SILVA, Nilza Sebastiana da; SILVA, Fábio José Antônio da. Dyslexia and the difficulty in learning. Multidisciplinary scientific journal, Year 1, Vol. 5, pp. 75-87 July 2016, ISSN:0959-2448
The present research aims at bibliographic discuss dyslexia as one of the serious problems in the teaching-learning system that interferes with the ability of reading, understanding of words, writing, spelling, as well as the understanding and interpretation of texts and activities that involve logical reasoning. The present study is justified in order to disclose the elucidações that are present in the educational segment, and, as a central objective to describe dyslexia, symptoms, causes, diagnosis, and the possibilities of intervention by education professionals. The school as responsible for the development of the educational potential of children must have in their teachers and educational professionals team for dyslexia and learning disability are diagnosed as soon as possible and be directed to a treatment on specialized professionals and take initiatives that propitiate pedagogical activities that go to the Dyslexic student. Every process and every school procedure is to conduct the student with dyslexia to overcome the barriers, where the professor must have an attitude of welcoming, of patience, tolerance, perseverance and educational programs to support and aid in the development of this child. The present work was to imprint with bibliographic research in scholarly works and authors with deep knowledge about the theme.
Keywords: Dyslexia. Learning disability. Disturbances. Reading. Writing.
The choice of theme is based on the perception that is very little disseminated the dyslexia study in the training of teachers in General.
The present work proposes as the central goal seek information and contributions that are correlated with the difficulties of writing and reading in personal and educational development of children believed to be suffering from Dyslexia.
It is also proposed to study concepts, definitions, characteristics, main symptoms, identification of physical and intellectual components, its recognition by the family and educators, to observe what are the possible actions and strategies of teachers, her role as an educator and facilitator of the learning process and the means to work pedagogically with a child with dyslexia.
It is assumed that the discussion about the problem of dyslexia is one of the most prominent barriers in the everyday classroom, expressed the commitment of the child’s ability to read, understand the handwritten or printed words, writing and spelling words, as well as the understanding of texts and logical reasoning.
In rapid words, dyslexia is regarded as a disturbance or difficulties in learning and in the language, not being, however, the diagnoses related to this factor, consider and detected as dyslexia, because other factors may be influencing the learning of the child.
As will be seen in the course of this study dyslexia is a learning disorder that affects children, adolescents and adults at different educational levels, hindering the acquisition of reading and writing.
It is understood that there is a definition of strategies and intervention on the part of the teacher, is of extreme importance to the diagnosis and evaluation of dyslexia, and from the educator-specific data will give a more specific forwarding supported activities with an emphasis on reading and writing.
For there to be a confrontation of this problem within the school context it is necessary that the school be aware and conscious of its responsibility in the analysis and in the note to the students that present difficulties and/or disorders in terms of reading and writing, and, being that to note cases of dyslexia as the elementary language difficulty, should be treated even , by specialized professionals such as doctors, Audiologists, psychologists, educational psychologists and at the same time, it is the school taking initiatives denoting the construction of methodologies for the student with dyslexia, collaborating with this student to overcome barriers through effective strategies in line with the collective contribution of the school institution.
So there is a positive, efficient and appropriate care that fosters the student feel able, adjusted to the school environment, the involvement of the family is of the utmost importance, since it is she, the family, which has the greatest contact with the individual, taking a position to provide relevant information for the preparation of the process both medical as pedagogical enterprise’s character.
Such measures and preventions, preparatory measures and a posture of confrontation, will allow the school welcoming students with dyslexia, without necessarily modifying its educational curriculum projects.
It is intended that this study on the learning disabilities and dyslexia in context, contribute to academics and professionals working in the field of education and has the responsibility to report to society the importance of this syndrome in the cultural context it produces directly and/or indirectly to all involved in the middle.
The present study was the investigative measures, which sought to understand a little more about the dyslexia disorder. Bibliographical research resources used based on theoretical references like books, scholarly articles, academic papers and Internet that allowed a support in the construction of the proposed.
2. A BRIEF OVERVIEW ON DYSLEXIA
Are diverse the way of understanding what is dyslexia, primarily in middle school.
Are recorded as a result of poor literacy, methodological fashion used in schools of early childhood education, the preparation of education professionals, inattentive student, labeling of “dumb”, “lazy” and other variants.
Figueira (2012) analyzes it’s common to hear when it comes to theme dyslexia, correlated with the word disease. Currently is a wrong term, because in reality it is a difficulty, a congenital hereditary order disorder. As there are different levels of dyslexia (mild, moderate and sharp), the duration of the professional supervision is not need and can reach up to four on average.
Complements Figueira (2012) that it is worth remembering that such monitoring is not a cure, because there is no cure. This is to provide a means for the Dyslexic may walk with their legs.
Cândido (2013, p. 13) says:
[…] Dyslexia is a learning disorder characterized by difficulties in reading, interpreting and writing. Their cause has been investigated and several theories attempt to explain the why of dyslexia. There is a strong tendency that relates the origin to genetics and Neurobiology.
According to Fonseca (2011) the basic concept of dyslexia expressed “difficulty of speech or the diction”. From a behavioral standpoint, dyslexia is characterized by difficulties in correct recognition of words and ability to decode them.
Fonseca (2011) also emphasizes that in the vast majority of definitions, the lack of skill at the phonological level is constant, as well as the difficulty in recognizing words. And, in all studies recorded by Fonseca (2011), occurred deleting socioeconomic factors and the intelligence factor. Some even say that the Dyslexics are actually very talented people, with basic common skills if they are not suppressed by society will result in extraordinary creativity.
According to Moura (2013):
The Dyslexic receive information in a different area of the brain, so the brain of Dyslexics is normal. Unfortunately this information in different areas are the result of flaws in brain connections. The result is that due to these failures in the process of reading, they have struggled to learn to read, write, spell, as it is difficult to assimilate the words.
Moura (2013) goes on to explain that detect the disturbance of dyslexia is not an easy task. There are some signs and symptoms that may indicate the presence of dyslexia early in life, but a precise diagnosis is only possible from the moment that writing and reading are presented formally to the child. […] As the disorder is genetic, the experts say that children can be assessed from the age of five […]
Starting from principles in that dyslexia is not a disease, it’s a difficulty and comes from genetic links, it is interesting to observe other aspects which correlate dyslexia with respect to learning.
In this context is the fig tree (2012) that identifies that dyslexia does not mean only trouble with words, but it means a language dysfunction. So argues that dyslexia is not simply a difficulty to learn the letters, has difficulty identifying and organize symbols, namely, as he will read those symbols don’t tell you absolutely nothing?
Figueira (2012) still exposes you to those faced with a Dyslexic student, you can’t lose sight of the fact that its difficulty has nothing to do with motivation, lack of effort, will or interest, we don’t even have relations with any sensory impairment. The Dyslexic is a mind that sometimes surpasses the so-called “normal”, and require a different treatment because their minds work differently. Working correctly, the Dyslexic work perfectly, too.
Still, when it comes, on how to treat the Dyslexic student, unfortunately not the parents, and the vast majority of professionals in the field of education are not equipped to deal with children believed to be Dyslexic. There are many causes that need to be corrected, however there are few professionals who know and understand the problems and possible fixes and solutions.
Moura (2012) explains that most treatments emphasizes assimilation of phoneme, vocabulary development, the improvement of comprehension and reading fluency. Help the Dyslexic improve their reading is very laborious and requires a lot of attention, but every child Dyslexic needs support and patience, because these children suffer from lack of self-confidence and low self-esteem because they feel less intelligent than their friends.
CITES Moura (2012, p. 17):
It is up to the Pedagogical Advisor first of all offer these children (parents and teachers) information that dyslexia is a learning disability and that should give opportunities for the student to learn using easy and simple strategies.
Fonseca (2011) consistent with the educational system, citing that the difficulty is not detected and addressed properly, the bearer of dyslexia, triggers a process of conflict that not only reflected in school, as well as in family and social environment. One should, however, create strategies in order to make to overcome the difficulties, adapting methods and materials, as part of a process of linguistic development that will contribute significantly to the growth of other various knowledge.
Finally, it is understood that required if makes walking together, teachers, school and parents/guardians at child care search dyslexic and mainly pedagogical proposal contemplates significant activities, with dynamic and continuous to a constant interaction between cognitive conditions of student and professional pedagogical interventions in the field of education.
2.1 IDENTIFICATION OF PHYSICAL AND INTELLECTUAL COMPONENTS
The signs of dyslexia may arise to a greater or lesser extent depending on several factors such as age, stimulation, etc. And can also worsen during the growth process of the child. Some of these signals according to the author are: a family history; lack of attention and memory; delay in speech and language acquisition; difficulty naming objects; immaturity, excessive shyness; mood changes; delay or lack of coordination (to draw, write, etc); difficulty in literacy and math learning; difficulty in the passage of the written and spoken language; inability to learn to remember words viewed; written in reflection (mirror); difficulty in spelling; lack of pleasure in reading; erratic eye movement in reading; confusion between vowels or replacement of consonant (MARSILI, 2010, p. 15).
When applying for a child with dyslexia to make a text, small visibly noted the difficulty of your organization of thought to perform the activity. Very exchanged letters, writing most of the time it’s unreadable, by also difficulty problems of motor coordination.
Selikowitz (2001, p. 50) apud Moura (2013, p. 15) mentioning that there are many signs that identify dyslexia. Dyslexic children have difficulties in identifying phonemes and complain that reading is very difficult, has trouble spelling, reading aloud and memorize words, they also confuse words. Their arithmetic skills are affected, she looks confused when asked to perform calculations that is expected of a child of your education level. The child has great difficulty to learn the meaning of arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and Division.
The most common manifestations are the pronounced arrhythmia, syncopated, silabada with inappropriate tone; bad words grouped with cuts and score not respected; interpretation hampered or prevented; synthesis and analysis hindered or prevented; summaries or reports hampered (FONSECA, 2011, p. 36).
2.2 THE STEPS FOR LEARNING DYSLEXIC
Important record ever at the beginning of this topic that the treatment of a child with dyslexia have no total cure, however, will assist the patient in relation to their limitations, providing a significant progression of its improvement in the learning process and assists in the perspective of the problems that can lead to child about self-esteem and socialization.
Cândido (2013, p. 17) mentions that:
[…] a child with dyslexia is not disabled nor mental, physical, visual, or hearing. The Dyslexic, too, is not a child of high risk. A child is not Dyslexic because had its development compromised as a result of factors such as inadequate, improper feeding gestation or premature birth. Dyslexia has a genetic component, except in case of brain vascular accident (CVA).
Therefore a child Dyslexic not regarded as “sick”, but more importantly for the educator is to understand, know, diagnose and promote actions that take the stimulus for developing written and oral learner.
Brandão (2015, p. 12) says: “learning is a mental process, with a view, acquisitions, through which the memory of the content and use of this knowledge internalized cause the guy can master it and manipulate it, when needed.”
The children with dyslexia typically present a framework where is present difficulty in learning, however, on the other hand, develop other abilities. Can solve simple problems, and, in other situations, present difficulties to perform fairly obvious resolutions.
Vygostsky (1992) apud Brandão (2015, p 16) says that it is not possible to think about the construction of writing as a linear process and constant. During the acquisition of oral language, the child also introduces instability: practice makes perfect, trying, manipulating and hitting. We must accept that the whole process of appropriation of new knowledge requires reflections and comparisons in a back and forth, which, far from stability, leads to questions, inquiries and perplexities.
It is understood that there is a need for stimulation and active participation and creativity of imagination, in order to make room for the kids to act on their own.
In relation to the adoption of some methods, Moura (2013, p. 14) cites that from diagnosis (or professionals) who will treat her. Among the various methods adopted, the Brazilian Association of Dyslexia advises multisensorial therapy, systematic and cumulative works all ways at the same time (like Dyslexic assimilates easily everything is experienced concretely, it can be trained to read and hear, as you type, for example), the treatment is usually done by educational psychologists, speech therapists and psychologists specialized in the subject.
Moura (2013) makes an important analysis. The author cites the Pedagogical Advisor shall help the teacher plan regularly activities that provide freedom of action for children, promoting a relational environment, offering them conditions to overcome the difficulties and especially knowing the importance of games in child development.
Says Moura (2013) that fits the Pedagogical Advisor along with the team, research, study, reflect and take to educating the knowledge process, observing what the skills and interests of students, suggesting strategies and resources with regard to the difficulties which the student may present in relation to dyslexia.
Marsili (2010, p. 33) cites that it is up to the school to provide students ‘ parents and the students themselves, interesting and efficient methods in pedagogical design, to meet special students, those with difficulties in reading, writing and spelling. It is the duty of the school and especially of teachers, offer recovery to those that have low utilization.
In relation to the posture and some actions of professor front dyslexia, Marsili (2010) in the foreground the teacher need to be trained and have knowledge about what is dyslexia and its causes.
Another way to help this student is explaining to him that his difficulty in learning in reading and writing is called Dyslexia, and the teacher can only help you to overcome this problem, if he himself does not give up at the first obstacle. Moving forward, firm, with bravery and perseverance. The teacher needs to take it easy with this student, as it will be slower than the others, need more time to do this, copy the picture, solve a problem. It is therefore necessary to use several strategies for this student so that he understands the content: using stimulants and interesting materials, such as games, stories, etc., trying to teach him to understand better the proposed content (MARSILI, 2010).
Marsili (2010, p. 35) advise that:
[…] children need to be taught how to spell the words to be aware of the sounds they hear. Train them to repeat words to themselves, while listening to the sounds. […] Teaching needs to be hands-on and student must be actively involved in the task.
Many are the ways to promote strategies for the educator, for the teacher and for the massive support of the family.
Giroto (2001, p. 50) apud Moura (2013, p. 41) with proper guidance, the student will be able to be successful in class. The teacher can assist with some strategies to help the Dyslexic student selected below:
-The Dyslexic child should sit close to the teacher, so that it may encourage him to ask for help;
-Each point should be revised several times;
-Never compare your written work with colleagues;
-Their knowledge should be judged more by the oral responses than by writing the meaning that should be evaluated on a daily basis;
-Whenever possible, ask the child to repeat it several times in your own words, what the teacher asked her to do, as this helps in learning;
-Teach children to “feel” the lyrics through different textures of materials;
-Never force the student to take the lesson of the day;
-Avoid subjecting the student to time pressure or competition with other children;
-To encourage writing in alternating rows, because it will help the teacher to read a calligraphy imprecise and often crowded;
-Imitate and reproduce sounds and words;
-Does not require large newsrooms;
-Never force him to write on the Blackboard/
-Never ask him to answer questions without having volunteered to do so;
-Perform revision classes to allow adequate time for questions and answers;
-Allow the use of Calculator during math lessons;
-Give him a chance to answer the questions orally, testing and retesting when needed, assigning extra note to compensate for the low notes;
-To evaluate students ‘ knowledge always with dyslexia using alternative methods, including oral assessments, home-made jobs and individual presentations.
One of the events that most meet the child is working on playing. So, Fonseca (1999) apud (Marsili (2010) cites that the playful activities are beneficial, as can the student involvement and ensure that the phonological elements needed to be entered into the job that will be developed with each child, such as: invention of rhymes and words, recognition activities and use of words that rhyme, blending and segmenting syllables, phonemes and initial identification of the symbols sounds games, discrimination of vowels, rhyming songs, among other activities.
Still the same authors cite above that there is also support approaches that can be improvised in the classroom by the teacher are: the use of the portfolio, simultaneous oral spelling, specific software, development of study skills, visual intensity activities and word games.
So, does not end here the numerous educational actions to be taught in the classroom, accompanied by the parents, but it is important for the educator who has the consciousness that the stimulus, creativity, perseverance, dedication, care and love, can provide the Dyslexic student situations to be surmounted thus allowing the reach of varying degrees of expertise.
For there to be a confrontation of this problem within the school context it is necessary that the school be aware and conscious of its responsibility in the analysis and in the note to the students that present difficulties and/or disorders in terms of reading and writing, and, being that to note cases of dyslexia as the elementary language difficulty, should be treated even , by specialized professionals such as doctors, Audiologists, psychologists, educational psychologists and at the same time, it is up to the school to take initiatives denoting the construction of methodologies for the student with dyslexia, collaborating with this student to overcome barriers through effective strategies in line with the collective contribution of the school institution.
3. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
It is concluded that dyslexia is a disorder that causes difficulties in learning reading and writing in neurological bases, in addition to genetic or acquired factors. Not featuring as a disease in the scientific world.
Is factor of scientific studies that the sooner it is diagnosed the Dyslexia, the higher the effective results of the treatments and strategies of actions directed to this individual. Same with learning difficulties of writing and reading, the Dyslexic present a degree of normal intelligence or even above average.
So there is a pedagogical work that comes close to the maximum of the Dyslexic student needs, it is important that the educator has the knowledge essential to the diagnosis, so that the different types of learning disorders may be worked strategically and that the construction of knowledge is also motivated early, subsidizing the effusive progress educating and on their families.
It is clear that it is the responsibility of the educator and pedagogical team present interventions that create challenging situations causing the interest in learning, outlining the opportunity of development of student’s autonomy, independence and encouragement for the pursuit of problem solving and who knows how to deal with the possibilities of frustration.
The playful, play, the educational games can be an instrument of added value for the Dyslexic a nicer approach in search of overruns, in improving school performance, the development of abstraction, of creativity and imagination, highlighting the development of self-esteem and emotional balance and sociability.
Another factor is the need of affective relationship, of commitment, of care, of the goodwill of the professor for educational practices result in positive effects, taking as a point of support, respect and the acceptance of the child as a human being under construction, and that by factors inherent to the nature of the child, needs a more acute by the educator.
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 Graduated in Pedagogy by UNOPAR-Universidade North of Paraná. Student of the specialization course (Lato Sensu) in Educational Neuropedagogia by the RHEMA-FATEC-Faculdade de Tecnologia do Vale do Ivaí-Arapongas-Paraná.
 Master teacher in the Institute’s Education RHEMA-FATEC-Faculdade de Tecnologia do Vale do Ivaí-Arapongas-Paraná.