REVISTACIENTIFICAMULTIDISCIPLINARNUCLEODOCONHECIMENTO

Educational practice in basic education: challenges in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

PEREIRA, Cleusa Rodrigues [1]

PEREIRA, Cleusa Rodrigues. Educational practice in basic education: challenges in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year. 07, Ed. 02, Vol. 01, p. 79-93. February 2022. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/covid-19-pandemic

ABSTRACT

With the advent and sharp spread of the COVID-19 pandemic, the suspension of school activities was a direct and quick measure taken in order to contain the spread of the virus. The education sector needed to be reconfigured to resume its activities. In view of the particularities of each school unit, the present study brought as a guiding question: what are the main and new challenges of educational practice in basic education developed through remote teaching offered in the period of social isolation imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic?. In this perspective, we aimed to reflect on the main and new challenges of educational practice in basic education developed with remote teaching offered in the period of social isolation imposed by the pandemic. This is a qualitative, exploratory, bibliographic, integrative study that worked with articles published in 2020. The results indicated that among the various challenges faced by teachers, the biggest one refers to the lack of skills in the use of Digital Information and Communication Technologies, thus influencing the quality of the teaching-learning process offered. It was also observed that the teaching work condition did not facilitate the development of student-centered pedagogical practices. We know that the implementation of hybrid learning is in progress and planning and execution will be of great importance based on the reality experienced as remote teaching, therefore, an accurate critical reflection on educational practices to be configured by political, technological, cultural mechanisms. and social and biological, is necessary.

Keywords: Teacher Training, Remote Education, Challenges of Pedagogical Practice, Teaching Quality.

1. INTRODUCTION

A little over two years ago, the world was faced with a situation that was not only unpredictable, but also devastating: a highly contagious and potentially fatal virus, SARS-CoV-2, also known as the Novel Coronavirus or COVID-19. On March 11, 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared COVID-19 a pandemic and, as a countermeasure, “[…] hundreds of countries have adopted social distancing measures or even lockdowns to reduce the transmission of the disease. . Several countries have closed schools around the world, impacting 70% of the student population” (GODOI et al., 2020, p. 4). The pandemic has changed people’s lives all over the world, bringing transformations in all social axes, especially in Education.

COVID-19 is responsible for one of the biggest health crises ever faced in the world, and has been claiming hundreds of thousands of lives and changing, perhaps forever, individual and collective habits and customs, giving new meaning to the interaction of life in society. , known as the “new normal”.

It is worth noting that many of these processes affected by the pandemic were not new, however, they began to experience different challenges. Namely, for example, the educational sector, accustomed to few and slow changes, had to be reorganized and readjusted without even having time to reflect the level of changes necessary to meet this emergency.

Education was one of the sectors of society most directly affected by the pandemic, because, in order to minimize the pedagogical damage brought about by the suspension of face-to-face activities, classes and other educational activities needed to be developed remotely, using methodologies with the use of virtual instruments. Classes and other activities carried out remotely represent a contrast with the country’s educational culture, centered on face-to-face. According to Beraldo (2020), new educational prototypes had to be adopted and teachers had to adapt to a new reality. The COVID-19 pandemic has caused teachers across the country to switch from school boards and desks to digital screens and apps.

In fact, the pandemic has intensified the certainty that everyone needs to be literate not only in their mother tongue but also in digital literacy. Faced with this finding, teachers had to adapt not only to a new way of life in view of the need for social distancing, but also to reinvent their practice, in order to meet the new educational requirements by teaching and learning through a new model of education. mediated by technology.

The new technologies were introduced as essential work tools to maintain the teaching-learning process, causing concerns related to the adaptation of educators to the use of these novelties in teaching in their virtual classroom. In view of the particularities of the structuring axes in the various teaching modalities in basic education, the present study sought to answer the following research question: what are the main and new challenges of the educational practice of basic education developed with remote teaching offered in the period of isolation social security imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic?

The general objective of this article was to reflect on the main and new challenges of the educational practice of basic education developed with remote teaching offered in the period of social isolation imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. Specific objectives: Identify the main challenges faced by basic education teachers with remote teaching; report on the quality of basic education offered through remote teaching.

For Rondini; Pedro and Duarte (2020, p. 44), with the pandemic came new and old reflections for education, such as “[…] the working conditions of teachers, the quality of the teaching-learning process, the relevance and meaning among the topics to be addressed, the development of student-centered pedagogical practices […]”. The justification for the choice of the theme, in addition to being part of the problem that the author is developing doctoral studies, is a theme that needs to be debated with the scientific community, corroborating for a pedagogical rethink that meets the social demand with new paradigms. educational.

2. METHODOLOGY

This is qualitative research, of a bibliographic nature, which was developed and built from materials already published, that is, the sources of the bibliographic review are mainly scientific articles in journals (GIL, 2008). According to Gil (2008, p. 50) “the main advantage of bibliographic research resides in the fact that it allows the researcher to cover a much wider range of phenomena than the one he could research directly”.

This research is inductive, since the researcher seeks to know and observe the facts or phenomena in order to seek the relationships that involve their variables (GIL, 2008). It is an exploratory and descriptive study, since it allows the researcher, in addition to having an overview of the chosen topic, a closer approximation of the phenomenon studied (GIL, 2008).

It presents a qualitative approach, according to Minayo (1994, p. 21 and 22), this type of research answers particular questions, seeking to analyze realities that cannot be quantified:

A pesquisa qualitativa responde a questões muito particulares. Ela se preocupa, nas ciências sociais, com um nível de realidade que não pode ser quantificado, ou seja, ela trabalha com o universo de significados, motivos, aspirações, crenças, valores e atitudes, o que corresponde a um espaço mais profundo das relações, dos processos e dos fenômenos que não pode ser reduzidos à operacionalização de variáveis (MINAYO, 1994, p. 21 and 22).

The bibliographic review was carried out in an article published in full, in Portuguese, in 2020 in the databases: Google Scholar and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and in a national congress. The descriptors and the crossing of the keywords were used: “teaching challenges” and “emergency remote teaching in the pandemic”, to facilitate the search for data. Inclusion criteria were: having a title that addresses the theme Educational Practice (Remote Teaching) used during the COVID-19 Pandemic period; the summary presents a problem addressing issues related to Remote Learning used in the period of the pandemic and the challenges presented in the execution of these; be a complete text and in Portuguese. The exclusion criteria were: not having any of the items listed in the inclusion criteria.

Figure 1 – Steps for data search

Steps for data search
Source: Author.

The filing, carried out from January to June 2021, was used for data collection. According to Gil (2008), this instrument allows a synthesis and appreciation of the work, allowing the researcher to organize the subjects more clearly and later integrate the texts. We found 13 published works on the subject of this study in the period of 2020, of these, after proper reading, 03 were selected, in full with the inclusion criteria listed in this study. 03 studies were analyzed, seeking to understand the challenges faced by teachers during the pandemic with the use of remote teaching and the quality of emergency remote teaching in basic education.

It was decided to organize the results in a table, so that they can be analyzed in detail. The table contains: the titles of the works, authors, year of publication and the main results observed.

Table 1 – Teacher challenges in times of COVID-19, challenges of remote education and the issue of quality in remote education

AUTHOR TITLE DATA ARGUMENTS
ALVES, L. Educação remota: entre a ilusão e a realidade 2020 – Intense and chaotic moment demanding immediate actions and reformulation of pedagogical praxis, forced to use Digital Information and Communication Technologies (TDIC) in remote classes, requiring adjustments and opening for the new, to learn.
There is resistance from children and adolescents to this routine, because they think they are on vacation, since they are at home.
– The faculty does not feel prepared to take over school activities with the mediation of digital platforms.
– Although it is important to interact with digital platforms that can contribute to the simulation and experimentation of learning situations, this should not be the only way.
CUNHA, L. F. F O ensino remoto no Brasil em tempos de pandemia: diálogos acerca da qualidade e do direito e acesso à educação 2020 – 76% of teachers seek to learn about TDIC in education to overcome the difficulties of the moment. But, most of them did not have in their initial training nor continued preparation for use.
– Most teachers did not have adequate preparation in their training to deal with new technologies in education.
– Among the limits of remote teaching is didactics, in the dynamics imposed on teachers and students. Even if for a minority of public and private education there is some synchronous interaction, for the vast majority there is less interaction and more tasks, lectures, almost always recorded, without dialogue.
– There is wear and tear due to the enormous use of time and energy that is required, with less expressive results than the face-to-face modality and even the precariousness of teaching.
– Another factor in remote teaching is the inappropriate/inadequate or scarce space in noisy houses, with parents/family members as teachers, as some technologies used by teachers or the way they develop teaching do not enable learning.
MIRANDA, K. K. C de O et al. Aulas remotas em tempo de pandemia: desafios e percepções de professores e alunos 2020 – Teachers began to adjust lesson plans, focusing on new methods, adapting spaces in their homes, adapting face-to-face teaching to the reality of distance learning.
– They need to have skills with various tools for technological use, such as: Google Meet, Moodle Platform, Chats and Live (Live broadcast).

Source: Prepared by the Author.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

As a result of social distancing, schools had to adhere to a new paradigm in education, the use of Emergency Remote Teaching. According to Reis et al. (2020), the new reality has accelerated the process to implement digital resources in schools and the teacher, more than ever, has the challenge of reinventing and looking for new methodologies.

Faced with the catastrophes caused by this 2020 pandemic, the educational sector has suffered many consequences, the stoppage of face-to-face teaching in public and private educational institutions is one of these consequences that affected parents, students, teachers and the entire school community, at different levels. and interfered in the teaching/learning process of thousands of students. “It is worth noting that this change generated an interference in the family life of all relatives, variations in work routines and occupations”. (MIRANDA et al., 2020, p. 3).

The pandemic suspended face-to-face classes in schools indefinitely (CAMPOS, 2020). Online classes have become the only alternative capable of circumventing the problem. However, replacing the board with the computer screen and the classroom with the home office was problematic for teachers and students. In today’s society, advances in the production of scientific and technological knowledge, the advent of social isolation due to the pandemic and the various forms of social relationships, due to changes, demand that teachers constantly update their knowledge and pedagogical practices. “In this constant movement of transformations, it is essential to question the knowledge necessary for the educational practice of teachers at different levels of education, capable of meeting the current demands of society”. (AGUIAR; PANIAGO; CUNHA, 2020, p. 4).

For a better understanding of the theme of this study, it is necessary to conceptualize Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT). The ERT is a temporary change to a way of teaching, an alternative for the moment of crisis. It is the use of remote solutions for teaching that would be taught in person or as hybrid courses, and will return to the old format as soon as the crisis or emergency reduces or ends. “The goal in these circumstances is not to recreate a robust education system, but to provide temporary access to educational supports and content in a quick, easy-to-configure and reliable way, during an emergency or crisis.” (HODGES et al., 2020, p. 6). In this context:

Assim, com o distanciamento social imposto pela pandemia, as atividades de toda a rede de ensino foram suspensas, pressionando a rede privada a buscar alternativas para atender a demanda dos pais e estudantes. É nesse contexto que vem emergindo uma configuração do processo de ensino-aprendizagem denominada Educação Remota, isto é, práticas pedagógicas mediadas por plataformas digitais, como aplicativos com os conteúdos, tarefas, notificações e/ou plataformas síncronas e assíncronas como os Temas (Microsoft), Google ClassGoogle MeetZoom […]. (ALVES, 2020, p. 365).

As recorded by Godoi et al. (2020, p. 4): “On March 17, 2020, the Brazilian government published Ordinance No. 343, which provides for the replacement of in-person classes with classes in digital media while the COVID-19 pandemic lasts”. Distance learning is governed by the Education Guidelines and Bases Law (LDB) and its ordinances; remote teaching was a temporary alternative for the context of the pandemic, such distance courses had, for this type of teaching, prior authorization from the Ministry of Education (MEC) from the directed and evaluated project and “all distance practices remain throughout the course, having a tutor who supports the students, with previously scheduled assessments at the poles linked to the course” (ALVES, 2020, p. 348).

In table 1, it is possible to see the need for rapid changes in the educational system, so that, from one day to the next, teachers, without adequate preparation, had to adapt content and face-to-face classes on electronic platforms using the use of Digital Information and Communication Technologies (TDIC). According to Campos (2020), in order not to lose connection with students and maintain learning, teachers had to undergo enormous behavioral changes on the part of teachers. Corroborating what Campos says (2020, p. 1) “adaptation is the main reaction of any and all change. When it happens abruptly, then… And that’s exactly what happened this year with many teachers spread across all corners of Brazil”. According to Cunha et al. (2020), 76% of teachers mobilized to learn about educational technologies and thus overcome the difficulties of the moment.

It is not new that incorporating TDIC in schools is still an obstacle in Brazil, as infrastructure problems and poor teacher training are important variables that directly intervene in the critical, intentional and productive use of technologies (RONDINI; PEDRO; DUARTE, 2020). This fact can be seen by Alves (2020) when he warns that “[…] the faculty does not feel prepared to take on school activities with the mediation of digital platforms, either because of the level of digital literacy, or, due to technological limitations. for access to these artifacts”. (ALVES, 2020, p. 348).

Aguiar; Paniago and Cunha (2020, p. 5) highlight that “in this new educational process, the teacher needs to be the mediator, instigating and guiding the student on the path of discovery, of learning, but for that, mastery of technologies and active methodologies, to reinvent teaching practices”.

It is understood that remote education for basic education has focused on teacher training, due to the lack of preparation and training of teachers to deal with digital platforms and lack of time to improve in the teaching process, as they do not feel prepared for this situation. Miranda et al. (2020) comment that the proposal for education through TDIC has always brought some obstacles, mainly due to the lack of preparation and training of teachers to handle TDIC.

Professor Atié (2020) clarifies that she never imagined such a situation “in which the models we dominated about teaching and learning required radical changes. For most teachers, the effects of the pandemic meant working like they had never experienced before.” Highlight:

Foi um grande desafio criar um modelo de aulas remotas – utilizando recursos digitais, a partir da casa dos estudantes, enquanto os prédios escolares eram fechados. Agora, perto de completar três meses de suspensão das atividades presenciais, o que se tem é uma rotina extenuante das aulas remotas. (ATIÉ, 2020, p. 1).

Along with the remote classes came the strain on the teacher, as “Mental strain has been more present, remote work has been the reality of teachers, bringing a load of stress into the home” (CAMPOS et al., 2020, p. 5). In this context:

De um lado, estão alunos cansados, com saudade dos amigos e ansiosos para voltar à escola. Do outro, professores esgotados pelo excesso de tarefas – ou ainda preocupados com os estudantes que não foram contatados, que estão “abandonados pela escola”, impossibilitados de acessar o conteúdo digital. (ATIÉ, 2020, p. 1).

Also, according to Beraldo (2020, p. 1), in addition to learning to deal with technology, the pandemic also presents the need to consider the social and emotional skills provided for in the National Common Curricular Base (BNCC), where he asserts that it must be offered in all schools in the country. “These are skills like persistence, assertiveness, empathy, self-confidence and frustration tolerance.”

For the specialist in Integral Education at the Ayrton Senna Institute, Cynthia Sanches: “The socio-emotional development of students is a fundamental aspect of being intentionally worked on at school if we want an education that considers what it is to live, live, learn and produce in the 20th century. 21” (BERALDO, 2020, p. 1).

Alves also highlights the resistance of children and adolescents to the routine imposed by the ERE, as they think they are on vacation, since they are at home. Such a situation creates stress for them and their parents, who feel powerless in the face of situations, especially regarding the absence, often, of a specific space for students to do tasks and participate in virtual interactions privately, since the family is always at home. (ALVES, 2020). In this sense:

[…] Outro aspecto, refere-se às frustrações especialmente das crianças da educação fundamental I que querem participar e as professoras não conseguem chamar todos os alunos nos encontros virtuais que acontecem diariamente com um tempo médio de duas horas. É interessante destacar que apesar de acreditarmos as crianças e adolescentes têm expertise para interagir com plataformas digitais por conta das suas interações com jogos e aplicativos (CGI. BR, 2019a; 2019b), a relação que é estabelecida nesses ambientes para promover a educação remota é bastante diferente e muitas vezes sem prazer. (ALVES, 2020, p. 349).

According to the Brazilian Constitution, to educate is to guarantee students their full development based on “equality of conditions for access and permanence in school” (Art. No. 206). Highlight:

Sendo assim, ampliar as potencialidades de crianças e jovens requer os conteúdos das diversas áreas do conhecimento, mas também requer interação social, afeto, humanização. É por esse motivo, entre outros tantos, que a educação básica precisa ser presencial. As escolas ensinam muito mais que conteúdo. Ensinam modos de vida, ao desenvolver indivíduos conhecedores do seu papel, inseridos na coletividade de nossa sociedade. (ZAJAC, 2020, p. 1).

Alves (2020) raises a question regarding the quality of basic education during this ERT process, in this sense:

A educação básica vai atender crianças e adolescentes que estão em níveis de desenvolvimentos diferenciados e por mais que tenha acesso às tecnologias digitais e telemáticas precocemente, o fazem para entretenimento e não para práticas de educação formal. Nestas fases de desenvolvimento o face-to-face é condição sine-qua-non para estes sujeitos que interagem com seus pares e professores e juntos atribuem sentidos aos distintos objetos do conhecimento, produzindo coletivamente. Logo, espaços presenciais para estas práticas, ainda é uma premissa básica. Embora seja importante criar momentos para interação com as plataformas digitais que podem contribuir para simulação e experimentações de situações de aprendizagem, mas, esse não deve ser o único caminho. (ALVES, 2020, p. 348).

There is still the fact that many schools, especially public ones, do not have the infrastructure for this modality, do not have platforms and Virtual Learning Environments (VLE), teachers with inadequate training for this modality, students not suitable for this situation (ZAJAC, 2020). Even though the “percentage of teachers with a higher education degree is much more expressive than those with only a high school level or lower, it is possible that most of them did not have adequate preparation in their training to deal with new technologies in the educational field”. (CUNHA et al., 2020). Highlight:

Os indicadores apresentados corroboram a ideia de que o ensino remoto mediado por tecnologia digital, nesta situação de pandemia, é um arranjo circunstancial de emergência, longe de atender as demandas de uma proposta educacional que garanta o acesso, permanência e possibilidades satisfatórias de aprendizagem. […]. (CUNHA et al., 2020, p. 8).

Another factor that interferes with studies in remote teaching is space: inappropriate/inadequate or scarce space in the houses, many members or excess movement and noise, where many students will have their parents/family members as teachers, since some technologies used by teachers or the way they develop teaching does not make learning possible, “requiring from these domestic mediators the pedagogical mechanisms necessary for this, which may not happen properly”. (CUNHA et al., 2020, p. 9).

For Santos (2020 apud CUNHA et al. 2020, p. 9) there are many limitations in remote teaching, because even if it had the ideal conditions, where everyone has a connection at their disposal and the teachers producing a varied and well-founded material, it would lack dialogue, collaborative activities and interaction.

Remote teaching was designed for an emergency moment, but it does not have the same quality as face-to-face teaching with respect to basic education, where students are children and adolescents in the training phase and need much more than just having content. Cunha et al (2020) comment that for this reason there is talk of harm to quality, according to the LDB, the Federal Constitution and the National Council of Education (CNE) through Opinion No. guarantee of quality standards, aiming at the full development of the student and his/her preparation for the exercise of citizenship. Remote teaching is very limited and for Santos (2020 apud CUNHA et al., 2020, p. 9) it is necessary to create virtual learning environments, where all participants “create and dispute meanings, produce content and subjectivation processes in a network, all this in the sense of creating an online education, a phenomenon typical of cyberculture”.

In this context, it is important to emphasize the limits of remote teaching which interfere in its quality. Even though for a minority of public and private education some synchronous interaction is taking place through audiovisual mediations on web conferencing platforms, for the vast majority there is less interaction and more tasks, lectures, almost always recorded and, thus not dialogued, contemplating part of the curriculum. (CUNHA et al, 2020). Still:

Não obstante as contingências serem também as responsáveis por impor esses limites, o que é compreensível e até esperado, esse contexto não justifica a crença nesse ensino remoto como alternativa capaz de contemplar alunos e professores em suas expectativas de ensino e aprendizagem. Longe disso, há um desgaste diante do enorme emprego de tempo e energia que a novidade exige, vislumbrando, assim, resultados menos expressivos que a modalidade presencial e, até mesmo, a precarização do ensino. (CUNHA et al, 2020, p. 8).

The quote above directly highlights the precariousness of education, mainly because the pandemic is not the same for everyone. Inequalities in network infrastructure, Internet access and availability of digital artifacts are social ills that have a greater impact on the less favored social classes.

4. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

In view of all that has been exposed so far and answering the guiding question proposed in this study, it is possible to affirm that there were many challenges faced by teachers in times of COVID-19, the biggest of which was to have skills in the use of TDIC, to be able to perform well in remote teaching. Other challenges were the working conditions of the teacher, the quality of the teaching-learning process, the relevance and meaning of the contents to be addressed, the development of pedagogical practices centered on the student.

At the present time, there are expectations regarding what teachers and family members can do and that are difficult to achieve due to the complexity of the teaching-learning process, as well as in relation to families’ unpreparedness to guide their children, and also due to technical limitations. and technologies of remote teaching implemented by the government. In this sense, the time parents have to help their children in online classes, the possibility of accessing online and printed material, and the family’s prior knowledge are aspects that need to be taken into account by the government in the implementation of educational policies during the pandemic.

The pandemic is not over yet. It is not known for sure how its evolution will be and the impact of each variant that appears. The economic crisis takes on planetary dimensions, but with greater impacts in countries like Brazil, so marked by social inequality. Even with vaccination in progress, it has been observed that remote teaching, even if partially, will still be a reality in Brazil and, therefore, will need many studies and monitoring by education researchers.

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ZAJAC, D. Ensino remoto na educação básica. Disponível em:  <https://proec.ufabc.edu.br/epufabc/ensino-remoto-na-educacao-basica/>. Acesso em: 23 fev. 2021.

[1] Doctoral student in Education at Eikon University International Education. Master in Education from Eikon University International Education. Post-Graduation lato sensu Specialization in Psychopedagogy in Educational Contexts by the Catholic Faculty of Uberlândia. Graduation Degree in Pedagogy with Qualification in School Supervision of 1st and 2nd Degrees, School Inspection of 1st and 2nd Degrees, Educational Guidance and School Administration of 1st and 2nd Degrees from the Federal University of Uberlândia. ORCID: 0000-0001-8108-3810.

Sent: December, 2021.

Approved: February, 2022.

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