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Teacher training: ethics and science in the diffusion citizenship

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MENDES, Clodovil Mascarenhas [1]

MENDES, Clodovil Mascarenhas. Teacher training: ethics and science in the diffusion citizenship. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year. 07, Ed. 11, Vol. 02, pp. 93-108. November 2022. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link:


This article discusses the interpellation between education and citizenship permeating teacher training. In this way, we seek to understand what is the relationship between school education, the construction of citizenship and the role of the teacher in this relationship? The general objective is to promote a reflection on the process of building knowledge around pedagogical praxis, allowing an analysis of teacher training as a diffuser of citizenship. Aiming, underlyingly, a critical self-reflection on academic life and the pedagogical practice developed during activities in the educational field, relating theory and practice in their area of professional training with the ethical paradigms arising from the relationship between subjects in society. To carry out this study, bibliographical research was used, in the field of social research, and the reflections arising from the author’s experiences as a teacher of basic education and a student in graduate school. The main results point to educational aspects linked to teacher training for citizenship, ethics and diversity that are necessary for the dissemination of real ethical, critical and reflective values of citizenship and that serve to strengthen the commitment of education to the development of social relations and society as a whole.

Keywords: Teacher training, Pedagogical praxis, Citizen training, Diversity.


The concept of citizenship is related to notions of belonging to a given society, being intrinsically related to the rights and duties considered socially relevant or specific. Thus, a citizen is an individual enjoying the civil and political rights of a State. In a broader concept, citizenship means the quality of being a citizen, subject of rights and duties.

In the course of building citizenship in Brazil, the role of social movements and the 1988 constitution stands out, which places education as one of the main social rights and the expansion of the right to access formal education, understanding this as a primordial factor in the construction of citizenship.

The public school in this context is seen as strategic for a more inclusive project of society, making teacher training a challenge to align practice and theory, based on communication and discussion of knowledge, learning and teaching performance during the period of academic training. Providing a personalized information system for critical self-reflection on academic life and the pedagogical practice developed during activities in the educational field, relating theory and practice in their area of professional training with the ethical paradigms of relationships between subjects in society.

Thus, in this article we seek to analyze what is the relationship between school education, the construction of citizenship and the role of the teacher in this relationship? As well as reporting how the experiences of teachers and learning contribute to the process of preparing the individual as an ethical, active, citizen and concerned with society and the environment that surrounds him. To answer this question, a brief summary on ethics and citizenship in the area of education is in order to conceptualize the commitment of education to the full formation of the subject.

In the field of ethics, “The science that studies moral judgments referring to human conduct and virtues characterized by the orientation of personal acts according to the values of good and public decency” (XIMENES, 2000, p. 409) acts in order to bring the development in the various sectors of current society, especially citizenship. Among these, there is education, which is the guiding parameter that causes the perpetuation of values to be imposed in social interactions.

According to Guizzo (2009, p. 39), “Social interaction is defined as the process by which a person acts in relation to another person or group of people or reacts due to an action by another person or group”. Educating starts from the principle of preparing subjects in society so that they can develop skills and attitudes aimed at its development, thus bringing better interaction and socialization between individuals.

Adopting education from an ethical perspective in society is a duty, that is, education is the key that provides entry to the various qualitative aspects of development in society, but this understanding has not been taken seriously and is not put into practice by individuals who do not value the fullness of citizenship.

Working with education, perceiving it, and interacting with it in society, has been a challenge in contemporary processes that occurs due to several implicit factors and reported in this scientific work, developed specifically for this purpose, to value and perceive an education aimed at a society citizen.

Based on this assumption, in order to encourage reflection on the theme of citizenship and school education and the didactic relevance of the theme, we understand citizenship. According to the thinker La Taille (2009, p. 34) “it is urgent for the school to be a place of better, a space for reflection on this issue of the life one wants to live”, in addition to addressing educational issues, there is a mission on the part of the school with the construction of values and principles which in the past were mediated exclusively by the family.

Given the above, we can infer, in line with Padilha’s studies (2001), that the school

É aquela que viabiliza a cidadania a de quem está nela e de quem vem a ela. Ela não pode ser uma escola em si e para si. Ela é cidadã na medida em que se exercita na construção da cidadania de quem usa o seu espaço.

A Escola Cidadã é uma escola coerente com a liberdade, que brigando para ser ela mesma, luta para que os educandos-educadores também sejam eles mesmos. E como ninguém pode ser só, a Escola Cidadã é uma escola de comunidade, de companheirismo. É uma escola que não pode ser jamais licenciosa nem jamais autoritária. É uma escola que vive a experiência tensa da democracia (PADILHA, 2001, p. 22).

Report the experiences allied to the facts that occurred, based on the individuals who were endorsed throughout the process of acquiring knowledge, cited in the course of this scientific work, through their works, which will serve as mechanisms to direct the unfolding of the representation of facts, discussions, readings, indications and observations assimilated during the academic process, implicit in the oriented activities and in the practical activities imposed during the study process on the various related knowledge.

Thus, in order to carry out this article, the presuppositions of bibliographic research were considered, being “[…] developed from material already prepared, consisting mainly of books and scientific articles” (GIL, 2008, p. 50), without disregarding the this author’s experience as a basic education teacher and graduate student.

Given the above, we can infer that citizenship, with regard to teaching practice, highlights the social function of effectively contributing to teacher training, as a committed education professional aware of the importance of their role in current Brazilian society.


The right to education is guaranteed by the Federal Constitution (1988), ECA (BRASIL, 1990), LDB (BRASIL, 1996), which provide for its full development and exercise of citizenship in full equality of conditions.

Education will reveal its potency when the people who apply it, act aiming at the collective good and think about the real meaning that it provides, maintaining the intellectual development and the good actions of the subjects. Educating citizens who are concerned about the fate of society is a difficult task, as we are routinely involved in situations that develop the applicability of acts that do not bring full citizenship: drug trafficking, family quarrels, “breakage” of family values, prostitution, disrespect, finally, a list of existing problems in the social and educational environment that makes the whole process difficult. The teacher interacts with all these problems on a daily basis at school and becomes, to a certain extent, vulnerable to these and other challenges linked to their fundamental role of teaching.

A educação é arte do coração. Essa frase não é nova. Nem sei quem foi o primeiro a dizê-la. Mas está na essência de Sócrates e está fundamentado do Dom Bosco. Sócrates instigava os jovens de seu tempo a colocar para fora o potencial que tinham. Era como um ‘parto de ideias’. Dom Bosco, o jovem padre italiano, queria mostrar o quanto era importante aos jovens que não apenas fossem amados, mas que sentissem amados (CHALITA, 2008, p. 48).

Process in which different situations of interaction between the subjects occur, directing them in the search for development in several aspects. Investing in education changes society, countries changed social qualitative indicators when they emphasized educational aspects, such as: valuing teachers and investing in educational incentives. The changes are significant when we have a society focused on education actions and commitment to the processes of interrelationship in society.

Being aware of what is different and knowing how to work with it is a complex action in educational processes. Diversity in the educational environment is a common assumption, the teacher interacts with different subjects, however, with similar objectives, aiming at maturation and the rise of learning, making himself available without imposing his ideas and conceptions. Their role is to guide, mingling with the group to reflect collectively. Knowing how to transmit knowledge in the midst of diversity is a complicated role, because applying the correct methodology to all subjects, making everyone learn the contents is not like indicating a remedy and being sure that the deficiency will be corrected.

“In this perspective, education does not wait for the intellectual development of the child, on the contrary, its function is to take the student forward, because the more he learns, the more he develops mentally” (PELLEGRINI, 2001, p. 19).

Working with diversity means printing methodologies that address the rise of social mechanisms, that is, interacting in activities collectively, applying dynamics of cooperation between subjects, developing playful activities aimed at the interrelationship between them, in short, preparing them in order to value an education focused on maturing aspects of relationships between individuals, with a focus on citizenship education.

Professionals in academic training must be willing to fully develop in order to interact and expand their knowledge, because nowadays we face countless problems, among which are socio-environmental ones.

Socio-environmental problems are implicitly intertwined with their field of action and it is their duty to combine technological knowledge with experience acquired in the field. The Science, Technology and Society movement (CTS)[2], an organization based on moral values that expresses its concern to act scientifically in solving existing problems in the socio-environmental sphere, having “as its central objective, preparing students to exercise citizenship and characterize for an approach to scientific content in its social context” (SANTOS; MORTIMER, 2002, p. 6). From the environmental point of view, it is necessary that there be a reformulation of attitudes, that is, many actions and attitudes that were put into practice in the past must be reviewed in the present, what nature sustained a long time ago, today cannot continue to happen.

Education must also act on this thought, in a rupture of harmful actions and erroneous ideologies of action to the environment. Professionals in education have a unique role in this process, both in the area of research and experiments, and especially the teacher, who disseminates knowledge about socio-environmental education in the educational environment, these actions are of paramount importance, as they perpetuate in young people the methods of action to the development of society in the assumptions of ethics.

“We live in a world markedly influenced by science and technology. Such influence is so great that we can speak of an autonomization of scientific reason in all spheres of human behavior” (Santos; Mortimer, 2002, p. 2).

Students must apprehend information based on improving attitudes, disseminating projects at school, bringing social reality to classes, on a daily basis at school, applying activities aimed at learning and the applicability of these assumptions, in a process of research and curiosity focused on the full socio-environmental development in a process of constant concern with regard to environmental preservation.

Forming critical, reflective and ethical citizens is the duty of educational systems, whether school or higher education, as citizenship has been gradually extinguished from the actions of social subjects, understanding that it is necessary for the student to be able to recognize himself in the contents and social models presented to develop the ability to process and develop information and deal with environmental stimuli, seeking to expand experiences and acquire learning.

In educational and academic environments that broaden our knowledge about the problems existing in the world, we learn the facts, reports, experiences and diverse knowledge that give us the perception of action among the individuals we interact with on a daily basis.

In academia, the central objective of pedagogical practice is to focus on the possibility of acquiring and expanding the skills and abilities necessary not only to act as a professional in education, but, above all, as a person who thinks, feels and interacts in a productive and cooperative way in the society where he lives. These skills and abilities were acquired and socialized with greater intensity in the relationship between theory and practice, as it works with more grounded and broad discussions of social aspects.

These and other interactions between subjects ethically enable good results in the future for society. Acting politely is realizing the real role of subjects in the development of full citizenship. As Paulo Freire (1996) warns us when reflecting on the teaching and learning process says that:

O pensar certo sabe, por exemplo, que não é a partir dele como um dado, que se conforma a prática docente crítica, mas sabe também que sem ele não se funda aquela.  A prática docente crítica, implicante do pensar certo, envolve o movimento dinâmico, dialético, entre o fazer e o pensar sobre o fazer (FREIRE, 1996, p. 38).

Knowledge within the academic field is necessarily focused on constant research in the pursuit of expanding the necessary knowledge to be applied and shared among individuals. In modern times, with the speed of the virtual world and the lack of time for people to continue their studies, Distance Education has been an innovative activity that facilitates the process of expanding knowledge in the academic field.

A differentiated reality of study that is characterized by unique face-to-face moments, usually weekly; teacher list by videoconference; students searching for information over the internet; in addition to many obligations and the minimum interrelationship between subjects in a face-to-face environment.

The need for qualification in the knowledge society makes us seek technological mechanisms from different studies in contemporary times, in search of human development and good quality of life, based on different aspects, both social, physical and mental.

Science linked to technology brings the qualitative expansion and development of society, as soon as we want to seek information on a variety of subjects, the internet is an essential mechanism to remedy the difficulties related to lack of knowledge, it is also where we socialize and find important information to be applied in the development of society and citizenship. Technology advances surprisingly over time, the education professional needs to be aware of the technological and virtual world.

The teacher must understand that he interacts in the teaching and learning process with students who, for the most part, have access to information, with the virtual and social library being mechanisms rich in research and at the same time poor, based on the assumption and purpose of the search of each person. All information is necessary when used in the right way, which brings consistent teachings and focused on ethical paradigms of accessibility.

Professor não é quem dá aula ‘dar aula’ tornou-se expressão vulgar para mera reprodução de conhecimento, reduzindo-se a procedimento transmissivo de caráter instrucionista. Embora ‘aula’ não precise ser rebaixada a só isso, carrega o estigma secular de repasse reprodutivo de conhecimento alheio. Se for para apenas reproduzir conhecimento, temos hoje meios mais interessantes disponíveis, como a parafernália eletrônica, que tem a vantagem de poder ser ao vivo e em cores, com efeitos especiais, conduzida por gente bonita e jovem (DEMO, 2007, p. 13).

Based on the writings of Pedro Demo (2007), we understand that it is relevant that the teacher, in his process of continuous reconstruction, be aware of certain subjects, considering that his audience has the possibility of having access to levels of knowledge as advanced as his own, not that the teacher is the holder of knowledge and the student the passive subject, who receives the information in a static way.

It is urgent, especially in the context brought about by the Covid 19 pandemic, to be prepared for different situations that can enhance new learning, both for teachers and students, as they exchange different knowledge and knowledge. In order to teach, the teacher is required to organize the use of methods and techniques appropriate to the objectives of the students, being a logical, structured and decisive action in the teaching and learning process.

Professionals in the field of education play a fundamental role in disseminating aspects of social development, especially educators concerned with the teaching and learning process, disseminating all teachings related to awareness of socio-environmental preservation, which is implicit in aspects of citizenship.

Researching, reflective, critical and ethical teacher is the most fruitful way of teaching. Despite being progressive and necessary ideas, it is important to say that their execution is challenging for teachers, but with all the difficulty, one way or another, they must be brought into teaching practice.

[…] Não há ensino sem pesquisa e pesquisa sem ensino. Esses que-fazeres se encontram um no corpo do outro. Enquanto ensino continuo buscando, reprocurando. Ensino porque busco, porque indaguei, porque indago e me indago. Pesquiso para constatar, constatando, intervenho, intervindo educo e me educo. Pesquiso para conhecer o que ainda não conheço e comunicar ou anunciar a novidade […] (FREIRE, 1996, p. 29).

In line with Freire (1996), we can infer that it is urgent, mainly in the socio-educational context brought about after the Covid-19 pandemic, for education professionals to be prepared for different situations that can enhance new learning, both for teachers and students, as in which they exchange knowledge and diverse knowledge. In order to teach, the teacher is required to organize the use of methods and techniques appropriate to the objectives of the students, being a logical, structured and decisive action in the teaching and learning process.

The contemporary society we are part of is guided by rules of coexistence that harmonize the relationships between social subjects. “Sociologists define society as a group of people who live in the same territory, speak the same language and share the same culture” (GUIZZO, 2009, p. 25), for this common reason that within society there are paradigms of coexistence , and these norms are qualified through education and diversity among subjects. “Education is the set of pedagogical norms tending to the development of the psychic, intellectual and moral faculties of the child and of the human being in general” (KURY, 2001, p. 269).

It is noticed that education has a preponderant role in the midst of society, to promote ruptures of paradigms in society and to dare to change, seeking what has not been tried, in an ethical way. Seeking means of development through actions permeated by education is to aim at the full development of subjects inserted in society.

A ética diz respeito às reflexões sobre as condutas humanas. A pergunta ética por excelência é: ‘Como agir perante os outros?’. Verifica-se que tal pergunta é ampla, complexa e sua resposta implica tomadas de posição valorativas. A questão central das preocupações éticas é a de justiça entendida como inspirada pelos valores de igualdade e equidade (BRASIL, 1997, p. 26).

In the research and in the pedagogical practice, the objective was to contribute favorably to the awareness of the importance and breadth of the educator’s professional practice in the context of the 21st century. Comprehensive training and the development of essential skills and competences to validate the pillars of education: learning to do, learning to live together, learning to learn and learning to be.

These essential pillars inspire us to develop efficient practices aimed at the development of interrelationships in the midst of society, it is entirely interconnected with day-to-day practice, thus developing learning, in line with pedagogical action. This action must recognize and know how to work with subjects who act differently from each other, various practices and actions that occur differently during classes, in the process of exchanging knowledge, which can benefit or hinder the teaching and learning process.

In the teacher/student interrelationships, there are differences in attitudes, behaviors, ability to learn and, in many cases, to teach; there should be a critical look at conflicting actions and situations in the school environment and should be banned from learning environments. For example, the practice of bullying in educational environments, these are attitudes that affect the psychology of people affected by the problem, sometimes causing irreversible damage to the subjects involved “About 15 years ago, these provocations came to be seen as a form of violence and gained name: Bullying, […] which can be translated as intimidating or frightening” (NOVA ESCOLA, 2010, p. 68, emphasis added).

Por volta dos 10 ou 12 anos a criança passa a buscar, no convívio social, referências diferentes das que sempre recebeu em casa, dando continuidade ao processo de construção de sua personalidade. Essa é a época de aprender a lidar com a própria imagem. Se essa criança se conhece e gosta de como é, consegue manifestar equilibrada. Do contrário, pode sentir prazer em menosprezar o outro para se afirmar. Logo em seguida, juntamente com a entrada na adolescência, vem a necessidade de pertencer a um grupo. Nesse momento, basta sair um pouco do padrão (alto, baixo, gordo, magro) para ser provocada (NOVA ESCOLA, 2010, p. 69).

The practice of bullying is characterized, for example, by cursing a colleague, hitting, humiliating, using nicknames, making fun of a disability, biotype, hair texture, posting messages that are offensive to appearance on social networks, in short, this whole process is entirely linked to the lack of awareness and knowledge of the harm that these attitudes cause in the psychological of those affected, causing a drop in the level of learning of these people, school dropout and psychological problems and even suicide.

The attitudes to be taken by everyone at school in order to minimize the effects of this practice should be based on prevention projects for this problem, making subjects aware of the appreciation of citizenship practices, values and mutual respect, aiming to demonstrate that all of us human beings are different, and this assumption is what makes us socialize information in a social environment.

Quando a pauta é a violência escolar, visualizamos trocas de xingamentos, palavrões verbais, desrespeito com o material alheio, depredação do patrimônio escolar, ameaças dirigidas aos professores e agressões físicas, propriamente, entre alunos (e mais raramente de alunos contra professores e vice-versa), como chutes, tapas, beliscões etc. Contudo, aqui, o cerne da questão é ampliar os conhecimentos e sensibilizar para uma violência que é silenciada pelo medo e está presente, infelizmente, no mundo inteiro, Trata-se do Bullying, uma forma intencional e repetitiva de atitudes agressivas dentro da escola (CHALITA, 2008, p. 80).

The role of education or its commitment is to know how to develop the society in which we are implicit, linked to knowing how to work with different beings, applying teaching methodologies that bring the expansion of the knowledge transmitted in the teaching and learning process. These experiences are acquired by the teacher when he becomes a professional focused on the interests of citizenship concerned with his professional development.

The teacher develops his action when he seeks to learn the necessary steps in his constant practices in an educational environment, evaluating his results every year, positively reviewing and taking stock of what went well and what needs to be corrected, if possible take these reflections also in personal life, facing reality is fundamental to acquiring experiences and only those who are full citizens promote the development of citizenship.

It is with the reality of remote teaching imposed in 2020 as an alternative to the social isolation brought about by the pandemic that the educator learns to work with the available mechanisms, bringing to the school environment the curiosity to seek new ways of increasing knowledge using internet tools. Upon entering the virtual technological world and realizing the range of resources that it is possible to incorporate into educational development, one learns that within the implicit diversities in society, whether at school, at home, or at work, in short, respecting and working with the diversity intertwined with Qualitative aspects of citizenship qualify actions and make relationships between subjects more effective in the social environment.

“Understanding social issues, thinking about them, analyzing them, making propositions, evaluating alternatives require the ability to represent information and relate them” (BRASIL, 1998, p. 38).

In this sense, the school needs to re-dimension its thinking, reformulating its actions by understanding what the school community expects of it as a social function.

Full citizenship turns to educational processes, just as education turns to the current values of social subjects’ relationship, everyone is included in society, with determined and determining roles, actions of ruptures, conjunctures, interaction.

A social being is one concerned with the environment that surrounds him, knowing that ethical actions, pre-established and triggered by social parameters, fully develop our space of interrelationship between individuals.

Interactions with people in search of common goals brought the most valuable acquisitions of learning and social problems make us reflect at all times on the individual and collective attitudes that we carry out and that make us responsible for the way that it behaves and behaves translates to others. Valuing the variety of cultures, questioning knowledge and the need for contradiction is what we must do without propagating another myth: that of neutrality.


From the reflections made on education and citizenship brought in referential documents such as the National Curriculum Parameters (PCN)[3] (1998), we understand that we are thinking and active beings in a complex society, which also includes unethical attitudes that damage the real values of citizenship. Citizenship is in a permanent process of construction and reconstruction through the struggles of those who fight for rights and better living conditions and collective health.

The school is a privileged diversity space to learn to solve conflicts and savor the grace of living with the difference, it brings the criticality of actions in the search for the development of the society of knowledge, in the incessant search of the same since there is no transformation without education.

To problematize the behaviors based on the educational parameters of actions of the subjects involved and implicit in this educational scope. It takes us to a contemporary technological world, where knowledge is acquired in a simple command of the brain under the hands and the relationship with the different in diversified ways, however with common objectives of knowledge assimilation.

Returning to the initial question, we seek to analyze the relationship between school education, in the construction of citizenship and the teacher’s role in this relationship. Men and women are not born knowing the laws, rights and duties of citizenship, which goes through a long process of socialization that is promoted through school. Thus, it is necessary to consider that in order to achieve active citizenship based on the principles of freedom and equality, basic education is a fundamental part.

Education is a right of every citizen guaranteed by law, so the teacher, as a trainer, needs to have a perception of his/her role in the formation of this citizen, since he/she is a reference for the student. Given the above, there is a latent need to problematize teaching practices together with managers and the students themselves, this engagement will contribute to the transposition of the concepts of citizenship and human rights so that children and adolescents learn from an early age to live together in society.

We are unfinished beings and from the point of view of learning, we are always expanding and developing our knowledge, being aware that every day new learning is imposed on us, as soon as they develop our practices, in the search for a more ethical and conscious society.


BRASIL. Lei nº 9.394. Estabelece as Diretrizes e Bases da Educação Nacional, de 20 de Dezembro de 1996. Diário Oficial da União, Brasília, DF, 23 dez. 1996. P. 27833-41.

BRASIL. Secretaria de Educação Fundamental. Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais: apresentação dos temas transversais, ética. – Brasília: MEC/SEF, 1997.

BRASIL. Constituição da República Federativa do Brasil. Presidência da República. 5 de outubro de 1988. Brasília, DF: Senado Federal: Centro Gráfico: 1988.

BRASIL. Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente – ECA. Câmara dos Deputados, Lei no 8.069, de 13 de julho de 1990. DOU de 16 jul. 1990. Brasília: Câmara dos Deputados, 1990.

CHALITA, Gabriel. Pedagogia da amizade – Bullying: o sofrimento das vítimas e dos agressores. São Paulo: Editora Gente, 2008.

DEMO, Pedro. Professor do futuro e reconstrução do conhecimento. 5. ed. Petrópolis, RJ: Vozes, 2007.

FREIRE, Paulo. Pedagogia da autonomia: saberes necessários à prática educativa. São Paulo: Paz e Terra, 1996.

GIL, Antônio Carlos. Métodos e técnicas de pesquisa social. 6. ed. São Paulo: Atlas, 2008.

GUIZZO, João. Introdução a sociologia. 1. ed. São Paulo: Companhia Editora Nacional, 2009.

KURY, Adriano da Gama. Minidicionário Gama Kury da Língua Portuguesa. São Paulo: FTD, 2001.

LA TAILLE, Yves de. Formação Ética: do tédio ao respeito de si. Porto Alegre: Artmed, 2009.

NOVA ESCOLA. Cyber Bullying, a revista Nova Escola aborda o bullying e mostra que combater essa violência passa pela escola. Nova Escola. Editora Abril – Fundação Victor Civita. n. 223, jun./jul., 2010.

PADILHA, Roberto Paulo. Planejamento dialógico: como construir o projeto político pedagógico da escola. São Paulo: Cortez; Instituto Paulo Freire, 2001.

PELLEGRINI, Denise. Aprenda com eles e ensine melhor. Nova Escola. Editora Abril – Fundação Victor Civita, n. 139, jan./fev., 2001.

SANTOS, Wildson L. P.; MORTIMER, Eduardo F. Uma análise de pressupostos teóricos da abordagem C-T-S (Ciência – Tecnologia – Sociedade) no contexto da educação brasileira. Ensaio Pesquisa em educação em ciências, v. 2, n. 2, p. 1-23, 2002.

XIMENES, Sérgio. Minidicionário Ediouro da Língua Portuguesa. 2 ed. São Paulo: Ediouro, 2000.


2. Ciência, Tecnologia e Sociedade (CTS).

3. Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais (PCN).

[1] Post-graduation in Public Policies of Basic Education – Faculdade Batista Brasileira; Graduate in Educational Management – Faculdade Hélio Rocha; Post-graduation in Teaching Methodology of Portuguese Language and Literature – Instituto Brasileiro de Pós-Graduação e Extensão; Graduation in Literature-Portuguese/English – Faculdade de Tecnologia e Ciências and Graduation in Pedagogy – Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana. ORCID: 0000-0002-9073-554X.

Sent: September, 2022.

Approved: November, 2022.

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