The increasing use of Matrix Structures in public administration

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NUNES, Erick Limoeiro [1], UCHÔA, Bruno Hage [2], BEZERRA, Rosa Cristina Ferreira [3], ASSUNÇÃO, Samarony da Silva [4], AGUIAR, Kellie Naisa Mendonça [5], CARDOSO, Leandro dos Santos [6], MEDEIROS, Elis Regina Bezerra de [7]

NUNES, Erick Limoeiro; et.al. The increasing use of Matrix Structures in public administration. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. 03 year, Ed. 07, vol. 02, pp. 18-38, July 2018. ISSN:2448-0959

Summary

The purpose of this article is to address the increasing use of matrix structures in public administration. The organizational matrix, advanced fundamentally as a network of interactions between project teams and the functional components. Particularly, the matrix organisational structure is noted by the merger between the Functional organisational structure with the Departmentalization of project or product. In matrix organisational structure, a work team is decided and crosses organizational boundaries. The commitment of employees to the organization only exists when the goals we aim to achieve are aligned with the goals and expectations of managers. If the success of the Organization depends on the achievement of strategic objectives of the Organization, such a goal is only possible when employees know and recognize as their own. The developer will strive in the same measure and proportion in that meet the company's strategic intentions and review them. The communication strategy will be able to support themselves in their own internal communication channel, the intranet, newsletters, for example. Managers must identify challenging goals for your customers, define internal processes, plan the financial performance and growth. The definition of goals leads to measurement of the same compromising employees in reducing the runtime of the tasks; in the introduction of consolidated products on the market and increasing your training and skills.

Keywords: Matrix Structures, public administration, Organizational Structures, planning.

1. Introduction

The Organizational Matrix, advanced fundamentally as a network of interactions between project teams and the functional components. Particularly, the matrix organisational structure is noted by the merger between the Functional organisational structure with the Departmentalization of project or product (BENICIO; CASTRO FILHO, 2007; SILVEIRA JÚNIOR; VIVACQUA, 2014).

In matrix organisational structure, a work team is decided and crosses organizational boundaries. A project manager is determined for each project, and these are managed as differentiated activities, focused on your goals. The coordination problems that plague other projects, are reduced by the matrix organisational structure, considering that the most relevant to the achievement of a goal, work in a group with established hierarchy in the array of projects. In this structure, people keep associated with their respective functional units and move on-only organization to develop a given project.

Such dynamic body enables the reuse of work teams, taking into account that projects occur in large quantity and the professionals follow each other, exercising different activities in each one of them, according to your expertise and the skills essential to each enterprise. This article is interesting, viable, relevant to the academic community and can contribute to more extensive work, with a view, your scientific character.

2. Planning and projects

2.1 Planning

Administrator functions are to plan, organize, direct and control, while others feature an examination of the routine activities and the need for a global vision of the unit as a way to make the decision-making process (BENICIO; CASTRO FILHO, 2007; SILVEIRA JÚNIOR; VIVACQUA, 2014).

 Figure 1-management processes source: Available in: <http: thiagomendonca.com.br/index.php?q="node/14" srcset=
.</http:> Access in: 25 Feb 2018.” width=”533″ height=”360″ />
Figure 1-GestãoFonte processes
: Available in: <http: thiagomendonca.com.br/index.php?q="node/14">.</http:> Access in: 25 Feb 2018.

The resulting process planning of the function of the Administration plan, the definition of the goals to be achieved and decide early appropriate actions must be taken to achieve these goals.

Fundamentally, this is a process which determines where they want to reach (a situation or a State), to map how to get there, goals as efficiently as possible (SILVA, 2003; SCHNEIDER; SAMSON, 2012)

Planning translates as a target to be achieved. The process to reach this target is called goals.

According to Soto (2003, p. 2),

It is necessary to define the goals, asking about your meaning within the institution, as is understood, as is generated, at which time it is possible to obtain results, which the expected impact and cost of delay, which the expected difficulties and the experience required. This work to clarify and explain the problems rearranges the understanding of issues, integrates the various points of view, reflects the trends in concrete action plans and gather practical experience and opportunities for improvement.

It is important to check your feasibility (can you do?), relevance (worth doing?), responsible (who does?) and effectiveness (as do well?). For a good planning is necessary to answer the following questions:

a) what should be done? Defines and outlines the guidelines of the upper echelons that serve as guides to the lower echelons. Consists of the policies the guidelines of the organization.
b) why should it be done? It concerns a matter to define the real need of the activities.
c) Where should be done? This issue takes into account the location and space and the centralization and decentralization of activities.
d) When should it be done? This issue takes into account the time required, the beginning and the end of each part of the proposed activity.

Are attributes of a planning, according to Soto (2003):

  1. It is a permanent and continuous process;
  2. Is always focused on the future;
  3. The objective rationality of the decision-making process;
  4. Consider selecting one among numerous options;
  5. Refers to a technique of resource allocation;

Consists of a technique of changes and innovations.

Figure 2-sequential Process of planning. Source: Administrative Functions. Available in:<http: pt.scribd.com/doc/8594846/funcoes-administrativas="" srcset=
. Access in: 25 Feb 2018.</http:>” width=”602″ height=”201″ /> Figure 2-sequential Process of planning. Source: Administrative Functions. Available in:<http: pt.scribd.com/doc/8594846/funcoes-administrativas="">. Access in: 25 Feb 2018.</http:>

2.2 strategic planning

The diagnosis is the first step in the strategic planning, where he analyzes the strengths and weaknesses that the company reveals, and then the opportunities and threats that the company is subject. The second step concerns the definition of the mission and vision of the Organization, that is, the raison d ' être of the company and the explanation of what the company thinks about, respectively. Based on the mission and vision of the company is that the goals are designed in a simple and objective. And finally the definition of the strategies with creativity and originality (OLIVEIRA, 2008).

2.2.1 strategic planning Concept

Strategic planning is not only in a static document, the same should be designed as a dynamic instrument of management, which features early decisions regarding the horizon of performance to be met by the Organization towards the fulfilment of your mission (ALDAY, 2000, MINTZBERG, 2004).

One can observe the quotations from authors up to the strategic planning differs from a basic planning, exactly by present a peculiar guideline and not only a target to achieve.  There is no magic formula when it comes to strategic planning, the model or structure to be applied is attached to many internal and external aspects.

There are various methodologies for development and implementation of strategic planning, but in general all follow the same line of reasoning to determine some stages to be met: Strategic Diagnosis; definition of the mission and vision of the company; definition of objectives and strategies.

The strategic planning process relates, in the long run, and still very relevant for organizations. With respect, therefore in a function in high rate, is through him that the Manager and your team determine the parameters that will guide the company's organization, the conduct of the leadership, as well as the activities control (MINTZBERG; AHLSTRAND;  LAMPEL 2000). Strategic planning needs to be challenging and doable for what can be an effective management tool.

2.2.2 the strategy and project management

The Project Management Institute (PMI), brought together the best project management practices used around the world, which are introduced in various sizes and areas, and developed a publication called PMBOK (Project Management Body of Knowledge) (COHN, 2005).

Figure 3-strategy and project management source: available at: <http://www.fee.unicamp.br/ieee/Arquivo%20Fundamentos%20de%20Gerenciamento%20de%20Projetos.pdf srcset=
. Access in: 26 Feb 2018.” width=”614″ height=”366″ /> Figure 3-the strategy and the management of Pro
jetosFonte: available at: <http://www.fee.unicamp.br/ieee/Arquivo%20Fundamentos%20de%20Gerenciamento%20de%20Projetos.pdf>. Access in: 26 Feb 2018.

This publication presents various worker processes, each with a range of techniques and instruments, to be used during the five stages of a project, which, as mentioned, are: initiation, planning, execution, control and submission.

Such a set of processes and techniques is accepted worldwide as a standard quite plausible to introduce in projects of all types and complexities, and is regarded as a set of contemporary project management techniques (COHN, 2005).

What are the advantages to adopting these techniques? Rises significantly the likelihood of your project achieve the objectives for which it was developed, within the time scheduled, and within the expected cost. And that's a big advantage, taking into account that it is a fact that most of the projects is finalized in late and with cost above the predicted (DELEMOS, 2008).

Work processes were organized by PMI in nine areas of knowledge. For example, the management of scope is in one of these areas, and handles all the processes necessary to initiate a project, plan the scope of the project, determine how scope changes will be addressed during the project, to control the scope and so successively (DELEMOS, 2008).

Similarly, the cost management consists of another knowledge area, which deals with the realization of cost estimates, budgets, development of techniques to control project costs, etc. (DISNMORE, 2004).

Figure 4-Steps of a project management process. Source: available at: < http://www.fee.unicamp.br/ieee/Arquivo%20Fundamentos%20de%20Gerenciamento%20de%20Projetos.pdf. Access in: 26 Feb 2018.
Figure 4-Steps of a project management process. Source: available at: < http://www.fee.unicamp.br/ieee/Arquivo%20Fundamentos%20de%20Gerenciamento%20de%20Projetos.pdf. Access in: 26 Feb 2018.

2.2.3 design concept

According to the PMBOK Guide (2004) project concerns a provisional effort undertaken to develop a product, service or result. By offering temporary prerogative, offers beginning and end well.

In this tuning fork, a design consists of a product, service or upcoming results, an end item or item component, a software, a search, a document (HARRIS, 2001).

Operations are different, this is temporary, ending when all phases are completed, while transactions have aimed to keep the business by adopting a new set of goals and steady work. Systematize projects activities that cannot be addressed within the operational constraints of an organization, reaching in this way a strategic plan can be one or more of the following (KEELING, 2002):

the) market demand.
b) organizational Need.
c) request from a client.
d) technological advancement.
and) legal requirement.

As an example one can cite: a custom software development company to a project for development of a new software that is able to calculate a person's future based on statistics and the history of your life (KERZNER, 2002).

2.2.4 project management Concept

The PMBOK Guide (2004) determines the project management as the application of the following processes: initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and controlling, and closing. The project manager is responsible for the implementation of the goals, and their functions: identifying needs; the determination of clear goals and achievable; balancing the conflicting demands of scope, quality, time and cost; Adaptation of the specifications and plans.

According to the PMBOK (2004, p. 9) "project management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques in project activities in order to meet the requirements of the project"

There are three aspects that influence on the quality and management of a project: scope, time and cost of the project. Once one of these aspects is changed at least another aspect will be influenced by your turn (PMBOK, 2004).

For an effective project management is essential for the team to understand and make use of the knowledge and skills of at least five areas of specialization (LARMAN, 2004):

the) the body of knowledge in project management;
b) Knowledge, rules and regulations in the area of application;
c) Understanding the environment of the project;
d) interpersonal skills.

2.2.5 life cycle and project organization

Project managers can rate projects in early stages and final stages, thus achieving a better management control, known as the life cycle of a project (LARMAN, 2004; Tavares, 2008).

A lifecycle commonly defines the work to be done at each step; When and how deliveries are parsed and validated; who are the people or departments covered and how to make the control and approval of each stage (PMBOK, 2004; SCHWABER, 2004).

The description of the life cycle may contain forms, charts and checklists (check lists) providing structure and control. Life cycles may share common attributes, such as sequential steps and determined by some form of transparency and technical information, costs are reduced at the beginning, reveal maximum value in intermediate steps and decay at the end (PMBOK, 2004).

Figure 5-life cycle of a project. Source: available at: <http://www.fee.unicamp.br/ieee/Arquivo%20Fundamentos%20de%20Gerenciamento%20de%20Projetos.pdf srcset=
. Access in: 27 Feb 2018.” width=”632″ height=”298″ /> Figure 5-life cycle of a project. Source: available at: <http://www.fee.unicamp.br/ieee/Arquivo%20Fundamentos%20de%20Gerenciamento%20de%20Projetos.pdf>. Access in: 27 Feb 2018.

3. Matrix structures in public administration

The organizational structure is the essential component for a company to stay focused on your goals. Mission, vision, values and strategies of market are fundamentaras of mechanisms for the definition of the structure.

Organizational structure refers to the systematic set of responsibilities, authorities, communications and decisions of organizational units of an organization. Is the way in which the activities are classified, organized and coordinated by promoting impact on organizational culture. The structure of an organization is directly associated with your strategy and covers physical, human factors, financial, legal, and economic management (CHIAVENATO, 2015).

The matrix organisational structure or Matrix Organization, concerns a kind hybrid of Departmentalization, in which teams made up of people from various specialties, is intended to run with privileges temporary. She advanced from the traditional Functional organisational structure, associated with the dynamism of the project or product structures. Such kind of arrangement of organization, enables if assume as auxiliary instrument calculations and computing elements of mathematics known as "Matrix theory" (CHIAVENATO, 2015).

3.1 Concepts and sources of matrix organizations

In order to enhance the efficiency, decentralize the authority and responsibility, and close control of the companies of the managers, organizational theorists have established various forms of classified the Organization in subunits. The goal was to achieve an orderly arrangement of interdependent organizational parts, which named it if departments.

The process of Division of organizational structure in departments, receives the name of departmentalization, and appears as an integral part of the process of delegation of power and your respective authority (HAMPTON, 2010).

The organizational matrix, advanced fundamentally as a network of interactions between project teams and the functional components. Particularly, the matrix organisational structure is noted by the merger between the Functional organisational structure with the Departmentalization of project or product. In matrix organisational structure, a work team is decided and crosses organizational boundaries.

A project manager is determined for each project, and these are managed as differentiated activities, focused on your goals. The coordination problems that plague other projects, are reduced by the matrix organisational structure, considering that the most relevant to the achievement of a goal, work in a group with established hierarchy in the array of projects. In this structure, people keep associated with their respective functional units and move on-only organization to develop a given project (OLIVEIRA, 2015).

Such dynamic body enables the reuse of work teams, taking into account that projects occur in large quantity and the professionals follow each other, exercising different activities in each one of them, according to your expertise and the skills essential to each enterprise. The great thing about this approach is that resources are optimized and experts, with a view that is terminated the project – step–while the final product goes to production, these professionals return to their respective functional bodies, or are reassigned to new projects.

The researchers call the attention to the fact that the adoption of a matrix model demand a revolutionary change in the way of thinking and behaviors of employees.

3.2 matrix Structure

Consists of stage one of the contemporary structures, with a view to combining the functional structures and products. The matrix reveals two dimensions: i) functional managers and product managers) or projects. The proposed matrix structure consists of meeting the organisational needs of expertise and coordination (VALENCIA, HEMSLEY, 2015; DAYS, ZAVAGLIA, 2015).

Figure 6-matrix organizational structure. Source: available at: http://www.adminconcursos.com.br/2014/07/estruturas-organizacionais.html
Figure 6-matrix organizational structure. Source: available at: http://www.adminconcursos.com.br/2014/07/estruturas-organizacionais.html
Figure 07-Matrix Structures. Available at: https://brainstormdeti.wordpress.com/2010/06/08/estruturas-organizacionais-e-projetos srcset=
. Access in: 17 mar 2018.” width=”577″ height=”315″ /> Figure 07-Matrix Structures. Available at: https://brainstormdeti.wordpress.com/2010/06/08/estruturas-organizacionais-e-projetos/>. Access in: 17 mar 2018.

Therefore, the lateral coordination is optimized, while in the chain of command and vertical coordination is devitalized. The principle of unity of command ceases to exist, considering that each department passes a double subordination. In these respects, the matrix emphasizes the interdependence between departments and demand a need to encounter a complex environment.

The use of matrix organisational structure, the range of alternatives available to the organization is advanced, and the authority of the project manager or product becomes wide, being pegged to the priority level and the type of project. Once the project manager has extensive authority under most of the project factors and relates to it full time, is this project Matrix structure, entitled still by some authors as Strong Matrix (matrix) ( GIGLIOTI, 2006).

Once a project manager has limited authority, and is related to this project only part-situation in which functional managers have wide influence in the activities of the project-this type of structure is named Functional matrix, also called by some authors as Weak Matrix (Low Matrix). There is also a Balanced Array, which represents a middle ground between the previous definitions. Therefore, we have:

  • Functional array: project management is performed by the Manager, through the coordination of different managements of functional areas;
  • Balanced matrix: the Manager is named for the project and interacts in the same bases with functional managers;
  • Array of projects: the authority is performed by the project manager, who is responsible for your closure, making use of your authority to mobilize resources and establish work teams.
Figure 08-Functional Matrix. Source: available at: https://brainstormdeti.wordpress.com/2010/06/08/estruturas-organizacionais-e-projetos srcset=
. Access in: 17 mar 2018.” width=”579″ height=”295″ /> Figure 08-Functional Matrix. Source: available at: https://brainstormdeti.wordpress.com/2010/06/08/estruturas-organizacionais-e-projetos/>. Access in: 17 mar 2018.
Figure 09-Balanced Array. Source: available at: http://jkolb.com.br/estrutura-organizacional-matricial-balanceada srcset=
. Access in: 17 mar 2018.” width=”446″ height=”371″ /> Figure 09-Balanced Array. Source: available at: http://jkolb.com.br/estrutura-organizacional-matricial-balanceada/>. Access in: 17 mar 2018.

In a survey that sought to assess the role of the project management model in 546 cases of success (GITMAN, 2005), it was found that projects counting only with the functional organization, or with the Functional Matrix, were less successful than those that used a Balanced Array, array of designs, or a team of independent project. When your shift, the array of projects, obtained better performance than the Balanced Array as it pertains to meet deadlines and was better than the team of Project cost control-agnostic.

The hierarchy within the matrix organisational structure, is still impacted by factors outside the Organization, with a view that is common to many projects suffer external pressures, so that there is only one person or team in the centralization of control of project, with which the dialogue with the client, even though internally the project is driven by shared authority between the functional and managers of projects or products.

Figure 10-Array designs. Available in: <https: brainstormdeti.wordpress.com/2010/06/08/estruturas-organizacionais-e-projetos/="" srcset=
.</https:> Access in: 18 mar 2018.” width=”575″ height=”325″ /> Figure 10-Array designs. Available in: <https: brainstormdeti.wordpress.com/2010/06/08/estruturas-organizacionais-e-projetos/="">.</https:> Access in: 18 mar 2018.

4. Methodological aspects

Second Chinazzo, Mattos and Weber (2008) the clarity is a fundamental quality of a text. Must be selected expressions that signal with as accurately as possible the problem is analyzed and the results achieved. The language requires the exemption of any ambiguity (CASTILHO, 2014).

Scientific research is tied to a "set of intellectual and technical procedures" (GIL, 2008, p. 8), so that its objectives are achieved: the scientific methods. Scientific method refers to a set of processes or mental operations that we must sweat in the process of investigation. This is the line of reasoning adopted in the research process. The methods that match the logical bases for research are deductive, inductive,: hypothetical-deductive, dialectic and phenomenological (PRODANOV; FREITAS, 2013). The method used is the deductible.

As for the research is exploratory purposes. According to Vergara (2009), exploratory research is made in an area in which the accumulated knowledge is scarce and systematized. Due to the nature of your poll is not chance. When your turn the descriptive research presents certain attributes population or of a given phenomenon. Although you do not have the commitment to explain what describes, gives rise to information about specific situations and associated companies in order to provide a full preview.

As for the means, the bibliographical research. The bibliographical research presents bibliographic character, taking into account that uses books, newspaper and magazine articles on the subject. The bibliographical research consists in the systematic investigation based on material published in books, magazines, newspapers, electronic networks, namely, material available to the general public (VERGARA, 2009).

As to the methodological aspects, the research is qualitative type. According to Vergara (2009), qualitative research focuses on factors of reality that cannot be measured. Qualitative research is based on small samples and provides a better understanding of the context of the problem.

As for the research is exploratory purposes. According to Vergara (2009), exploratory research is made in an area in which the accumulated knowledge is scarce and systematized. Due to the nature of your poll is not chance. When your turn the descriptive research presents certain attributes population or of a given phenomenon. Although you do not have the commitment to explain what describes, gives rise to information about specific situations and associated companies in order to provide a full preview.

As for the means, the bibliographical research. The bibliographical research presents bibliographic character, taking into account that uses books, newspaper and magazine articles on the subject. The bibliographical research consists in the systematic investigation based on material published in books, magazines, newspapers, electronic networks, namely, material available to the general public (VERGARA, 2009).

This research is exploratory qualitative slant as that "responds to very particular issues".  Marconi and Lakatos (2008, p. 43-44) claim that the bibliographical research "this is the survey of the entire bibliography ever published in the form of books, magazines, paper publications in print {electronic documents].

The authors emphasize that "your purpose is to put the researcher in direct contact with everything that has been written about a particular subject, in order to allow the scientist to strengthen parallel in the analysis of their research or handling of your information".

Already in the design of Silva and Mark (2001, p. 21) "the literature search is crafted from already published material, consisting mainly of books, journal articles and currently available material on the Internet". According to Marconi and Lakatos (2008, p. 66), bibliographical research "encompasses the entire bibliography ever published in relation to the term of study".

Final considerations

When the macro dimension contemporary markets, it is possible to verify a constant growth trend in levels of competitiveness, affecting both world-class companies as smaller companies. As a way to stay competitive in today's market, companies are seeking new strategic resources able to provide them with more efficiency and effectiveness (efficacy) in their management processes.

The process of Division of organizational structure in departments, receives the name of departmentalization, and appears as an integral part of the process of delegation of power and your respective authority.

The organizational matrix, advanced fundamentally as a network of interactions between project teams and the functional components. Particularly, the matrix organisational structure is noted by the merger between the Functional organisational structure with the Departmentalization of project or product. In matrix organisational structure, a work team is decided and crosses organizational boundaries.

A project manager is determined for each project, and these are managed as differentiated activities, focused on your goals. The coordination problems that plague other projects, are reduced by the matrix organisational structure, considering that the most relevant to the achievement of a goal, work in a group with established hierarchy in the array of projects. In this structure, people keep associated with their respective functional units and move on-only organization to develop a given project.

Such dynamic body enables the reuse of work teams, taking into account that projects occur in large quantity and the professionals follow each other, exercising different activities in each one of them, according to your expertise and the skills essential to each enterprise. The great thing about this approach is that resources are optimized and experts, with a view that is terminated the project – step–while the final product goes to production, these professionals return to their respective functional bodies, or are reassigned to new projects.

The researchers call the attention to the fact that the adoption of a matrix model demand a revolutionary change in the way of thinking and behaviors of employees.

The present research notes that the best way to organize a company consists in that it allows an increased performance of preparation and flexibility in the face of market fluctuations, providing you with competence in accepting challenges and making use of opportunities, in ensuring the satisfaction not only of your potential customer base, but above all of its employees, partners needed for a successful enterprise. Another aspect noted is the ability of the matrix structure confer on your power line the overarching all departments of the company (it can be called as horizontal power structure), resulting in the observation of all the departmental prerogative, of the form in which the processes are more homogeneous and better results in the field of quality.

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[1] Graduated in law by the Lutheran University Center of Manaus and specialization in administrative law by Universidade Candido Mendes. Acts as public servant of the Manaus free Zone Superintendence (Suframa), as Administrative Analyst

[2] Graduation in Public Management and Fiscal responsibility at the Brazil open-ESAB, acts as public servant of the Manaus free Zone Superintendence (Suframa), in charge of administrative and Technical Analyst.

[3] Graduated in business administration from Universidade Federal do amazonas, post-graduate degree in public administration from the Candido Mendes University. Acts as public servant of the Manaus free Zone Superintendence (Suframa), in charge of administrative and Technical Analyst.

[4] Graduated in business administration from the State University of Amazonas, a postgraduate degree in public administration from the Candido Mendes University. Acts as public servant of the Manaus free Zone Superintendence (Suframa), in charge of administrative and Technical Analyst.

[5] Degree in Accounting at CIESA, post-graduate degree in corporate finance from University Gama Filho. Acts as public servant of the Manaus free Zone Superintendence (Suframa), as Administrative Analyst

[6] Graduated in economics from the Federal University of Goiás, postgraduate degree in public administration from the Candido Mendes University. Acts as public servant of the Manaus free Zone Superintendence (Suframa), as an economist

[7] Graduated in business administration from Universidade Federal do Amazonas, a postgraduate degree in public administration from the Federal University of Amazonas. Acts as public servant of the Manaus free Zone Superintendence (Suframa), in adminship.

DEIXE UMA RESPOSTA

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