SOUZA, André Luiz Alvarenga de. MASSUDA, Sabrina Inácio. From exclusion to the dream of homeownership, an overview of the FNHIS program in the city of Rochedo – MS. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. 04 year, Ed. 12, Vol. 01, pp. 67-81. December 2019. ISSN: 2448-0959
The study verified how the population of the city of Rochedo/MS, through a time frame, responded to the social housing intervention, which had as main actor the National Fund for Housing of Social Interest. The research was carried out through a comparison of the database between 2009 and 2013, when the construction project of popular housing units took place and the delivery of these units to those contemplated in the municipality of Rochedo/MS. It is preponderant to say that public policies are tools that the State has to intervene in the social reality. In Mato Grosso do Sul, it could not be different from the rest of the federation, because regional inequality is also present. This research has its purposes related to exploratory nature, with quantitative and qualitative techniques for data interpretation. It was found that the intervention through the processes of social technical work was of great value to the community. The evolution of the HDI of this population is concluded, bringing development and life expectancy to the community.
Keywords: Social technician, housing, public policies, social work.
This study aims to verify how the population of the city of Rochedo/MS responds to a social intervention, which has as one of the main actors the National Fund for Housing of Social Interest (FNHIS), which allows to serve families who do not have proven income or still live from some kind of benefit provided by federal, state and municipal public policies. This research took place through a comparison of the database already formulated between 2009 and 2013, when the construction project, social technical work and delivery of houses in the municipality of Rochedo MS took place.
Brazil is undergoing a major change in its social scenario, a political crisis is in place and, consequently, the economic crisis that has been eroding the worker's wages putting him on high alert. Faced with this fragile economic environment and the great desire to acquire immovable property, this whole scenario puts the salaried worker or even the one who receives some kind of social monetary assistance in disharmony with the desire to realize one of the greatest dreams of Brazilians, which is to have a home of their own. Own house that can, become only a residence, but as the dream is great, and goes beyond, thus becomes a home. However, in order for this dream to come true, the Government must provide public policies to make it possible. Among the public policies that exist today in Brazil, we must emphasize that they are interconnected, and that they must be due to their social character, instruments of inclusion and liberation.
As we can see Nabil Bonduki (1998) highlights social inequality as follows:
The social inequality of Brazilian cities has its causes in the ways in which society was organized, in particular, in the way in which the Brazilian State was built, marked by patrimonialism, in which the public and private interest are confused, in the dynamics of exploitation of labor imposed by the dominant elites since the colony and, mainly, in the absolute control of these elites over the process of access to land , both rural and urban. (Bonduki, 1998, p. 56).
This post states that in the Brazilian Federal Constitution of 1988 that: "Social rights are education, health, food, work, housing, leisure, security, social security, protection of maternity and childhood, assistance to the helpless, in the form of this Constitution".
BACKGROUND AND PROBLEMATIC
Mato Grosso do Sul, by tradition, is a state focused on agribusiness and by nature a very eclectic state, being also a state rich in territorial extension which has as its vocation the reception of several Brazilians from the most varied regions of Brazil and foreigners for bordering Paraguay and Bolivia. In the 1960s during the government of Juscelino Kubitschek (JK) there was a great investment in industrial development culminating in the opening of the economy to international capital and with several multinationals settling in Brazil. The result of this was a large rural exodus that took people from their homes in the interior of the cities, causing them to go to the big centers. Migrants fleeing unemployment were in search of work and better living conditions, this process extended strongly during the 1970s and 1980s.
As the central focus of the research, we opted for the City of Rochedo /MS because it is a city of the interior distant 74km from the Capital Campo Grande, which had a significant increase in population referring to the year 2010 with 4,928 inhabitants for an estimate in 2014 of 5,205 inhabitants, an increase of 5.6% compared to 2010 IBGE (2010 and 2014) and which received the benefit of the National Social Interest Housing Fund Program (FNHIS) to a group of 50 families. Among several approaches, the relevance of researching this theme was established, justifying that when we consider that the act of living is intrinsic and at the same time an indispensable phenomenon to human life. Nevertheless, it is a worldwide human right, guaranteed and protected by International Conventions and the Brazilian Federal Constitution of 1988.
The objectives are to measure the social dynamics present in the families involved after social intervention in the municipality of Rochedo/MS and to evaluate a set of predetermined indicators indicating the evolution of the family in the post-intervention. First, the study is characterized and the research stages are presented, describing the population and sample, variables studied, data collection procedures and analysis techniques. This research will use quantitative methods to obtain its initial and final results. This approach has the concept known as positivist and, post-positivist nowadays and for Creswell (2007) this premise "have governed the claims about what guarantees knowledge".
Secondary data were also used for research analysis and were obtained through federal agencies, books and articles on popular housing programs of social interest. This research has its purposes related to exploratory nature.
For Vergara (2007) exploratory research, which should not be confused with exploratory reading, is carried out in an area in which there is little accumulated and systematized knowledge. Exploratory research is of paramount importance because it allows an investigation about the facts that still need more information.
The data collection, which of this research was a structured questionnaire for the 50 families surveyed, while the analysis and interpretation of the collected data took place through a comparison with an existing database that was elaborated during the project between the years 2010 to 2013.
PUBLIC SOCIAL POLICY AND THE STATE
Public policy dates back to the 1960s and 1970s, emerging as a significant subfield within the discipline of Political Science as Sabatier (1995) states, adding that Daniel Lerner and Harold Lasswell are demonstrated by some scholars as pioneers in works about it. From the moment we put ourselves and are willing to study public policy, we verify the steps that make up the process of formulating them, we deepen and know the main activity of the State, which is to prepare the policies and consequently mediate them, implement them, monitor them and evaluate them.
According to Silva (2014), this is the procedural part, constructed of delimited steps, which rationalizes an order so that we can have the minimum of organicity in what we call public policy. First, it should be noted that public policy is a set of decisions and not an isolated decision, it interconnects with other policies that together form a virtuous complex of social encompassing.
Rua (2009) states that although a public policy implies political decision, not every political decision comes to constitute a public policy.
Through various perspectives, it is essential to establish the need to know some of the different approaches given to the meaning of public policy. In order to understand and evaluate public and social policies implemented by a given government, it is fundamental to understand the State and Social Public Policy that sustain such actions and programs. Among the many functions performed by the State, the role that it plays in our society has undergone numerous transformations over time. With the deepening and expansion of democracy, the responsibilities of the State have diversified deeply in the face of the entire socio-cultural context and human dynamism, it is common to affirm that the role of the State is to promote politics for the well-being of society.
The State is a complex, historical and relational concept in this sense Pereira (2008) defines the state as follows:
The State is both a relationship of domination, or the political expression of the domination of the bloc in power, in a territorially defined society, and a set of institutions that mediate and regulate this domination, with attributions that also go beyond coertion. In this context, the government gains its own legal persona, separated from both the physical persona of the ruler and the state institution. (PEREIRA, 2008: 148).
The State arose transversally from the need for rupture between barbarism and civilization. It is perceived that the State does not exist disconnected from a historical process and does not have the same characteristics everywhere. The policies are the responsibility of the State regarding the implementation and maintenance from the decision-making process involving public agencies and different bodies and agents of society, related to the policy implemented. Among the steps that the State comes from within public policies it is important to highlight that the State has the power to control them, manage them and create methods and procedures for them to be applied. Thus, we can consider that Public Policies are the State in action, and especially the State implementing a government project, through programs, actions aimed at specific sectors of society. The social policies implemented in Brazil have great international repercussions being copied by several countries, these policies (usually understood as those of education, health, social security, housing, sanitation, etc.) refer to actions that determine the standard of social protection implemented by the State, aiming at reducing structural inequalities, produced by socio-economic development and boosting the social policy of the country. There is no significant divergence as to the responsibility and need for state interference in the process of combating poverty; discussions focus on how the State should carry out such intervention. It is a fact that public policies, tools available to the State to interfere in the social and economic reality, are precisely where the main divergences reside. In Brazil, more specifically in Mato Grosso do Sul, it could not be different from the rest of Brazil, because regional inequality is present in many levels and different dimensions.
Another important point worth resuming is that the UN within the Universal Declaration of Human Rights in article 25 states that: "every person has the right to a standard of living capable of ensuring himself and his family health and well-being, including food, clothing, housing, medical care and indispensable social services (…)" (UN, 2011).
In Brazil, the Federal Constitution of 1988 is an extremely important milestone for the entire social protection system that we find established today, but still due to bureaucratic consequence and corruption, there are some factors that can conjunctally expand or reduce the possibilities of serving the rights of low-income workers who seek this social care in the hope of changing their lives.
According to Ribeiro (2007), it is a fact that the issue of housing focused on the most impoverished extracts of the subaltern classes integrates the concerns of Brazilian governments since the imperial era.
From the perspective of social inclusion and the fight against poverty, they must necessarily go through the provision of housing in adequate conditions for the population in a state of social vulnerability, since it is a good of strong impact on poverty reduction in any locality in Brazil. We can emphasize that there are important documents of international protection of human rights, such as the right to housing that is provided for in the Vancouver Declaration on Human Settlements (1976), Declaration on Development (1986), agenda 21 (1992), and recognized as a human right especially in the Habitat Agenda adopted by the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements , Habitat II26, held in Turkey in June 1996.
In the Habitat II Agenda, the first mention of the right to housing is found in Chapter II regarding goals and principles as part of paragraph 13, as follows:
We reaffirm and are guided by the purposes and principles of the Charter of the United Nations and we reaffirm our commitment to ensure the full realization of human rights from international instruments, in particular in this context the right to housing set forth in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and provided by the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights,[…] taking into account that the right to housing included in the above-mentioned international instruments must be progressively realized[…].
The Habitat II Agenda, a document resulting from the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, presented as one of the global themes the "Adequate Housing for All", offering in its art. 43, the following concept of what is suitable housing:
[…]adequate privacy, adequate space, physical accessibility, adequate safety, including security of tenure, durability and structural stability, adequate lighting, heating and ventilation, adequate basic infrastructure, as well as water supply, sanitation and waste treatment, appropriate environmental and health quality, and adequate rental with respect to work and basic services and all these components should have an affordable and affordable cost.
Therefore, the understanding of human rights, especially in the Habitat II Agenda adopted by the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, reminds us that the right to housing must be promoted and protected by the Brazilian State since it establishes this in its Constitution.
Verify that economic, social and cultural rights are fully effective, generating the immediate obligation to Brazil to establish the necessary measures and implement these precepts. Yet the exclusions and intolerable injustices, the social tension looms as inevitable, and under the historical impunity so often dotted, envisioning who knows one day the true equality between the classes.
SOCIAL POLICY IN HOUSING
Given the prospect of enabling public housing policies, the best known today is the Minha Casa Minha Vida Program (PMCMV), created by Law No. 11,977 of March 2009, with the purpose of promoting housing for the low-income population. This program provides popular housing financing with low interest rates to families with monthly income of up to 10 minimum wages, who reside in any Brazilian municipality, thus providing their insertion into the program.
It is worth reskipping some historical aspects about popular housing in Brazil first of all, in the 1960s that occurred for the first time in the country, the structuring of a national housing policy: Federal Law No. 4,380 of 08/21/1964 created the National Housing Bank – BNH. With the deficiency of clear proposals for intervention in the housing sector, bnh is extinguished in 1986, being incorporated by caixa Econômica Federal. With the extinction of BNH in 1986, the federal government was absent from the formulation of a public housing policy that went beyond isolated programs that underwent constant change. In the 1980s, 1990s and early 2000s, favelas grew explosively due to low economic growth and lack of investment in housing policies. The year 2005 was a milestone in the housing issue, was implemented the new National Housing Policy through Law No. 11,124/2005 that provides for the National System of Housing of Social Interest – SNHIS and in 2006 through Law No. 11,124 created the National Fund for Housing of Social Interest – FNHIS and establishes the Management Council of FNHIS. This bill, which spent 13 years in the national congress, being the first bill of popular initiative that waited the longest number of years to be approved. It is perceived that the establishment of the National Housing System of Social Interest can be considered an advance for brazilian national policy based on the strengthening of federative agreement. The FNHIS is linked to the SNHIS and the NHP (National Housing Plan), both by pooling public resources to subsidize housing to low-income families, and by defining a decentralized management model that encourages the participation of several agents with a view to overcoming the country's housing deficit. (BRAZIL, 2010 b, p.6).
According to Abiko (1995), the term "housing of social interest" represents a concept beyond the provision of housing to the low-income population.
The National Fund for Housing of Social Interest (FNHIS) meets the interests of many Municipalities and residents in conditions that are not ideal as established by the UN and the Federal Constitution of Brazil, in this context we can observe that Matos (2001) indicates a clear definition on housing:
(…) housing is lived and inhabited, and in this double dimension its identity and its own social function are built. Housing satisfies, in the society in which it is integrated, a set of functions, such as shelter and reproduction of the family, and is also a fundamental element in the construction of individual personality, social integration and socialization, besides being a space of consumption, production of goods and services, leisure and communication. (MATOS, 2001, p. 2)
The observation that can be made about meeting the expressed housing needs of the working classes leads us to complex and structural issues, related to the functioning of capitalist societies and theirs as a whole through historical thinking. Housing production has a direct relationship with the production of urban space, which constitutes a primordial element for the allocation and social well-being of individuals, giving them dignity. The country's population growth is observed, the urban population that was 18.8 million in 1950 rises to 160.9 million inhabitants in 2010 and with a perspective of 220 million for 2019.
FAMILY VULNERABILITY AND CONSTRUCTION OF FAMILY SOCIAL INDICATOR
The development of social development indexes through census data has been improving every year, but the main problem of these indices is the large lag in its time window, no longer really being a tool that shows the true social face in that exact year or moment. From this perspective, the study presents the construction of the social diagnosis of 50 families benefited by FNHIS in the city of Rochedo in the interior of Mato Grosso do Sul. We can highlight that the measurement of population data is something historical and is directly linked to the development of man in its fullness. The Human Development Index (HDI) internalizes internationally recognized variables that are of paramount importance for variations in per capita income and degree of poverty applicable to more or less developed contexts.
Jannuzzi (2003) adds that a social indicator is a generally quantitative measure with substantive social significance, used to replace, quantify or operationalize a social concept of theoretical (for academic studies) or programmatic (for the formulation of public policies).
In view of the facts exposed, we highlight the concept of vulnerability in the face of social indicators that has been much addressed and employed in numerous situations becoming a central object of other scholars, but with regard to the creation of indicators there is above all an effort to identify vulnerable groups and spaces (places and regions) and their main causes. The evaluation of the living conditions of the populations, in the places where they live, remains a priority of the analysis in the applied social sciences, even when everything indicates that the economic exclusion is greater than the inclusion garcia; Matos (2007).
Brazil is a country with large territorial extensions and concentrates populations with the most distinct cultures and socioeconomic conditions, these factors corroborate the country's situation of significant social inequality.
It is common place to affirm that Brazil is a country characterized by inequalities. (…) the problem of the country's imbalances cites the imbalance between individuals (…) and the imbalance between regions, it is worth saying, the problem of interregional income inequality. (PESSOA, 2001).
In view of the conceptual presentation on family vulnerability and the construction of an indicator for the measurement of family evolution, we can affirm that an indicator has the perspective of expanding abstract concepts, transforming them into numbers. In the face of these aspects, three basic dimensions were defined for the indicator: education, income and housing. Given the formulation of an indicator that evaluates the indexes of social insertion, it is essential to understand that the family coverage of the results is valuable information.
According to IBGE, Demographic Census 2010, the formation of the Village of Rochedo began in 1931, when a wave of northeasterners, especially Bahians, Alagoans and Pernambuco, camped on the right bank of the Aquidauana River, in an attempt to discover possible diamond moccasins like what had already occurred along the route of that river. The efforts of these people, after exploration in exploration, were compensated by the discovery of rich diamond deposits. Later the remnants of this village turned their attention to agriculture, livestock and timber extraction.
The history of Rochedo is very interesting, but its human and social aspects leave much to be desired with regard to the dignity of the human person, because it is a poor municipality with few jobs and opportunities. We can observe that the municipality also has a significant housing deficit because it is a municipality with less than 10,000 (ten thousand) inhabitants. According to data from the IBGE Census 2010, the total population of the municipality was 4,928 residents, of whom 152 were in extreme poverty, that is, with per capita household income below R$ 70.00. This means that 3.1% of the population lived in this situation. Of the total of extremely poor, 86 (56.7%) lived in rural areas and 66 (43.3%) in the urban environment. The Census also revealed that in the municipality there were 17 children in extreme poverty in the range of 0 to 3 years and 3 in the range between 4 and 5 years. The group aged 6 to 14 years, in turn, totaled 18 individuals in extreme poverty, while in the group aged 15 to 17 there were 18 young people in this situation. Twelve people over 65 years of age were recorded in extreme poverty. These data corroborate even more for the research, as they show a social reality through a prism of an official government institute. The study is in line with the wishes of the vast majority of populations living on the margins of society, in social exclusion in the face of their housing face. We can observe the glaring social fragility of people who are of extreme production ages ranging from 18 to 59 years, totaling 55.5% of the population. Of the total number of extremely poor in the municipality, 76 are women (49.7%) and 77 are men (50.3%). Of the total population in extreme poverty in the municipality, 49 (32.2%) classified as white and 103 (67.8%) as blacks and 17 (11.2%) declared black and 86 (56.6%) Browns. A data also that draws much attention in relation to inclusion and social exclusion is that according to the 2010 census, there were – extremely poor individuals with some mental disability; 13 had some difficulty to see; 6 to listen and 9 to get around.
Another amazing data of the municipality raised by the 2010 CENSUS was the schooling of individuals who, of people over 15 years of age in extreme poverty, 15 could not read or write, which represents 14.7% of the extremely poor in this age group. Among them, 12 were heads of household. Among other data collected by the same survey in 2010 was that in the municipality there were 17 children from 0 to 3 years in extreme poverty not attending daycare, which represents 100.0% of extremely poor children in this age group. Among those aged 4 to 5 years, there were 03 children out of school (100.0% of extremely poor children in this age group) and, in the group of 6 to 14 years, there were 03 (17.1%). Finally, among young people aged 15 to 17 in extreme poverty, 03 were out of school (17.7% of extremely poor young people in this age group). Another information that also fits into a level of important relevance, this related to social equipment, such as electricity, water, sewage, garbage collection and number of bathrooms in the house, the 2010 CENSUS is that 3 extremely poor people (2.0% of the total) lived without light, 27 people (17.5%) 128 people (84.0%) had no access to the sewage network or septic tank and 90 people (58.9%) they did not have garbage collected and in relation to the number of bathrooms in the household 6 extremely poor people (4.0% of the total) did not have a bathroom in their homes.
Through these data we can make a comparison referring to the database provided by the company Triady Consult, related to a group of 50 families from the city of Rochedo – MS which was the beneficiary of a social program of popular housing in 2013 with the delivery of 50 houses that served a group of 50 families totaling an intervention number referring to 163 people , by taking these families out of extreme poverty and giving them dignity. Social Technical Work is the set of actions that aim to promote autonomy and social protagonism, planned to create mechanisms capable of enabling the participation of beneficiaries in the decision-making processes, implementation and maintenance of goods/services, adapting them to social needs and reality.
Through the field research conducted with 100% of the population benefited to compose social technical work, between 2010 and 2011 the following data were synthesized:
- The population is composed of 94% female Heads of Family, 6% male, 2% carrier of Special Need /Disabled and 8% of elderly.
- Regarding age, the population is predominantly adult-young, with 23% up to 25 years, 21% between 26 and 30 years, 22% between 31 and 40 years, 18% between 41 and 50 years, 10% between 51 and 60 years and 6% over 60 years of age.
- Of the Civil State, 36% of the population is single, 26% is amicable, 22% married, 8% separated, 4% divorced, 2% widowed and 2% stable union.
- The family composition of the benefited population is composed as follows: 32% of the population live with 02 people in the house, 22% live with 03 people, another 22% live with 04 people, 10% live with 05 people, 6% live with 06 people and 2% live with 07 people and 6% live alone. We also found that 32% of the population have 02 children who live together, 26% have 01 children who live together, 26% have 03 children who live together, 04% have 03 children who live together and 12% do not have children who live together.
- Of education, 18% are literate, 48% have incomplete elementary school, 2% have completed elementary school, 2% have incomplete high school, 24% complete high school and 6% have completed higher education.
- The monthly family income of the beneficiaries is low income, most do not receive the amount of a minimum wage, 46% have monthly family income from R$ 100.00 to R$ 500.00, 32% from R$ 501.00 to R$ 700.00, 16% from R$ 701.00 to R$ 1,000.00. As for the socioeconomic situation of the benefited population, 26% are unemployed, 50% are self-employed, 26% are employed, 4% are retired.
- The Secretariat of Social Assistance of the Municipality of Rochedo reported that the beneficiaries of housing units participate in social programs, 64% of which participate in the programs and 36% do not participate.
- In the housing aspect, 25% of the beneficiaries live in a house that was given/borrowed, and 25% in rented housing.
- As a means of transport they use bicycles, since the municipality does not have public transportation and none of the beneficiaries have a car or motorcycle.
We can characterize that these data obtained between 2010 and 2011 reflect the temporal reality of that time when they had not yet received the 50 Housing Units of Social Interest.
Given the whole scenario presented by the research, it was found that the intervention through all the processes of social technical work was of great value to the community. The data obtained after occupation, composes a fabulous database, where it shows us the evolution of the HDI of this population, bringing the light of development and a new life expectancy to the community. A post-occupation survey was carried out in 44 of the 50 housing units as of July 20, 2014, the 06 houses that were not visited were closed, but all 50 beneficiaries have already moved to the housing units. During the visit, they answered the visit questionnaire in which it is tabulated on the next pages and signed a post-occupation visit list, in which it is annexed to this report. All the objectives proposed in the PTTS were met, in which all the activities proposed in the PTTS were developed efficiently and effectively. In the course of the development of the project we were faced with positive situations of achievements, in which the beneficiaries were enthusiastic and actively participative with the themes of educational campaigns, workshops and income generation courses. Each meeting was motivating to see and feel each person delivered with enthusiasm, bright eyes and reports of help in each other's lives, it was very gratifying.
The challenges encountered we can say that it was at the time of political campaigns, when there was election for mayor there were many rumors that the beneficiaries who were not of the party such would not be contemplated with the houses, with this we had many enlightening conversations and meetings with the beneficiaries to understand the real functioning of the program and demystify such rumors. The methodology chosen in each stage was adequate and met the objectives proposed in the activities. The community was involved and it was very motivating the return to team of social technicians involved, professionals and partners involved also responded to our expectations with help and great partnerships. A very important point raised within the meetings with the borrowers beneficiaries of the program, was the size of the houses, because in the case of families with a very deficient level of education, many have a high number of children, which within the houses provided by the program end up being small to accommodate the whole family.
The point of improvement presented by the borrowers benefiting from the program was that the size of the land is great, but the size of the house needs to be reviewed. In view of all the systematization of the work exposed, it is worth mentioning that in the Habitat II Agenda, a document resulting from the United Nations Conference on Human Settlements, presented as one of the global themes the "Adequate Housing for All", offering in its art. 43.
Concluding this work, we can clearly point out that the issue of housing is one of the predominant factors for the dignity of the person as a citizen and his family, through this very peculiar look and facing the new challenges to be faced with constant cuts of public funds for social projects to think of new strategies for improving the quality of life of the population in a state of social vulnerability.
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______. Lei Federal 11.124, de 16 de junho de 2005. Dispõe sobre o Sistema Nacional de Habitação de Interesse Social – SNHIS, cria o Fundo Nacional de Habitação de Interesse 15 Social – FNHIS e institui o Conselho Gestor do FNHIS. Disponível em <www.cidades.gov.br>, acessado em (Agosto de 2015).
 Doctorate in progress in Education. Master's degree in Business Administration. Ongoing specialization in TEA – Graduate Degree in Autism Spectrum Disorder. Specialization in Distance Education. Specialization in MBA People Management. Graduation in progress in Pedagogy Degree. Graduation in Business Administration. Graduation in Social Work. Graduation in Human Resources Management.
 Specialization in Specialization in Distance Education. Bachelor's degree in Psychology. Bachelor's degree in Psychology.
Submitted: October, 2019.
Approved: December, 2019.