVA 2013, p. 102), affirm that "women, by tradition, are the main responsible for the food activities of the family in general".

This is also clear when viewed by the prism of (SILIPRANDI apud. LELIS, TEIXEIRA E SILVA 2013, p. 101), when he states that "women are seen as an ' instrument ' with which the families ' food security will be attained, that is, they tend to be guardians of the welfare of other family members."

(GARCIA 1997) argues that the professional placement and independence of women directly affect the structure of food and cause an organization of values and habits that can bring consequences in the family food pattern.

Thus the cost and time devoted to the family and the preparation of food, are directly linked to the demand of shorter preparation time, because the modern woman wants to participate more actively in the life of her family and demonstrate the society a greater commitment of Family affective Viewpoint. This consequently leads to ingestion by the family of processed products and often even fast food.

For (BORGES and FILHO 2004), the study of eating habits is essential not only in what consumers acquire in terms of food, but also the factors that permeate the choice of these foods.

Other authors such as (RODRIGUES and KNOW 2006) and (SCHLINDWEIN and KASSOUF 2007), emphasize that when people feed off the home, they intrinsically are acquiring personal values in their daily lives and that with the insertion of women in the world of work and the lack of time for the choice of food, this has affected the feeding of families and the way of preparing food in their homes. This denotes that feeding away from home with the family ceased to be sporadic to become something habitual among the families of the 21ST century.

Which is directly incurred in the health of the family and also in its dietary diet. For (LAMBERT, et al 2005), there is a modification of the traditional diet for a diet in which people prefer products ready to

Consumption or products that require little dedication during their preparation, such as those already cooked or pre-cooked.

Within the perspective of analyzing and investigating the female condition in the labor market, we can orient that the research was based on the female population working outside the home and the women considered "home" who somehow also work and produce Something for society.

The guiding or problematic issue of this article is the eating habits of the families of women who work outside and those who work only at home. Objective is to check the eating habits of families with housewife who works outside and with housewife who does not work outside.

2. METHODOLOGY

The methodology used is quantitative, through convenience sampling, where the researcher made the distribution and collection of the questionnaires from the sending via Google Docs by e-mail and these emails were selected through a listing of Electronic mail referring to the researcher's own contacts.

The questionnaire used was a structured questionnaire, where respondents chose the answer options, a questionnaire containing 20 questions.

The research was conducted in the city of Campo Grande/MS, capital of Mato Grosso do Sul, which now has an estimated total population of 786,797 inhabitants (IBGE, 2010) with a projection for 2015 of 853,622 (IBGE, 2015).

Campo Grande is a city considered an agricultural center, with many universities and mainly focused on services and public functionalism, being its economy focused on these highlights. The specific audience of the present study consisted of women who worked in the most diverse areas and economic segments of Campo Grande/MS and in the most varied professions and women considered "home".

In the process of obtaining data on women, we opted for the data of the (IBGE, 2010) that indicates a female population of 263,241 in the city of Campo Grande/MS, in the ages of 20 to 65 years or more, among which 126,464 are economically active and formally ( ROOT/MTE, 2014).

The samples were collected with total impartiality, secrecy and ethics and all this data collection process took place from 01/10/2015 to 02/12/2015 and resulted in a total of 100 questionnaires sent and with 40 completed answered and validated. In the process of submitting the questionnaires, the reason why the research was being carried out was explained and whether they were interested in spontaneous participation.

The data were analyzed through the socioeconomic profile of the women, being observed and studied the variables as, age of the interviewed; Marital status; Education Current employment situation; income in minimum wages; Number of children; Number of children living with them; If they have a housemaid and whether or not the maid cooks for them; How many meals you usually make daily with your family; With whom he usually performs the meals; The presence of the family during meals is considered important; Who is responsible for the purchase of food from your home; What kind of food is most purchased, consumed in your home; In eating out of the home (self-service, fast food, a la carte), you and your family, usually feed with which frequency; If she likes to make meals out of her home; Whether she considers her and the nourishment of her healthy family; How much on average does she usually spend on a meal like lunch or dinner when she goes out with her family or even alone; If she and her family have a habit of eating at the table; If she and her family, during the week or until weekends have the habit of eating marmitex.

What sought to identify and clarify the light of scientific research the changes occurring in the eating habits of the family of these researched with their insertion in the labor market and the types of food consumed by their families. The two groups of women working abroad and women working at home were surveyed. Another important detail raised was also whether this audience likes to feed off their residence and the values they are willing to spend on it. Also checked the difference of weekend meals and during the week their habituality.

3. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

The woman nowadays occupies several roles in society, but nowadays there is a great distinction when we talk about women inserted in the world of work.

We can observe that (SOARES and IZAKI 2002), reinforces the issue of women in the world of work in their quotation:

One of the most notable changes in the post-war labor supply has been the great increase in female participation in the search for employment and occupation. Although the phenomenon was already incipient before World War II, soon after women entered heavily into the labor market. According to Goldin (1990), in the United States, women went from 18% of the economically active population (PEA) in 1900 to 32% in 1960 and 46% in 1992. It was a change seen throughout the Western world and Brazil did not escape its effects — in Brazil women were 32% of the EAP in 1977 to 46% in 2001, closing in 24 years the hiatus that American women closed in 32. It is a phenomenon of great importance, because its impact was felt in the two institutions most present in the life of most individuals — the family and the workplace.

We can affirm that the expressive increase of women in the labor market is something that comes from the change of society in a whole, new families are constituted by diversities which also generates a great social impact and habits.

Social changes affect eating habits and, for example, we can highlight the phenomenon of urbanization and other circumstances of the modernity of cities. The circumstances of everyday life have implications in the relationship of the individual with the environment in which he lives, reflecting in such a way, mainly in the act of eating and relating to feeding, causing alterations in these aspects (MARINHO et al., 2007).

We know that the woman is the person who decides what the family will eat, the menu of the week.

This same woman works outside and does not have the time available to make these separations and the preparation of these foods, as would be the feeding of the families in this case.

The fact is that the intensification of the population increase, the increase in urbanization of the cities and the departure of the woman from home to the labor market changed the dynamics of families in the context of relationships and also of food. We can highlight that according (LAMBERT et al. 2005), the lack of regularity of meals and their individual character are also consequences of the change in the life rhythm of the individuals.

This denotes that further investigation is needed in terms of female insertion in the labor market and its implications for the family's dietary habits.

According to Lelis, Teixeira e Silva (2013), according to the Family budget Survey (POF) conducted by IBGE, Brazilians have been diversifying their food, decreasing the consumption of traditional and more basic commodities, such as rice and beans. In the urban area stood out the increase in consumption of ready or processed products, such as salt bread, stuffed biscuits, yoghurt, vitamins, sandwiches, fried and roasted salted, pizzas, soft drinks, juices and beer (IBGE, 2011).

These data indicate a strong family demand for ready-to-eat, semi-ready and fastfood foods, which actually generates a change in the food characterization of 21ST century families.

Table 1: Demissions and variables for the analysis of female insertion in the labor market and its implications in the family's eating habits.

Dimensions Variables
Socio-demographic Schooling level;

Income in minimum wages;

Sex

Age

Has children;

Marital status;

How old are your children who still live with you?

Behavioral Number of children who live or not with the respondent of the questionnaire;

Do you have a maid? And she cooks for you?

How many meals do you usually do every day with your family?

Who do you usually make meals with?

Do you consider the family's presence important during meals?

Who is responsible for buying food from your home?

What kind of food is more purchased, consumed in your home?

When eating out of the home (Sel fservice, fast food, a la carte), you and your family, do you often eat with what frequency?

Do you like to dine outside your home?

Do you consider your and the feeding of your family healthy?

How much on average do you usually spend on a meal like lunch or dinner when you go out with your family or even alone?

Do you and your family have a habit of eating at the table?

Do you and your family, during the week or until weekends have the habit of eating Marmitex?

Source: elaborated by the author himself

The analysis technique for the treatment of data, which was used, refers to the analysis of frequency distribution and data crossover.

4. DISCUSSION AND RESULTS

Table 1: Intersection P7 with P8

Count of P 8 P 8
P 7 3 or more meals Up to 2 meals
I don't have a maid and I'm the one who cooks my family's food. 30,77% 69,23%
Yes, I have a maid and she cooks for me. 28,57% 71,43%
Yes I own bad maid I am myself that I cook the foods of my family 0,00% 100,00%

Source: elaborated by the author himself

In this table through the crosses of the variables P7 and P8, we can observe that 100% of the interviewees who have maids, even having them make a point of preparing the family food when it does up to 2 meals together, from 3 Meals or more 28.57% prefer the maid to prepare the meal.

Another considerable data to be observed is the ratio of 69.23% of women who do not have a domestic housekeeper and cooks the food of their family.

Table 2: Crossing P8 with P9

Count of P 9 P 9
P 8 With husband and children (family) With friends At work Alone
3 or more meals 100,00% 0,00% 0,00% 0,00%
Up to 2 meals 60,00% 3,33% 3,33% 33,33%

Source: elaborated by the author himself

In table 2, through the crosses of the variables P8 with P9, referring to the number of meals and with whom, we observed that up to 3 meals the women do with their own family and that up to 2 meals they do with friends, at work or even alone.

Table 3: Crossover P8 with P12

P 8
P 12 3 or more meals Up to 2 meals
I myself 3 13
Myself, my husband 7 17
Overall Total 10% 90%

Source: elaborated by the author himself

Through the intersection of these variables P8 and P12, which refer to the number of meals and who makes the purchases for the house, an inversion with respect to table 2. Here we found that 90% responsible for purchases related to household food are the women themselves and 10% of this total is shared with husbands who also do domestic purchases.

Table 4: Crossing P8 with P13

Crossing of variables P 8 WITH P 13 Percentage
Frozen foods of various categories and semi ready 33,9%
Vegetables, greens and fruits 87,5%
Meat 51,9%
Canned and inlaid (ham, sausage, mortadella) 60,0%
Organic foods 32,5%

Source: elaborated by the author himself

This table brings us one of the main data regarding the type of food consumption made by the families of these women surveyed, showing us an overview of feeding in the face of an overview of families.

These data are from the intersection of the variables quantity of meals made daily with types of food purchased in supermarkets. Given the data we detected that 87.5% of the surveyed consume vegetables, vegetables and fruits in their homes and that before a habit considered healthy an item drew attention that is the consumption of canned and inlaid type (ham, sausage, mortadella) that are not Considered as healthy with a percentage of consumption of 60%.

In face of the meats this public had a consumption behavior referring to 51.9%, this means that the percentage is directly linked to the consumption of animal protein and that in more than 50% of the households surveyed is present in the daily diet of the families.

In the consumption of frozen foods of various categories and semiready we have a percentage of 33.9% of consumption by the families surveyed an index higher than those of organic foods answered by the surveyed who behave with percentages of consumption in 32.5%.

Table 5: Crossing of P15 with P17

Count of P 15 P 15
P 17 No Yes
From R $10.00 up to R $30.00 36,36% 63,64%
From R $101.00 up to R $300.00 28,57% 71,43%
From R $31.00 up to R $50.00 30,77% 69,23%
From R $51.00 up to R $100.00 22,22% 77,78%
Overall Total 30,00% 70,00%

Source: elaborated by the author himself

When we take care of things and relate them to values, we have the impression of the perceived value that people give or put into things. In view of this we can verify that the percentage of people who prefer to eat out that represents 70% of the surveyed is much higher than those who prefer to cook and prepare their own food at home that represent 30% of them and also do not care about the Financial value of food consumed by the family or by themselves when consuming alone in restaurants, but there is a percentage of very expressive expenditure for a single meal that corresponds to R $51.00

Up to R $100.00 and this to 77.78% of respondents who prefer to eat outside the home. If we observe those who do not like to eat outside of their home we detect that these researched are in the consumption range of meals with a price of R $10.00 up to R $30.00 and correspond to 36.36% of the surveyed.

Table 6: Crossing P8 with P14

Count of P 14 P 14
P 8 Above 5 times a week Up to 2 times MA week 3 to 5 times per week
3 or more meals 0,00% 80,00% 20,00%
Up to 2 meals 3,33% 80,00% 16,67%
Overall Total 2,50% 80,00% 17,50%

Source: elaborated by the author himself

In the variable that measures the number of meals to the detriment of the number of times the surveyed usually eat out of the house alone or with the family we have the variables in number of times in the week that shows us that 80% make 2 to 3 meals in the week away from home. With regard to the number of 3 to 5 times in the week we have 17.50% who make 2 up to 3 meals out of the house and above 5 times a week we have 3.33% of the surveyed who eat out.

Table 7: Crossing P8 with P17

Count of P 17 P 17
P 8 From R $10.00 up to R $30.00 From R $101.00 up to R $300.00 From R $31.00 up to R $50.00 From R $51.00 up to R $100.00
3 or more meals 40,00% 40,00% 10,00% 10,00%
Up to 2 meals 23,33% 10,00% 40,00% 26,67%
Overall Total 27,50% 17,50% 32,50% 22,50%

Source: elaborated by the author himself

This table relates to table 5, but here we have the amount of meals made weekly to the detriment of the price paid by the researched to eat out of your home.

We verified that the emphasis is on the feeds that prestigious the prices of R $10.00 up to R $30.00 and R $101.00 up to R $300.00 with a percentage of 80% of the surveyed. Those who make up to 2 meals prefer the pricing of R $31.00 up to R $50.00 and correspond to 40% of the interviewees.

Table 8: Crossing

Count of P 20 P 20
P 8 1st degree 2nd degree Doctorate Complete higher Education Incomplete higher education Masters Graduate
3 or more meals 0,00% 10,00% 30,00% 30,00% 10,00% 0,00% 20,00%
Up to 2 meals 16,67% 16,67% 10,00% 16,67% 6,67% 6,67% 26,67%
Overall Total 12,50% 15,00% 15,00% 20,00% 7,50% 5,00% 25,00%

Source: elaborated by the author himself

As seen in many researches, this table denotes the importance of schooling in people's lives, because it is a determinant factor for the health of individuals.

It is observed in this study that the higher the level of schooling is also the longer the time of presence in food with the family, because interviewees who have doctorate and post graduation correspond to 50% of the interviewees who make 3 or more meals at home with The family. The people who possess the 1st degree up to the complete upper level, passing by the incomplete superior and master, have a total of 50%, the observation is valid because here we took 3 categories differently from the previous one that measured only 2.

When we compare up to 2 meals with the family, within the variables 1st degree, 2nd degree and incomplete higher education, we verified that the corresponding value is 40% of the interviewees. With respect to those who possess, complete top level, post graduation, master's or doctoral degree, the level of 2 meals with the family rises to 60.01%.

5. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

Within the perspective of the study object of this article, which is directly linked to the female insertion in the labor market and its implications in the family's dietary habits, this study may conclude that the woman is a preponderant factor in the feeding of her Family, she is directly and indirectly responsible for the health of everyone in the house, she working outside or only at home.

This was very clear in the study on the variables researched and crossed, where we observed that women are responsible for shopping in supermarkets and who also love to go out to eat outside their homes, having an incidence in this habit of 70% in Total of the researched.

This study also found a very important point that are the eating habits of the researched and their families showing us that in 50% of the households of the surveyed the consumption of animal protein in Natura meat is frequent and 87.5% of the surveyed Consume vegetables, vegetables and fruits in their homes which is a habit considered healthy. In 60% of the interviewees their food and family also have doses of canned and inlaid type (ham, sausage, mortadella) that are not considered so healthy. Another highlight for the study is the consumption of frozen foods of various categories and semi-ready we have a percentage of 33.9% of consumption by the families surveyed against 32.5% of the organic foods consumed by the respondents.

This paper presents its limitations of methodological order, which comes from the fact that people tend to respond in the way they consider socially correct and in this case, do not specifically report their reality (LIMA FILHO 2009). The study aimed to highlight the importance also of the degree of education of people to the detriment of the number of meals they make daily and obtained important data that corroborate for future research in the context of food consumption and habits Women in the labour market and their families.

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[1] PhD student in Education, master in Business Administration, postgraduate degree in distance education, postgraduate in people management, graduation in administration, Social work, technology in human resources management, pedagogy.

Submitted: April, 2019.

Approved: July, 2019.

 

PhD Student in Education, Master in Business Administration, Post Graduate in Distance Education, Post Graduate in People Management, Graduate in Business Administration, Social Work, Technology in Human Resource Management, Pedagogy.

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