Prison and hospital pedagogy: New perspectives of professional performance of the pedagogue

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE 

CRUZ, Célia Maria Pacheco [1]

CRUZ, Célia Maria Pacheco. Prison and hospital pedagogy: New perspectives of professional performance of the pedagogue. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 05, Ed. 08, Vol. 07, pp. 71-86. August 2020. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/pedagogue

SUMMARY

This study intends to study Prison and Hospital Pedagogy as a new focus of professional practice of the pedagogue. Through a bibliographic review on these two new fields of practice of Pedagogy, the article also makes a reflection on the initial formation of the pedagogue, investigating the relevance of his practice in the functioning of several institutions. As a result of a growing social demand, we point out the need for an analysis of the prison and hospital pedagogical practice in an integrated and multidisciplinary way for the construction of a fairer society. The necessary competencies will be related to the pedagogue who intends to work in these organizations in order to find out if basic initial training contributes to the acquisition of the necessary skills to act in this new institutional universe.

Keywords: Prison pedagogy, hospital pedagogy, pedagogue.

INTRODUCTION

This scientific production presents as a thematic proposal a small analysis of the conception of hospital pedagogy and prison as the new focuses of professional activity of the pedagogue. As can be seen that in the current scenario the demands are demanding a new educational point of view.

Pedagogy aims at educational processes, methods, ways of teaching. It is a field of knowledge that seeks solutions to educational practice in its integrality and at the same time authenticity, showing a criterion for educational action.

The Pedagogue is a professional who has his academic background in the science of education with new fields of activity in contemporaneity and with opportunities to work in non-school places in different environments linked to education, thus understanding training interests such as the hospital and prison.

It is perceived that over time the possibilities of the pedagogue’s performance has been growing and that the hospital and prison fields have welcomed him, but that at the same time that these institutions absorb him, he perceives a gap in his education regarding the knowledge of the specific universe.

Hospital Pedagogy is the part of pedagogy that proposes the performance of the teacher/educator in the hospital environment, in which it cares for children and adolescents with specific momentary educational needs, that is, children who, because of diseases, need dissimilar and understanding support.

In accordance with the law, prison education is a model of adult education that intends to educate, train and qualify temporarily incarcerated people so that, after they meet the time of abstention from freedom, they can enter the social and work world with hombhood.

The proposed theme is justified because the Hospital and Prison Pedagogue is a new profession, due to a demand for its presence in a gradually greater number in the educational society. Educational care in most hospitals and prisons is not yet a reality, making it necessary for the pedagogue to work in these new perspectives that have been little researched.

Thus, the research developed investigates the new focus of professional performance of the pedagogue, the skills and skills developed according to the market requirements and the need for complementary training, that is, post-graduation in the specific area.

This work has as application of the methodology the bibliographic research using books, articles and scientific journals. Highlighting as the general objective of the study, to know the new actions of the Pedagogue, conceptualizing Prison and Hospital Pedagogy, implications and a brief history on Pedagogy.

A BRIEF HISTORY ON PEDAGOGY

The essence of a pedagogy course cannot be teaching. The essence of a pedagogy course is the study of the educational phenomenon, in its difficulty, in its scope. Then, it is possible to say: “All teaching work is pedagogical work, but not all pedagogical work is teaching work” (LIBÂNEO, 2006).

The word Pedagogy derived in ancient Greece, was born from the conjunction of the words paidós (children) and agogé (conducting), and with this, the constitution of the word pedagogy, which received the person who directed the children and that progressively its concept was taking other aspects and now Pedagogy as the science that deals with the theory and practice of education, the area of knowledge that seeks to study the best way to effect the teaching process learning

The history of the Pedagogy course was crossed by struggles, conflicts, opinions, decrees, laws, changes, advances and setbacks, some crises and as a consequence of these events came weighted transformations in its curriculum.

Highlights:

The first regulation of the Pedagogy course in Brazil, in 1939, provides for the formation of the bachelor’s degree in Pedagogy, known as “technician in education”.The subsequent legislation in compliance with Law No. 4024/61 LDB, maintains the bachelor’s degree course for the training of the Pedagogue (Opinion CFE 251/62) and regulates the bachelor’s degrees (Opinion 292/62 ) Opinion 252/69 – the last existing regulation – abolishes the distinction between bachelor’s degree and bachelor’s degree, but maintains the training of specialists in the various qualifications, in the same spirit of Opinion CFE 251/62. Supported by the idea of “training the specialist in the teacher” the legislation in force establishes that the graduate of the pedagogy course receives the title of graduate (LIBÂNEO,1999, p.38)

In 1968, because of the University Reform Law No. 5,540 (November 28) allowed the graduation in Pedagogy to offer qualifications: Supervision, Guidance, Administration and Educational Inspection among other specialties that contributed to national development or according to market demand.

In the following year, 1969, Opinion No. 252, which dealt with the organization and functioning of the Pedagogy Course, defined as the objective of the course the preparation of education professionals and ensured obtaining the title of specialist, but through a complementary study.

To understand the dynamics that occurred in relation to the changes in the Pedagogy Course, it is worth remembering that between the years 1960 and 1964, Brazil lived the Technical Era, where the focus was to train professionals to meet the demands of the time and education became an instrument of acceleration of development of the country.

In the second half of the 1970s, the need to rethink and reformulate the Pedagogy Course and bachelor’s degrees resurfaces, being led by official bodies and independent entities of educators. And since the 1980s, some universities aiming to meet the new market demands, make curricular changes, as pointed out by Libâneo (1999):

In the mid-1980s, some Faculties of Education, due to the influence of research, debates meetings and indications of the national movement for the education of educators, suspended or suppressed conventional qualifications (school administration, educational guidance, school supervision, etc.), to invest a curriculum focused on teacher training for early grades of elementary school and teaching course (LIBÂNEO, 1999, p.38)

According to the author, this attitude of the Faculties was based on Opinion CFE 252/69- National Curriculum Guidelines for the Pedagogy course, which provides for the formation of a new teacher model, which, in addition to being qualified for teaching, can also direct a school, coordinate and supervise pedagogical work.

It is understood that in addition to teaching activities, the pedagogue is authorized to work in school and non-school spaces, that pedagogical understandings and discussions of the main currents of thought in the field of teaching, education and culture are necessary.

PEDAGOGY IN NON-SCHOOL SPACES

Education is a process of social interaction of the most important for social development and happens in all corporations, by various means of cooperation and in different spaces, it is practiced in such a way that the individual strengthens his/her skills, adapting to society, thus learning becomes specialized and considered as a non-institutionalized procedure.

Some changes were notorious and changed the course of undergraduate pedagogy courses. The Curricular Guidelines of National Education No. 9394/96 point out the identity of the Undergraduate Pedagogy Course, relying on teaching and, consequently, the degree determines the identity of the pedagogue in the field of education and work.

The educational act needs to be intentional, it is necessary that there is an intervention for the objectives proposed for the development of training, that is, methodical, implies preferences, values and ethical commitments, besides being a social practice, because it does not happen in isolation, requires interaction with the other and with the environment, requires exchanges of experiences, learning and this educational act can and also occurs outside the school as the anthropologist Carlos Brandão (1981) points out.

For the author, education is more present in our daily lives than is perceived and education is not only present within the limits of the school walls and also does not happen exclusively within the classrooms. As is understood, the work of the Pedagogy professional has as its end a mediating function of knowledge building with other subjects in the process of training and this professional has been occupying new places, outside the school limit, and gaining more and more prominence in spaces such as hospitals, NGOs, prisons and companies.

In this perspective it is reaffirmed that the pedagogue, besides being responsible for basic education, is also authorized to perform functions in non-school education and in this non-school environment there are hospitals, prisons.A

On the other hand, Tardif (2003) points out that it is important to note that the knowledge of the pedagogue, is a plural knowledge, his practice integrates many knowledge swith which they maintain different relationships. And supported by the definition of education cited education and its educational happening can be formal, non-formal and informal:

    • Formal education takes place in institutions and is governed by legislation, has the participation of the teacher, is regularized and has clear objectives related to teaching and learning.
    • Informal education takes place in social groups, in the family, in the church, in the club, among friends, involves interaction and transfer of values and cultures received historically. From these communications originate knowledge, practices and are not linked to an institution, it is an asystematic process.
    • Non-formal education is one that takes place outside the school, but which has a certain degree of systematization, can be the result of the initiative of non-governmental organizations that care about literacy, professionalization, or companies that offer, to their employees, skills improvement courses or opportunistic learning of new skills, churches that gather faithful for religious education , can be an initiative of political parties and trade unions, even schools that open their doors on weekends for activities with the community.

When it is said that the educator seeks to innovate his practice through praxis, this search is supported by a systemic, specific, rigorous study, so that the result of this has enough consistency and fundamentalization to become effective. This movement is precisely the exercise of Pedagogy, the communion of theory and practice of education, the science that is justified by the practice of education, starting from educational phenomena and addressing them again.

PRISON PEDAGOGY

Legally prison education is a category of adult education that intends to instruct, characterize and create citizens provisionally imprisoned in a prison, so that they can relocate with respect and distinction in the social body and work, with the dignity of being seen again equally before society. This research seeks the clarity from the combination of society and education, education and national penitentiary grouping, establishing the particularity of Education in prison in the context of Social Education-Pedagogy.

The prison system obtained new guidelines through the Criminal Execution Law (Law No. 7,210/84), which sought to legally guarantee rights to inmates and an education that can be carried out by the State as well as by articulated educational institutions, continuously seeking to respond to the local taxes of each prison. Just as the installation of libraries in prisons needs to be an obligation to use all classes of detainees, equipped with recreational and didactic books.

Social Pedagogy is carried out with practices known in Brazil for the benefit of non-formal education, social movements, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and prisons, considered as objects of Social Pedagogy. The socialization of the individual is practiced by parents, family and teachers, related to pedagogical social work, aimed at meeting the needs of groups of individuals and carried out by multidisciplinary teams of which the social educator is part.

The importance of forms of educating appears in the speech of Libâneo (1999), when it is pointed out as a multifaceted phenomenon occurs in different modalities, distinct from each other by the intentionality/unintentional character of education: formal education, non-formal education and informal education. Pedagogy works for the execution of well-defined ideals and objectives, aiming at the purpose of behavioral modification of people

Therefore, it is understood that Education and Pedagogy will be associated, pedagogy coexistwith facts, structures and contexts and situations related to educational practice in its various modalities and manifestations. And the Pedagogue is the mediator of this educational action, as highlighted by the Curricular Guidelines of the Pedagogy Course related to pedagogical work:

The Pedagogue is the professional who works in various areas of educational practice directly or indirectly linked to organizations and processes of transmission and assimilation of knowledge and modes of action, behavior changes, aiming at human formation considering its history and its context, as can be seen in cne/CP resolution no. 1, of May 15, 2006, Article 2.

According to Coyle (2002), people circumstantial to prisons retain all their rights held, except those as a specific result of abstaining from freedom, expanding their support beyond the fact that they are imprisoned.

The educational functioning cannot be seen as a stripped-down privilege granted by the prison administration, of special and voluntary configuration. She should be singled out as a basic member in all her conviction and prepared to give prisoners chances for greater application of the time space they endure in prison. (COYLE, 2002).

Thus, school education in prisons, provided for in the Criminal Execution Law as a right (BRASIL, 1984), when analyzed, is shown as a space of possibilities for social and individual reintegrative transformations.

This configuration is shown by Nassif (2006), who, when verifying the obedience customs of the condemned brought to term in school within the prison, understood that they direct dissimilar actions and behaviors compared to other prison spaces.

According to the Criminal Enforcement Act:

Educational Assistance:

Art. 17. Educational assistance will include school education and professional training of the prisoner and the inmate.

Art. 18. The teaching of 1st degree will be mandatory, integrating into the school system of the Federative Unit.

Art. 19. Vocational education will be taught at the level of initiation or technical improvement.

Sole paragraph. The condemned woman will have professional education appropriate to her condition.

Art. 20. Educational activities may be the subject of an agreement with public or private entities, which set up schools or offer specialized courses.

Art. 21. In compliance with local conditions, each establishment of a library will be provided, for the use of all categories of prisoners, provided with instructional, recreational and didactic books.

Education is considered as one of the means of promoting social integration and the acquisition of knowledge that allows the imprisoned to guarantee a better future when rescuing freedom. This situation may be shared by the punished who understand that incarceration has a purpose that goes beyond punishment, removal and disaggregation and that, therefore, voluntarily accept and approve the reformer aspect of incarceration, especially professional education activities and information on employment opportunities. Regardless of why education for people arrested is still in the development phase, but a fundamental issue is already understood when education is presented in prison, which is the total detachment between “the objectives of education and the objectives of the sentence and prison, and this is the task that one wants to be assumed by Social Pedagogy” (Souza Neto; Silva; Moura, 2009, p. 299).

Socio-education must be justified by the reasons for freedom and ideals of support and, as an end, the full education of the student, their preparation for the functioning of citizenship and their aptitude for work, based on the letter and spirit of Art 2nd of LDBEN. “… Education is the right of everyone and the duty of the family and the State, it will be based on the principles of freedom and the ideals of human solidarity…”

In other words, the right to education is the right to learning indispensable to the development of all dimensions of the human personality, from its physical dimension to its aesthetic dimension, in the individual and social interest, so prison educational action should not be judged as privilege reputed by the prison administration in an extra and voluntary way. It should be pointed out as a fundamental member in every concept.

HOSPITAL PEDAGOGY

The terms “Pedagogy” and “Hospital” are expressions that arise from dissimilar origin in the dictionary. According to the Houaiss Dictionary (2001, p. 335), pedagogy, on the other hand, is defined as “theory and science of teaching” already hospital concerns the “establishment for hospitalization and treatment of sick and wounded” (2001, p. 235) The association of terms is due to the imposition of giving continuity and opportunity to hospitalized children and adolescents, accompanying active in their teaching and learning march and with the purpose of aggregating educators , family and medical team, allowing the infermo integration through playful, recreational and pedagogical actions giving stability to their school life

To the extensive of recent times many scientific investigations in the areas of Health, Human and Social Sciences that have transformed the support center to assist the needs of hospitalized children.Thus, Hospital Pedagogy is configured as a possibility for the performance of the pedagogue in the Brazilian context due to the inevitability of a better performance and professional training in the complex promotion of humanization.

In 1935, the hospital class arose, in the community of Suresnes located in France, established the first school in the hospital for children and adolescents who were hospitalized, and, as a result of this initiative, toured the countries of Germany and the United States. (GUEDES and PEVIANI, 2017).

Due to the need for training professionals to work in hospitals, in 1939 was also originated in France, the position of hospital teacher through the Ministry of Education, together with the National Center for Studies and Training for Unadapted Childhood (CNEFEI), which had the intention of preparing educators with studies aimed at teachers, social workers and doctors , in addition to performing the practice of internships, qualifying them in their pedagogical action. (OHARA; BORBA and CARNEIRO, 2008).

The contribution of the pedagogue in the process of treatment of hospitalized children is of paramount importance, since it cooperates for the progress of its clinical picture, since the child learns the necessary contents for the continuity of his studies, as well as knowing his illness and how the treatment will be, what generates his recovery and how to proceed to what he had previously failed to do.

Borges (2012) states that through pedagogical experience, humanization is enhanced in this period of hospitalization of the child, and crucial is to make her develop her mental, motor and cognitive reasoning in the intention that time passes faster and she leaves to have contact with the outside world again.

As one of the main purposes of hospital pedagogy is to rescue the school environment, the hospital becomes the hospital class, because the idea of interaction must be constantly present, because the first contact within a school class is the teacher-student dialogue.

According to the growth of hospital classes in Brazil beginning in the 1990s, they begin research to elucidate adversities faced by education professionals in an unusual and poorly researched environment. Therefore, studies and analyses developed by health and education professionals were of inevitable importance to clarify the directions to be followed within a new focus of educational action.

PRISON AND HOSPITAL PEDAGOGY AND ITS HUMANIZED IMPLICATIONS

Today, the pedagogue needs to understand his professional capacity, to understand what the job market demands of him. And to act in environments that go beyond the school units, it is essential that they meet their competencies and abilities with the demand of these spaces.

The United Nations Economic and Social Council, in its resolution 1990/20 of May 24, 1990, recommended, among other things, that all prisoners should enjoy access to education, including literacy, basic education, vocational training, recreational, religious and cultural activities, physical education and sport, social education, higher education than library services (UN and UNESCO, 1994, p. 1)

Thus, Offe (1990) points out the importance of education and its hypotheses in the process of socialization of the individual, emphasizing that it is not so simple to determine the purpose of education, because it is a very large number of vectors that should be taken into account when approaching them.

In this sense, it is perceived that the competencies and skills need to be contextualized with the area of activity of the professional and in accordance with the Curricular Guidelines for the Pedagogy Course, as well as the social, emotional and emotional implications commonly vital encountered in situations of social vulnerability.

Education is present in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights of the United Nations, the American Convention on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights of the Organization of American States, the Convention against Discrimination in the Sphere of Education, the Declaration of the Rights of the Child, recognized by the United Nations and the Convention on the Rights of the Child.

And Paulo Freire defends education as a dialogical act, highlighting the need for a communicative dialogical reason where the act of knowing and thinking would be directly related. Knowledge would be a historical, gnosiological, logical and also dialogical act. This is the basis of his proposal for education for freedom.For him, there is no way to raise awareness without the dialectic inherent in every process that implies dialogue between people

It is perceived that the education of the pedagogue provides a professional to work in various areas, so that he can enjoy the various areas that are welcoming him, must have skills that qualifies him to play this new role that pedagogy is assuming.

These questions call for attention on the space outside education in which socio-educational interferences occur in Brazil. These are established in parallel to academic discussions and the establishment of public policies with a view to improving the quality of the educational offer, which reduces the prospects of overcoming the predominant care vision.

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

After analyses on education in extra-school environments, it was evident that intentionality is tools, which associated with political and legal social aspects, show a pedagogical resource rich in possibilities, legitimacies and important adaptations in the formation of individuals.

When thinking about education, it seems antagonistic to imagine it in the prison environment and in hospitals. The difficulties faced to implement a quality education in these environments, with the ability to help and transform the individual. From this new vision, we sought a professional who met educational needs and developed projects aiming at the improvement, performance, development, reintegration, reintegration and promotion of citizenship.

The objectives of this work were satisfactorily assimilated through analysis of bibliographic data, reflections and perception of the educational truth of the prison and hospital system, bringing in deference the Social Pedagogy, the eyes of educators in relation to educational procedures, as well as the importance and prestige that education has represented.

According to the above, the study identified that the pedagogue has an extremely important function in the treatment process of hospitalized children and the incarcerated individual, since it assists the development of its staff through the instruction of contents necessary for the continuity of their studies, considering the limits and collaboration for their integration into the environment and, as well as , offer individuals a differentiated education through a special care and more cautious attention due to the delicate period, that they go through.

As Moacir Gadotti states, education is necessary for the success of each person’s freedom and their exercise of citizenship, for work and for their autonomy.

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[1] PhD in Education Science – Universidad Americana – Asunción – Paraguay.

Submitted: August, 2020.

Approved: August, 2020.

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