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Education: new perspectives in the use of technologies

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

GUIMARÃES, Íris Lindbeck [1], SENÁRIO, Flávia Fabiane Fernandes [2], BARRETO, Lúcia Angélica da Cruz [3], GUIMARÃES, Magaly Lindbeck[4]

GUIMARÃES, Íris Lindbeck. et al. Education: new perspectives in the use of technologies. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year. 07, Ed. 10, Vol. 02, pp. 24-41. October 2022. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/use-of-technologies

ABSTRACT

In its context, the article addresses digital inclusion and the reality of teachers when they have to innovate the classroom during the pandemic period, mainly in view of the lack of resources and access to technologies; it is also discussed about digital technologies in education and their contributions to teaching, where the teacher’s role is fundamental in the students’ protagonism, making it necessary to redefine the formative and educational process of teachers, at different levels of education, associated with its implications and all its developments to guarantee the fulfillment of the demands that emerge from a new model of society, based on the constant evolution of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) with the use of technologies, whether by remote or face-to-face means. It is understood that the new perspectives in the use of technologies involve more than the use of electronic equipment, and it is questioned about the need for a differentiated training preparation, since the guiding problem is not limited to the ability to operate equipment, technologies, communication and information, but knowing how to teach so that students assimilate knowledge, making use of digital resources. In this way, the general objective of this research is to describe the new perspectives of the use of technologies in the educational field in a broad way, and not just about the need to computerize schools. This work is characterized as a bibliographic review research, carried out through a descriptive and qualitative approach, where data and information were researched and collected in academic Google, in the Scielo database, in books and scientific articles for the enrichment and update of the research through the contribution of the theories of the cited authors, as well as their interlocutors. In general terms, the analyzed studies revealed that ICT must be integrated into education at all educational levels, and are tools with powerful resources that contribute to the full formation of students, leading their life projects and preparing them to live in the 21st century society, increasingly digitized.

Keywords: Education, Use of Technologies, Information and Communication Technologies, New Educational Perspectives.

1. INTRODUCTION

Currently, students learn through countless different paths, where the learner’s gaze is directed towards the search for visual resources that can favor interaction and sharing of data and information, in real time and immediately, where access to the digital world happens without fear, through an exploratory navigation through several channels, even if they still do not have access to cell phones, tablets and computers with more current and more advanced technologies such as 5G, for example.

The new educational perspectives of contemporaneity, according to Mattar (2010) are linked to technologies and 21st century students are considered digital natives, as they have access and use of digital resources and media in their daily lives, in such a way that the The way of learning how to learn has changed, making it necessary for teachers to adapt to teaching methods, in order to provide more meaningful experience and understanding.

According to Parada (2016), we live in an increasingly technological society, and this fact has led us to rethink education at its different levels, which favored a discussion across the country, enabling the creation of new public policies in the area of education, projects and programs developed in the area of technology, strengthening of an established connection between the school and the new communication resources, through the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) or integration of Digital Media in the pedagogical practices that passed to be progressive, especially regarding incorporation into classrooms.

As Perrenoud (2000) states, the new information and communication technologies (ICT), increasingly present in our daily lives, have transformed the ways of communicating, playing, working and studying, and, in this sense, schools they must follow this development and include themselves in the universe of their students, which, consequently, lead to the need for continuous teacher training. Faced with these numerous demands, it became necessary to seek an understanding of the problem that guides this work, as we understand that teachers should not only have mastery of ICT and didactic instruments that permeate contemporary teaching, but that they know how to teach in a significant, where students are the protagonists of their knowledge, making use of digital resources, with the help of teacher tutoring.

Due to the question presented, the present research proposes in its general objective the description of the new perspectives of the use of technologies in the educational scope in a broad way, and not only on the need to computerize schools.

For the development of this research, of a bibliographical nature, the methodology used was qualitative, of a descriptive nature, where the data and information researched were collected in academic Google, in the Scielo database, in books and scientific articles for the enrichment and update of the research through the contribution of the theories of the cited authors, as well as their interlocutors.

According to Klausen (2017, p. 6409), internet browsing occurs through diverse scenarios and enables student development, motivating them to learn and build their learning in a reflective way, where the use of technological resources becomes a facilitator, which in addition to guiding the teacher in the teaching process, provides meaningful, dynamic and more attractive means to students.

For Moran and Bacich (2018), digital technologies are important, as they personalize the learning process and through these, students can access and study at their own time and pace, allowing each student to progress according to their ability. For the same authors, teachers act as mediators of educational processes, helping students in teaching and learning processes.

Data presented by Brazil (2020) show that the pandemic of the coronavirus that causes COVID 19, which started in March 2020 in Brazil, imposed a harsh reality of social isolation on us and due to the need to contain the disease, all countries forced to change the way of communicating and living, just as schools and Higher Education Institutions (IES)[5] were forced to paralyze all classes and face-to-face activities for a long period of time. MEC[6] – Ministry of Education Ordinance No. 343/2020 authorized, on an emergency basis, the replacement of face-to-face classes with remote classes, and, therefore, each school and IES had to follow a new guidance guideline to use digital technological resources as efficient tools of effective promotion of teaching.

It is necessary to point out here that remote teaching is frequently used, in the current context, by several educational institutions in the development of curricular components. Corroborating this idea, Arruda (2020, p. 266) points out that “remote teaching can be presented in a similar time to face-to-face education, with transmissions at specific times of teacher classes, in live formats.”

Neto (2018) points out that the challenge of teaching through ICT and digital resources was not only due to the difficulty of acceptance by teachers, or resistance, but rather, the challenge of teaching according to the resources available in communities and institutions. The constant social changes and the growth of communication through digital technologies, in addition to the emergence of different technological devices and massive access to these means, as well as the effectiveness of the teaching-learning method, which must include digital technologies and resources in order to make teaching more attractive, through creative, participatory and collaborative processes, were challenging, and occurred without previous and due teacher training. It is necessary to be able to insert new concepts and elements that are dynamic in the preparation of classes and in the carrying out of proposed activities, through digital resources, so that teaching takes place in a meaningful way and that favors the process of protagonism of the student’s knowledge.

The pandemic scenario, through social isolation, in Brazil, proposed new challenges bringing a new reality, a new normal through telecommuting. Education in the country was offered to different educational levels through the home office. The school innovated and offered students and teachers classes in virtual environments, both at primary, secondary and higher education levels through the use of Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) and various platforms. Programs such as ZOOM, TEAMS, Google Meat, among others, were used and facilitated the process of meaningful learning throughout the country, but only the insertion of technologies does not guarantee effective learning, as ICT have to be inserted and linked to methodologies teaching activities.

According to Marcon and Carvalho (2018), despite the existence of public policies related to digital inclusion in the educational area, and which are in operation, not all schools have access to the internet network or the necessary infrastructure for these programs to be used and actually implemented in educational environments in Brazil. The new perspectives for building knowledge that came about through the use of Digital Technology (DT) and Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) could cause an enormous and deep chasm between the school and society if teachers and their students do not are included in the universe of digital culture in Brazil, and it is in this sense that the same authors state that:

A inclusão digital é um processo que fomenta apropriações tecnológicas, nas quais os sujeitos são compreendidos como produtores ativos de conhecimento e de cultura, em uma dinâmica reticular que privilegia a vivência de características nucleares na sociedade contemporânea, como a interação, a autoria e a colaboração. Inclusão digital pressupõe o empoderamento das pessoas por meio das tecnologias, a garantia à equidade social e a valorização da diversidade, suprindo necessidades individuais e coletivas, visando à transformação das próprias condições de existência e o exercício da cidadania na rede. (MARCON; CARVALHO, 2018, p. 272-273)

It is also understood that in Brazil, digital exclusion is one of the challenges to be overcome through educational public policies to ensure access to the internet and mastery of digital pedagogical and educational tools for teachers and students.

It is also necessary to reflect on teacher training and qualification, so that the teacher can guide his students in an effective, participatory and collaborative way, since the use of digital technologies is seen and understood as a resource that expands the pedagogical action, makes doing it in the classroom is dynamic and is a conduit for the rapid and dialogic expansion of knowledge. According to Ribeiro; Oliveira; Mil (2013), the qualification of teachers to work in the digital age requires reflection on the base of their knowledge, especially those of a technological nature and which are necessary for the exercise of teaching circumscribed in a territory increasingly pulverized by technologies.

2. USE OF TECHNOLOGIES

Digital technology can be another educational motivator when used well. Today, several school institutions make use of the inverted classroom, a didactic that facilitates the use of activities applied by the teacher that require a higher level of complexity and reasoning, and that directly benefits the activities in the classroom by contributing to a more deep. This is only possible due to new educational technologies, which also allow for greater interaction between student and teacher.

The implementation of computer systems in schools dates back to the year 1980, according to Maciel (2020), and the implementations experienced at the Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) and the Universidade de Campinas ( UNICAMP) took place to unite, in the methodological and theoretical field, education and technology, which contributed to a change in behavior, demonstrating advantages and disadvantages, through technological advances and the use of telecommunications, favoring the popularization of computers, smartphones and the internet , modernizing the way of obtaining knowledge and receiving information.

The use of technologies provides alternatives for dynamizing all areas of work and it is fair that the educational institutions through which all the actions of social work are downloaded be transformed in all structural, theoretical and material aspects so that this technology that has been altering the ways of thinking and acting, convey the greatest growth of collaboration, cooperation and analysis in society. Kenski (2007, p. 44), states that technologies are present at all times in the pedagogical process, from the planning of disciplines, in the preparation of the curriculum proposal to the certification of students who have completed a course. The presence of a certain technology can induce profound changes in the way teaching is organized.

Digital Technologies (DT) are vital for learning and to give meaning to the content studied, because according to Saccol, Schlemmer and Barbosa (2011), they stimulate interest and facilitate the visualization of the contents taught in the classroom through the stimulation of cooperative and collaborative actions, on the part of the students, stimulate reasoning and visual perception, offer a challenge and instigate curiosity.

According to Fausto and Thuinie (2021), when analyzing the concept of digital, this should not be understood only as an effect and possibility presented by a digital resource, but how its use can modify relationships, ways of thinking and how it will affect aspects of life, which is what brings about a new perspective in the use of technologies.

In this time when students are born digital, Fausto and Thuinie point out that teachers need to be trained to be qualified in the classroom, challenging themselves to offer their students a digital room that is interactive and participatory, that provides an understanding of the importance of this structure as stated:

Uma compreensão sólida e científica do mundo digital permitirá a construção de inúmeros saberes e a democratização da educação, por meio da aprendizado significativo”; neste sentido, os recursos digitais auxiliam a visualizar propósitos de vida, talentos, potenciais e espírito crítico, tudo para que possam lidar com os desafios cotidianos e da vida adulta (FAUSTO e THUINIE, 2021, p. 37)

In this way, educators need to improve every day their way of exploring and making use of these digital technological resources available to prepare their classes, since these resources contribute to increasing the interest and active participation of students.

According to Maia (2007, p. 7-8), the use of new technologies in teaching should not be limited to Distance Learning (DL), where there is usually physical separation between students and teachers, they should also be used in teaching traditional, as distance learning provides learning that should not only take place in asynchronous classrooms, being allied to the wide use of technologies, which are ways of overcoming physical and temporal distances, resulting in interaction and dynamism.

For Mattar (2010) the technological experience in teaching has to be comprehensive, and must be part of everyday life, in a broad cultural experience, as it is expected ease in learning, availability of resources and materials, as well as having fun with new experiences. , improve their performance and share knowledge.

Taking into account the competences listed in the National Common Curricular Base (BNCC)[7], in particular the Brazilian reality, Lopes et al. (2020) contemplate knowledge, communication, critical thinking, scientific thinking, creative thinking, digital culture, cultural repertoire, life project, professional life, self-knowledge, cooperation, responsibility and citizenship. The current national curriculum parameter recommends that the textbook is not the only material for teaching students, and even proposes the use of computers and other content available in digital form, encouraging the use of technologies, active methodologies and the stimulation of reflection criticism and the autonomous pursuit of knowledge.

Also, according to Lopes et al. (2020), innovative pedagogical proposals, as well as the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) are very important for the development of citizens, however, they are not always easy to be developed in school settings, especially in public networks, that are generally more lacking in resources, and, mainly, in certain regions of Brazil, therefore, it is necessary to invest in projects that provide opportunities and share experiences, application methodologies at a possible level of achievement, and also present the results obtained through the use of few resources and with a lot of creativity.

According to the National Program of Informatics in Education PROINFO/Diretrizes, Brazil (1977), the inclusion of technologies in the various social areas is only possible to be implemented through public policies that provide the population with access to technologies as a link of link between everyone involved in this new information age. To this end, public policies related to digital inclusion in Brazil created, in 1977, the National Program for Informatics in Education (PROINFO)[8]. This program worked with the Educational Technology Centers (NTE)[9], which promoted continuing education for teachers and technical assistance in the inclusion of information and communication technologies in schools registered in the program.

In 2007, through Decree No. 6,300, of December 12, 2007, a new version of the program emerged, which established:

I – promover o uso pedagógico das tecnologias de informação e comunicação nas escolas de educação básica das redes públicas de ensino urbanas e rurais;

II – fomentar a melhoria do processo de ensino e aprendizagem com o uso das tecnologias de informação e comunicação;

III – promover a capacitação dos agentes educacionais envolvidos nas ações do Programa;

IV – contribuir com a inclusão digital por meio da ampliação do acesso a computadores, da conexão à rede mundial de computadores e de outras tecnologias digitais, beneficiando a comunidade escolar e a população próxima às escolas;

V – contribuir para a preparação dos jovens e adultos para o mercado de trabalho por meio do uso das tecnologias de informação e comunicação;

VI – fomentar a produção nacional de conteúdos digitais educacionais. (BRASIL, 2007).

According to Brazilian legislation (2017), the same Decree nº 6.300, of December 12, 2007, created another program, which is still in effect, called Inovação Educação Conectada, whose objective is “to support the universalization of high-speed internet access and to promote the pedagogical use of digital technologies in Basic Education.”

The use of different types of learning, especially when it comes to the use of digital media, are essential in the face of technological advancement and, as stated by Graebin (2009), it is a factor that transforms not only communication, but also society and the way of life see the world. This transformation directly affects the educational system, which must adapt to these technologies and to the new way of thinking, reflecting and learning of its students, which will reflect on the pedagogical criteria to be applied in the teaching-learning process.

Over the years, technology is increasingly present in society’s life, and therefore, teachers must be increasingly updated in the so-called virtual environments, since it is a bridge between the learner and learning, and that this generation is more pedagogically mediated by various forms of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), and with the use of the internet, we started to live with the concepts of hypertextuality and cyberculture, which was better evidenced in contemporary times, due to the period of the COVID pandemic 19, where the use of new technologies is increasingly imposed on society as a path of no return, requiring numerous and new perspectives in the educational field for teachers and students, who must always innovate and adapt teaching-learning methodologies.

3. NEW PERSPECTIVES

According to Brazil (2017b), education aims at the realization and integral development of the subject, his preparation to fully execute citizenship, participating in all decisions aimed at the progress of society, as well as qualification for work.

Contemporary schools, as well as many public and private IES, have encountered a great challenge in relation to the mismatch between what the school does and what is expected of it, in the face of this post-pandemic scenario, which has determined the need to adapt education to its social purpose. The obligation to rethink the entire training process at different levels of education, with its implications and all its consequences, became inevitable with the onset of the COVID 19 pandemic.  Ensuring full adjustment of the purpose of education to the demands that emerge from a new model of society, based on the constant evolution of information and communication technology through the use of technologies, has become inevitable, and, as stated by Gadotti (2000, p.9),” the school needs to set an example, dare to build the future. Innovating is more important than reproducing what exists with quality. The raw material of the school is its vision of the future.”

In this sense, the new perspectives for the use of technologies go beyond the mere introduction, use and acquisition of digital resources, demonstrating themselves as a new means of teaching and learning. For Oliveira et al. (2015), within this panorama of profound changes, the teaching practice needs to be resized so that it can meet the transformations that society is going through and that, inevitably, also affect the school space.

In view of these advances, and bearing in mind that the use of technologies in everyday life has arrived in a very incisive and dynamic way, and knowledge is presented in a new, fast and available form of learning, being mediated by technological resources and media devices, Ramazotti (2022) indicates that it is through the use of technologies in education that it is possible to transform information into knowledge, in order to provide cognitive development, improve skills and competences, and improve the ability to solve problems.

In this sense, for Neto (2018), the teacher and the school play a key role in the development of the student throughout life, as they rely on the insertion of different technologies in the educational field applied through new resources, tools, devices and artifacts technological-informatics. However, it is not easy to find simple, financially accessible and practically achievable activities, as well as activities that are applicable to different disciplines and at the same time stimulate students’ creativity and knowledge, without teachers having the preparation, mastery and the minimum necessary knowledge of active methodologies, linked to the concomitant use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in education, through innovation or renovation of pedagogies, didactics, methods or techniques.

In this way, the role of the teacher, mentioned by Maciel (2020), in the pedagogical perspective, is a redesign, which redefines traditional methodologies, without abandoning them, restructures the school and involves professional training in order to expand learning, integrating knowledge and disciplines, through the mediation and use of communication and information technology resources, used as a means of aggregating and facilitating learning, no longer limited to labor and corporate environments.

It is important to emphasize, as shown by Mattar (2010), that teaching through technologies brings collaborative opportunities, essential skills and competences for work activity and coexistence in society, and are not only used in basic education, but also in secondary and higher education and professionalizing, as it unites academic learning with leisure activity, in order to engage students, facilitating activities such as problem solving, improvisation and discoveries, ability to research, study and disseminate knowledge, performing critical and reflective analysis, among others social, cognitive, affective and cultural benefits.

Thus, Graebin (2009) states that the use of different types of learning, especially when it comes to the use of digital media, are essential for technological advancement, which transforms not only communication, but also society and the way of life see the world and the educational system, which must adapt to these technologies and to the new way of thinking, reflecting and learning of its students, which will reflect on the pedagogical criteria to be applied in the teaching-learning process.

The tools to be used by professors must help prepare classes, as well as be consistent with the objectives and lesson plan, since the pedagogical practices and criteria used will enhance and consolidate knowledge in the teaching-learning process, with effective training methods , as stated by Marcon (2011), providing effective, dynamic and pleasurable learning, which shares knowledge, increases reflective and critical capacity, improves speaking, reading and writing, through the use of technologies, which, exemplified by whether Blogs, gamification, videos, discussion forums, the use of webquest, moodle and podcast, among many others.

According to Ramazotti (2022), education must provide students with the ability to work with technological resources, to extract new knowledge from them and facilitate teaching and learning processes, aiming to facilitate the integral development of the student, improving perception and stimulating the creativity. For this, educators must improve their knowledge of technology and apply a teaching methodology capable of making the subject understandable to students.

Finally, Beserra (2017, p.15) corroborates the need for teacher training to be related to ICTs, in a perspective of challenges in relation to the handling of artifacts.

O desafio é imenso. As TICs materializam-se em variados artefatos e seus usos não são estáticos. Daí a necessidade dessa formação docente para esses usos pedagógicos; manusear tecnicamente um notebook, um projetor ou um produtor de slides, por exemplo, não é tarefa difícil, os alunos sabem fazer isso. Parte do desafio reside em planejar uma aula onde esses recursos possam ser usados não como um apêndice ou como objetos para motivar os alunos e dinamizar as aulas, mas, como recursos que são parte integrante e inseparável da sociedade e que são mais que recursos para as atividades curriculares, são também um sistema que conecta o sujeito usuário com o artefato, o conhecimento, o contexto e com outros sujeitos e cenários; um sistema que revoluciona a forma de pensar, produzir linguagem, criar, memorizar, perceber etc. (BESERRA , 2017, p. 15)

Therefore, learning must be increasingly creative and innovative, and at any stage of the teaching-learning process, teachers must stimulate critical thinking in their students, in addition to their way of acting, in order to stimulate imagination and creativity, either through games or realistic simulations, mainly, aiming at reflecting on the activities, and these must be worked on and developed, from kindergarten to higher education.

These new educational perspectives cover, as presented by Carvalho and Bittar (2010), navigation with the use of information and communication technologies, group debates, broad transmission of knowledge, conflict mediation and educational projects, which can be improved through the use of electronic mail (emails), internet searches, use of mental maps and images, use of videos, cloud resources and file storage, virtual dictionaries, search for articles, books and others content in virtual libraries and blogs, interaction through chat conversations, groups, virtual communities, discussion forums and the use of other resources and instant messaging applications, as well as holding meetings and video conferences. Added to this, according to Maciel (2020), are tools such as smartphones, bluetooth, WI-FI, mobile applications and social networks, such as: Redu, Google Docs, Visual Class, Tonomundo, E-proInfo, Portal Aprendi Brasil, Moodle , among many others.

Branco (2021) declares that the inclusion of technologies in everyday life and in academic circles is inevitable, with information and communication technologies being part of the daily lives of students, making it necessary to analyze and use them to expand the learning process, in order to in order to enable the exchange of information and create new teaching-learning networks, with ample potential to transform the educational system through the use of technological tools and new educational practices.

Maciel (2020) also associates that technologies grow so that everyday difficulties are overcome, helping humanity to develop, impacting social, historical and educational evolution. Allied to this, the massive use of smartphones, which has become a mediating tool and an essential technological apparatus in the educational environment, just having access to the internet, processor and operating system to be similar and generate access options equal to a computer, with the advantage of mobility, easy handling and multifunctionality, integrating several areas of knowledge, in an attractive way for students. However, it is necessary to emphasize that technology is not the solution to all educational problems, making it evident the need for joint use with traditional methodologies, which are also important forms of teaching, becoming interdependent.

Given the speed of contemporary technological evolution, it is understood, therefore, that the use of technology and ICT in the educational field, as well as the use of all educational technological devices, completely surpass the mere adoption, selection and acquisition of skills and abilities teachers in use, as this relates to the ongoing training of teachers at their different levels of activity, which should cover active learning methodologies, striving for significant results and effective teaching methods, playing the role of advisor and mediator, and stimulating critical learning and reflective, producing, as an expected result, true learning and the student’s overall development.

4. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

Considering that one of the great challenges of this era of knowledge is to work with social transformations in conjunction with technologies, the present work sought to describe and analyze the fact that new technologies are not limited to the mere use of equipment and technological resources by teachers, but rather, it deals with their integration in methodologies that are becoming more and more active. The contemporary teaching role is understood as a tutor who teaches in a participatory and collaborative way, so that students assimilate knowledge, making use of digital resources to do so.

Here we find that the facilities for accessing knowledge are available to everyone, but not always accessible to all groups, and should be used in classrooms, with the common goal of learning, shaped by cooperation and skills as a way to stimulate and captivate students.

During the process of this research, we were able to perceive that the implementation of technologies in the educational area meets the need to develop pedagogical practices that promote knowledge and a greater assimilation of the content by the student, either with the use of gamification through interactive games or through the use of other resources aimed at stimulating a new learning modality for students who start to seek new means of knowledge, becoming protagonists of their own learning process.

We can say that all the knowledge acquired throughout the development of this research contributed significantly to a teaching attitude that is more aware of its relevance to the entire contemporary process of student learning.

We also noticed that the teaching and learning processes are in constant development, always seeking to provide the acquisition of knowledge through studies, experiences and the use of information and communication technologies, as well as digital inclusion is increasingly present in the development of students in all stages of education.

In view of the growth of communication through digital technologies, the emergence of different technological devices, as well as their massive access, this bibliographical review confirmed that current teachers will need to develop their digital skills by creating content that is rich in information and quite diversified, where the stimulus to meaningful learning occurs through access to videos, images, games, texts and articles, among others, making you able to choose the digital tools most applicable to your content and most didactically suitable for your students.

Finally, we emphasize the importance of educational public policies for digital inclusion at different levels of education, and especially those related to the continuing education of teachers to develop new and creative skills related to lesson plans and pedagogical plans, in order to contribute to the rich and meaningful learning of digital natives with the strengthening of continued teacher training.

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APPENDIX – FOOTNOTE

5. Instituições de Ensino Superior (IES).

6. Ministério da Educação (MEC).

7. Base Nacional Comum Curricular (BNCC).

8. Programa Nacional de Informática na Educação (PROINFO).

9. Núcleos de Tecnologia Educacional (NTE).

[1] Master’s student in Education: Specialization in Higher Education: ICT in Education – Universidad Europea Del Atlántico – (UNEATLANTICO) – Spain; Master Business Administration in Leadership and Coaching (UNINTER); Specialist in Applied Law – (EMAP); Specialist in Business Law – (UNIOESTE); Degree in Law – Faculdade de Ciências Sociais Aplicadas de Cascavel – (UNIVEL). ORCID: 0000-0003-3151-5456.

[2] Master’s student in Education: Specialization in Higher Education: ICT in Education – Universidad Internacional Iberoamericana – (UNIB) – Puerto Rico; Specialist in Special Education – Specialized Educational Service – AEE. – Universidade Federal do Ceará; Specialist in Educational Supervision (UNIUBE); Graduation in Higher Normal of the Initial Series – Universidade Estadual de Montes Claros – (UNIMONTES). ORCID: 0000-0001-8504-7892.

[3] Master’s student in Education: Specialization in Higher Education: ICT in Education – Universidad Internacional Iberoamericana – (UNIB) –  Puerto Rico; Specialist in Family Health – (UFMG); Specialist in Public Health – (UNAERP); Specialist in Obstetric Nursing – (UFMG); Nursing Degree – Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais – (PUC MG). ORCID: 0000-0001-9719-4937.

[4] Master’s student in Education: Specialization in Higher Education: ICT in Education – Universidad Europea Del Atlántico – (UNEATLANTICO) – Spain; Specialist in Applied Law – (EMAP); Specialist in Business Law – (UNIOESTE); Degree in Law – Faculdade de Ciências Sociais Aplicadas de Cascavel – (UNIVEL); Public Management – IFPR. ORCID: 0000-0001-7584-0838.

Sent: September, 2022.

Approved: October, 2022.

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Lucia Angelica da Cruz Barreto

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