PEREIRA, Cleusa Rodrigues 
PEREIRA, Cleusa Rodrigues. Reflections on the teaching-learning process in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic in Minas Gerais. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year. 07, Ed. 02, Vol. 01, p. 94-118. February 2022. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/teaching-learning-process
This article deals with the teaching-learning process proposed as a result of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, focusing on Remote Teaching in basic education, developed by the government of the State of Minas Gerais. The guiding question of the study was: How was the teaching-learning process in public schools in Minas Gerais during the period of the Covid-19 pandemic? The general objective of the study was to reflect on the teaching-learning process in public schools in the State of Minas Gerais during the Covid-19 pandemic period. This is a document analysis study, which was based on articles and public documents published in the period 2020 and 2021 and that address the teaching-learning process developed by the government of Minas Gerais. It can be seen that the teaching-learning process developed by schools in Minas Gerais was known as Emergency Remote Teaching and it is worth noting that it was not able to differentiate itself in methodological terms from face-to-face teaching. In view of the results, the disarticulation of pedagogical didactic actions was visible, the absence of active and progressive methodologies in the course of the remote learning process, teachers not prepared to work in the current teaching modality and students who did not have access to the necessary technologies to integrate the online teaching mechanisms in their daily lives. Therefore, it was concluded that it is necessary for the teaching-learning process to be configured in a two-way street. Therefore, investment is needed, mainly in the preparation and training of educators and students, and the provision of digital tools that can be accessible to all, enabling meaningful learning.
Keywords: Teaching-Learning Process, Remote Teaching, Reflections.
The pandemic caused by Covid-19 caused, in addition to a crisis in the health area, problems in other areas such as the economy, human relations and education. This was mainly due to the need for social distancing that led to the closure of commercial sectors, schools and universities. In this article we discuss the teaching and learning process in the context of the pandemic, considering that educational institutions were kept closed, affecting more than 90% of students worldwide, according to data from the United Nations Educational Organization, Science and Culture (UNESCO) (2020).
Facing the Covid-19 pandemic is challenging worldwide. Governments, institutions, social and religious movements have articulated actions and proposals in this sense and many times, there is no consensus between the parties. This has generated heated debates on social media and networks. The debate in a democracy is positive as long as it is based on consolidated constitutional rights. The law, therefore, serves to protect the population against the ravings of the ill-intentioned.
In this context, it is important to develop studies that aim at critical self-reflection on the reality that the virus has imposed on us. School education was directly affected by the closing of schools due to the impossibility of having classroom classes safely. New models had to be forcibly implemented, and teachers, students and parents had to adapt to these new conditions.
The indispensable need for social isolation favored the creation of public strategies and policies aimed at the educational sector, allowing students to continue their studies while maintaining the necessary isolation to protect against Covid-19. The so-called remote teaching was instituted following different structures and platforms, according to each municipality and state. The analysis of the consequences and effects that this teaching modality has generated in the teaching and learning processes is still limited since it is something new which is still in progress even though at the moment it is not the only alternative, but an alternative. compensatory. In addition, it is worth mentioning that another factor that must be taken into account is that the experiences lived by students are diverse, different, insofar as there are differences in relation to educational needs and conditions of access to study material.
On this subject, international organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO) and UNESCO have already expressed their awareness of the fact that economic inequalities in the educational context would be exacerbated during the pandemic, visible in the lack of access to the internet and computers by students, as Caetano Veloso would say in the song Haiti, “blacks, poor and mulattos/And almost white, almost black because they are so poor” such differences would cause significant damage to the teaching and learning processes.
Research on remote teaching, in addition to having its importance within the concerns and experiences indicated above, acquires particular relevance for the theory of education, insofar as it provokes reflection on its contribution to the educational practice developed in education systems from the limitation of the face-to-face class. Until then, pedagogical trends thought teaching considering contact, communication, content and educational practices in the face-to-face context.
The Covid-19 pandemic, unfortunately still without an end date, leads educators and education theorists to rethink and reflect on what would be the procedures and experiences necessary for the right to education to be consolidated and accessible to students of all social classes. This article is relevant, therefore, it addresses, even if in an incipient way, these aforementioned questions.
In view of the above, this article has as a guiding question: How was the teaching-learning process in public schools in Minas Gerais during the period of the Covid-19 pandemic?
The objective of the study was to reflect on the teaching-learning process in public schools in the State of Minas Gerais during the Covid-19 pandemic period. Therefore, the following specific objectives were defined: to present the traditional humanist pedagogical tendencies, divided into two aspects, the religious and the lay; the modern humanist conception; the analytical conception; the critical reproductive conception; and the dialectical or historical-critical conception; identify the teaching process used in Minas Gerais schools; mention the main challenges and characteristics of remote teaching in the public network of the State of Minas Gerais; to verify the pedagogical trend that stands out in the molds of remote teaching structured by the public network of Minas Gerais.
To reach the objectives, it was necessary to define paths, make choices, determine starting points, methodological alternatives, research strategies, techniques for collecting and processing information. Pedagogical trends were discussed based on the production of Saviani (2020) and Libâneo (1992). It was necessary to delimit the theoretical body, and these two authors have been theoretical references that summarize synthetically what is already known about the object of study. This is a document analysis study, which considered published works on the subject of remote teaching and education in the context of the pandemic and possible post-pandemic scenarios published in the period 2020 and 2021 (theses, dissertations, published research reports in full in the year 2020, 2021 and that talk about remote teaching in the State of Minas Gerais). We start with the reality expressed in the texts and official documents, in this case, only those published by the state network of Minas Gerais.
It is worth mentioning the existence of some limiting factors, mainly due to the fact that it is a very recent theme and, therefore, it still does not have a robust collection of scientific works that address it. We also consider as a limiting factor of this study the absence of a unification of models, where each state and municipality structured remote teaching differently, in addition to the existence of significant differences in remote teaching between the private and public network.
The study of the educational context configured by the pandemic implies the description of educational practices configured by the legislation created to regulate remote teaching and its links with the development of Brazilian society in a broader perspective. This discussion acquires singular importance in the current phase of the Covid-19 pandemic in Brazil.
2. PEDAGOGIC TRENDS AND REMOTE TEACHING
2.1 PEDAGOGICAL TRENDS
Considering that “life is only human insofar as it is lived among men, in permanent reference to them, in the public space of word and action” (MARQUES, 1992, p. 45), it is a result of its realization as a being society that man seeks to guide his behavior by a certain ethics. In this section, the philosophical assumptions that underlie certain conceptions of education were discussed.
The definition of philosophy of education is necessary to understand the main currents of philosophical thought that underlie the conceptions of education. The research began with a documentary survey and two publications stood out as a reference: Suchodolski’s text (2000) “pedagogy and the great philosophical currents” which presents a historical overview from Plato’s Pedagogy and Christian pedagogy to the modern era.
In Brazil, philosophy manuals have a strong Christian influence and medieval theorists; scientific and empirical trends of a positivist nature emerged in the Republic as part of an attempt to implement liberal policies. There is also the manifestation of the New School movement.
Philosophical perceptions and constructions about man and his relationships engender certain practices and behaviors in historical spaces and times. To the extent that, from what is conceived to be humanity, social structures are produced, which manifest ways of living, coexisting, educating, working, among others.
Teachers Saviani (2020) and Libâneo (1992) propose a reflection on pedagogical trends. Showing that the main pedagogical trends used in Brazilian education are divided into two major lines of thought: Liberal and Progressive. The group of liberal tendencies is characterized by being more conservative. The group of progressive trends is characterized by having a transformative bias. In other words, to develop the approach to pedagogical trends, the position that each trend adopts in relation to the school’s social purposes is used as a criterion.
For these authors, after the French Revolution, pedagogies were historically configured in line with the conservative liberal social model. This model produced three different pedagogies, but, related to each other and with the objective of conserving society in its configuration, are the liberal tendencies, the Traditional, the Renewed (Progressive and Non-Directive) and the technicist.
O termo liberal não tem o sentido de “avançado”, ”democrático”, “aberto”, como costuma ser usado. A doutrina liberal apareceu como justificativa do sistema capitalista que, ao defender a predominância da liberdade e dos interesses individuais na sociedade, estabeleceu uma forma de organização social baseada na propriedade privada dos meios de produção, também denominada sociedade de classes. A pedagogia liberal, portanto, é uma manifestação própria desse tipo de sociedade (LIBÂNEO, 1992, p. 11)
Thus, education was accessible to a small elite that was part of the nobility. When capitalism gained strength, and along with the bourgeois class, education ceased to be the privilege of the nobles and became a reality for other formed classes. Thus, Liberal Pedagogy began.
Table 1 provides a summary of the main characteristics of liberal schools:
Table 1 – Liberal trend
|Traditional||Progressive renewed||Non-directive renewed||Technicist|
|School paper||Intellectual and moral preparation||Adapt individual needs to the social environment||Attitudinal formation||Modeling human behavior through specific techniques|
|Contents||Knowledge and social values passed on to the student as truths||Established based on experiences||Emphasis on relationship and communication development processes||Information, scientific principles, laws, etc.|
|Method||Lecture with repetition of exercises||Experimental attempts, research, discovery are valued||Help the student to organize himself, using sensitization techniques.||Procedures and techniques that ensure the transmission/reception of information.|
|Teacher Student||Authoritative teacher – Passive student||Teacher in the role of assistant and the student has an active role||The teacher is a specialist in relationships, and the student is the center of teaching. Emphasis on self-actualization||Teacher is an administrator and student is a product for work.|
|Learning assumptions||The child’s ability to assimilate is identical to that of an adult, only less developed.||Learning is a discovery activity, it is self-learning.||Learning is modifying your own perceptions.||Learning is a matter of performance modification.|
|Manifestations in school practice||Religious or lay schools||Piaget’s genetic psychology is widely accepted in preschool education.||Educational counselors and school psychologists who are dedicated to counseling||Dating back to the military regime|
|Representatives||Schools that adopt humanistic, classical or scientific philosophies and the Philosopher Herbart||Montessori, Dewey, Decroly, Piaget, Lauro de Oliveira Lima||Carl Rogers and A.Neil (Summerhill School)||Skinner, Gagné, Bloom Mager and Laws 5,540/68, 5,692/71.|
Source: Libâneo (1992)
In the Traditional Tendency, the student is a passive receiver, inserted in a world that he will know through the transfer of information. In relation to the Progressive (or pragmatic) Renewed Liberal Tendency, Libâneo (1992, p. 13) states that it is the result of a change in understanding regarding the role of the student in education, “he defends a school that enables learning through discovery, focused on in the interest of the student, guaranteeing moments for experimentation and the construction of knowledge, which must start from the interest of the student”. These are the so-called active methodologies that have been constituted as pedagogical alternatives that focus the teaching and learning process on the learner, involving them in learning through discovery, investigation or problem solving.
The Non-Directive Renewed Liberal Pedagogical trend, on the other hand, has a very strong focus on psychological aspects to the detriment of content. Knowledge loses space for relationship as an essential factor for the student’s development. A Tecnicista, for Saviani (2020), is based on the assumption of scientific neutrality and inspired by the principles of rationality, efficiency and productivity, defends the reordering of the educational process in a way that makes it objective and operational.
The Progressive Tendency group is subdivided into Liberating Progressive, defended by Paulo Freire, Libertarian Progressive (which brings together defenders of pedagogical self-management) and Critical-social Progressive of content. Unlike Liberal Tendencies, which are more conservative, Progressive Tendencies are characterized by being transformative, and these transformations take place through active actions involving practices on the part of students. (LIBANEO, 1992)
Freire (2003) made his greatest contribution in the field of youth and adult literacy, but, in addition, his theory involves many other aspects. From the vocabulary universe of the students, the teacher chooses the themes and generating words that will be part of the educational practice. The reflection is not just linguistic, focused on the decoding of words, but literacy is sought, and the constitution of a critical and social conscience.
In the Libertarian Tendency, the school provides democratic practices aimed at political perception, social struggles and collective experience. It is up to the teacher to guide the group on such aspects. The Critical Social trend of the content highlights, among other issues, the social and political function of the school, considering the role of the school to provide conditions for the popular classes to effectively act in social struggles and to understand their role as protagonists in political changes. Table 2 provides an overview of each of the trends:
Table 2 – Progressive trend
|Liberators||Libertarian||Content social critic|
|School paper||Questioning reality with a view to its transformation.||Transformation in a libertarian and self-management sense.||Approach based on social realities and with the active participation of students.|
|Contents||“Generative themes” problematized in the life practice of students.||Subjects are made available to the student, but are not required.||Knowledge reassessed in the face of social realities.|
|Method||Dialogue, discussion group.||The student is encouraged to have critical participation.||It relates the students’ experience with the contents proposed by the teacher.|
|Teacher Student||Teacher is an animator. The student is educated to be a critic.||The teacher is an advisor and the student decides to participate or not.||Teacher, mediator and student have the transforming role.|
|Learning assumptions||Problematizing education||The emphasis on informal learning that aims to favor the development of freer people.||Learning depends on the readiness and willingness of the student and the teacher, context of the classroom.|
|Manifestations in school practice||In several countries and, in Brazil, at different levels, stages and school modalities.||It covers almost all anti-authoritarian tendencies in education.||Numerous public school teachers.|
|Representatives||Paulo Freire||Freinet, Migel Gonzale, Arroy||Makarenko, Suchodolski, B. Charlot, Manacorda, G. Skyders, Demerval Saviani|
Source: Libaêo (1992)
Table 3 is an attempt to classify the philosophical assumptions, based on the reading of Suchodolski (2000). As the content is extensive, we chose to indicate the current and its main authors; assumptions and developments in education.
Table 3 – Classification of pedagogical assumptions
|Plato’s philosophy||It distinguishes what belongs to the world of shadows and to the magnificent world of Ideas: the spirit in its thinking form.||Education has the function of realizing what man should be.|
|Aristotle||Matter is passive, variable, neutral; the form is active, enduring, and gives a qualitatively defined appearance.||“Form” shapes “matter” and creates man. The task of education is to act in the same way in all.|
|Christian philosophy||It maintained, transformed and developed the Platonic conception by highlighting the opposition of two spheres of reality: true and eternal on the one hand, apparent and temporal on the other.||Reality represents a corrupt state and it is up to education to overcome it|
|Christian Philosophy Saint Thomas Aquinas||He opposed the excessive aspects of Plato’s pedagogy of essence, but preserved the main theses, as did Aristotle.||Teaching was an activity by virtue of which potential gifts become actual reality.|
|Rebirth||Individuality is a precious form of realization of the human essence. It was inspired by this conception of the ideal, but also by the rights and needs of the child.||Need to show the ignored depth of the educational process and reveal its connection with the real life of man.|
|Nature pedagogy||The role played in Plato’s system by the world of the idea was taken up by Nature.||Education must form man according to a previously established purpose.|
|Pedagogy of existence Rousseau||For Rousseau, “whatever comes out of the hands of the creator of Nature is good and everything degenerates in the hands of man”.||The child is the object of education, but primarily the very source of education.|
|Idealist conception of the pedagogy of essence||Man was, in a sense, his own creator, as he was the creator of the world he apprehended.||It highlights the child’s activity in the intellectual and moral domain and the respect for the principles that are imposed on everyone.|
|Existentialist Pedagogy Kierkegaard||The individual is a person who does not repeat himself, he is unique, condemned to be himself.||It draws attention to the processes of human development.|
|Nietzsche’s existentialist pedagogy||Man acquired a new character based on the freedom to selfishly impose his own goals and to carry out his personal will.||Education should form “the will to power”, that is, the art of knowing how to live above good, evil and even above what is true or false.|
|Rationalist humanism||It sought to define the universal and permanent characteristics of the human being, in order to establish the foundations of the struggle in defense of equal rights for all.||Educational programs gave priority to the formation of the spirit, and made this formation the basis of all education.|
|Existentialist pedagogy. Evolution theory||It revealed the process which, according to certain laws, takes place everywhere, both in Nature and in society.||The value of instruction and education lies in meeting the biological and social needs of the individual in his struggle for life.|
Bergsonian notion of evolution
|Evolution is not a process of adaptation, but the spontaneous impulse of creation.||The meaning of educational activity derives from the child and not from the objectives to which it must be subjected.|
|Existentialization of the pedagogy of essence. psychoanalyst theory.||Psychoanalysis, with the concept of consciousness and subconsciousness, points out all the obscure content of human nature.||He had to treat and prevent, he had to resolve the complex and sublimate tendencies.|
|New pedagogy||It is important to discern, in the psychic development of children and youth, the specific fundamental elements in the domain of thought, emotion and action.||Decisive importance is attached to the child’s activity, to his needs, and to everything that interests him; to his curiosity and sensitivity, fundamental factors in his mental and moral development.|
|Culture pedagogy||The freedom of the individual consists of his right to development.||Education should cultivate in the child all that is “deep” and “spiritual”.|
|Modern pedagogy of essence||A return to traditional theological conceptions, tendencies of idealist philosophy in solidarity with the great traditions of Western and even Eastern metaphysics.||There are four levels of individual being: psychobiological, social, cultural and metaphysical. Education must deal with this fourth level, the highest level.|
|Marxism||It defines man in relation to “man’s world” and describes the internal mechanism of transformations in this world.||The pedagogue’s task is to help individuals in the conditions of their real, everyday life.Source: Suchodolski (2000) – Prepared by the author|
In his classification, the author considers the currents based on two assumptions: the philosophy of essence or of existence: “The philosophy of man is elaborated in a totally different way, depending on how the philosophy of essence or existence is taken as a starting point. This difference leads us precisely to the very heart of the pedagogical disputes” (SUCHODOLSKI, 2000, p. 14).
Saviani proposes the analysis of these currents from three levels: the philosophy of education, the theory of education or pedagogy and the pedagogical practice (SAVIANI, 2020, p. 81). Thinking about the Brazilian context, the analysis of trends was made by the author according to three historical periods: a) Emergence and predominance of the new pedagogy (1932-1969); b) Emergence and predominance of the Productivist Pedagogical conception (1969-2001) and, c) Pedagogical conceptions against hegemonic ones.
Seguindo o procedimento indicado, trata-se de começar o exame teórico da questão pela retomada das principais concepções de educação, as quais podem ser agrupadas em cinco grandes tendências: a concepção humanista tradicional, desdobrada em duas vertentes, a religiosa e a leiga; a concepção humanista moderna; a concepção analítica; a concepção crítica reprodutivista; e a concepção dialética ou histórico-crítica.
The belief that all individuals share common characteristics constitutes the notion of human nature. We have seen that the philosophy of man is elaborated according to its starting point, or presupposition, for Suchodolski (2000), it can be essentialist or existentialist. The essentialist is rooted in Plato’s idealism and influenced Christian philosophy, the Renaissance, and the pedagogy of nature. The existentialist, by Kierkegaard and Nietzsche, a new character based on the freedom to impose one’s own goals and to carry out one’s personal will (SUCHODOLSKI, 2000). According to Saviani (2020), in Brazil, philosophy has a strong Christian influence and theorists of scientific and empirical trends of a positivist nature.
A significant counterpoint was the contribution of Freire (2003, 2006, 2007) who created a system of thought based on Marxist praxis, defining a pedagogical method based on dialogue. A central concept of this author is that of praxis. It is historical and social, manifested in work, art, politics, education, etc., in addition to its individual and collective manifestations materialized in social relations and in different products. For Freire (2003) emancipatory education is one that bases its educational practice on the vision of the future. For him, the world categorized as oppressor and oppressed, must and can be changed. It is up to the school to enable access and appropriation of what humanity produces.
2.2 REMOTE TEACHING
As stated earlier, the pandemic has affected more than 90% of the world’s students (UNESCO, 2020). This number leads to the inevitable question about the future of education in a world shaken by the new coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Even with schools closed, there is always something that can be done so that students are no longer harmed than they already were.
The sudden change from the face-to-face teaching modality towards remote teaching brought with it several challenges that should be overcome, in order for the educational sector to return to its activities. One of the first challenges for the offer of remote teaching was the flexibility of the academic calendar, for that, provisional measure nº 934 was enacted, which came into force and was converted into Law (nº 14.040, of August 18, 2020) (BRAZIL , 2020a) with this, the school calendar in Basic Education, as well as the completion of 200 school days, would only be accepted for 800 hours of class per year. With this law, each state could deliberate on online classes so that all pedagogical material planned and built for classes by digital means could be classified as curricular activity. It is worth noting that, as highlighted by the Anísio Teixeira National Institute for Educational Studies (INEP), there were many doubts on the part of governments about these positions, as they did not know how to reorganize school calendars, considering the particular conditions of each network, school, teacher, student and his family (BRASIL, 2021).
The Minas Gerais State Department of Education (SEE/MG) institutionalized the Special Regime for Non-Present Activities (REANP)  on April 17, 2020, through SEE Resolution No. 4310/2020. REANP proposes that processes and activities be carried out mainly by digital means, pointing to the importance of teacher/teacher, teacher/student and student/student interaction through the use of information and communication technologies and, when necessary, using printed materials[ 4].
Considering that the differences between levels and learning opportunities in regular education were already visible among students from different social classes and between students from public and private schools in Brazil (BONILLA et al., 2020) and in the world (UNESCO, 2021). The pandemic brought to the fore social differences even more sharply, especially if it was considered that vulnerable, needy students and those with greater difficulties depend more on the school for their training. Can distance education (DE) be the only solution? For Souza, Franco and Costa (2016) this “methodology tends to exacerbate existing inequalities, which are partially leveled in school environments, simply because not everyone has the necessary equipment”. A combination of distance education and face-to-face teaching is necessary (UNESCO, 2020).
To better understand the structure of REANP, on the Estude em Casa website, version 2021, the main tools for pedagogical support for this Minas Gerais program are described, namely:
a) Tutored Studies Program (PET): made up of monthly handouts, with activities, study guidelines and contents (from Kindergarten to High School) of each curricular component, prepared based on the Reference Curriculum of Minas Gerais (CRMG) and the National Curricular Common Base (BNCC);
b) Se Liga na Educação: program broadcast by Rede Minas, from Monday to Friday, from 7:00 am to 12:30 pm. h 30), in which students will be able to interact, through social networks, with teachers in the studio.
c) Conectação Escola: is a mobile application that represents another way of accessing PET, guidance materials, synchronous classes with teachers, recorded online classes (via Google Meet) and Rede Minas classes. During the year 2020 this application presented many functionality problems (OLIVEIRA et al., 2021) being reformulated and renamed to “Escola Connection 2.0  in 2021;
d) Guiding Documents: they were prepared with the aim of bringing to light didactic-pedagogical and normative measures taken for the consolidation of REANP, consisting of the following documents: 1) Practical guide for the beginning of the 2021 Academic Year; 2) REANP Guiding Document (2020 and 2021 versions); 3) Full-time Education; 4) Elementary and Secondary Education; 5) Professional Education and Normal High School Course.
e) Strengthening Learning: these are documents that guide managers, teachers and students with activities related to learning, emotional, didactic-pedagogical, as well as guidelines regarding compliance with the school calendar and the annual workload established by the CNE (BRASIL, 2020) . The documents are part of this tool: 1) Escola Acolhedora; 2) Remote reception without using connectivity; 3) School Reinforcement and its annex; 4) The Best School Saturdays of your Life and its annex; 5) Pedagogical Intervention and its annex  .
f) Se liga nas Libras – presents videos in Libras dealing with various school content and aspects of the culture of Sign Language, as well as its history, the context that the deaf live in and their particularities.
g) Project: Let’s Learn – is a project of the National Council of Secretaries of Education (CONSED) and the National Union of Municipal Education Directors (UNDIME), with partnership and support from the Roberto Marinho Foundation, the Lemann Foundation, Itaú Social, among other civil society organizations. They offer television programs of 30 to 40 minutes for all ages of students, from Kindergarten to High School, based on the BNCC.
i) Legislation, common questions and contact/support: this tool gathers information regarding the development of REANP (legislations, deliberations, decrees and other documents published in the Official State Gazette, among other issues involving doubts and contacts to support the tool.
When checking the tools mentioned above, it can be seen that, except for the video class option on Rede Minas, to have access to school content and activities, an internet connection is necessary, in addition to a computer or cell phone. However, according to research on remote teaching, the most vulnerable families have difficulties in following this methodology. The problems are diverse: the children have to take turns to use the only cell phone in the family, not to mention the paid access to the internet, in a reality in which millions of families in 2021 are still waiting for the payment of Emergency Aid from the federal government, which will be of approximately 250 reais. This is what this article published in UOL (2020) portrays:
Eu dependo desses R$ 600 [auxílio emergencial]. Estamos desempregados. Não temos condições de ter celular e nem internet em casa. Sem telefone, empregos não chamam, ainda mais agora com essa crise. Ou comemos e cuidamos do nosso filho, ou passamos fome se gastarmos com um celular.
The matter above deals with education in Rio de Janeiro, however, this situation is repeated in Minas Gerais. This is what states, for example, the study by Rocha and Coelho (2020) who presented the students’ perceptions regarding the implementation of Emergency Remote Teaching in the public network of Minas Gerais, implemented in May 2020. In the excerpt below, a third-year student faces difficulties in all the contents, as she reconciles her studies with raising her daughter and taking care of the house.
Mas tá mt complicado entende. Pra fazer as atividades é difícil pq além da minha casa pra arrumar (não consigo fazer com casa bagunçada) eu tenho minha pequena e as vezes não dá pra fazer as atividades no horário das aulas e a tarde eu vou trabalhar e é difícil entregar todas as matérias em dia. Eu n fiz nd desse pet 3 e acho q vou deixar para o ano q vem (ROCHA E COELHO, 2020).
Corroborating what Bonilla et al. (2020), when he states that among the poorest families, the effort and struggle of students and parents to accompany the proposed activities is much greater, mainly due to existing social inequalities. In the case of families whose parents are working remotely (among those who still have work), according to Mendes e Silva (forthcoming) accompanying their children has been very difficult, conflicts with their own work, and made even more difficult by the volume of professional activities and domestic.
Similarly Sá et al. (2020) when tracing an overview of remote teaching in cities of Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro, to know the opinions of teachers, state that “it was noticeable that it is not fully effective due to a series of factors, ranging from the preparation of teachers to access technologies”. Regarding the platform provided by the Secretary of State and Education, it does not meet the demand for most respondents:
[…] os desafios impostos pelos limites das tecnologias consistem, sobretudo, na dificuldade de estabelecer a comunicação com os discentes, seja por conta do despreparo para lidar com as tecnologias no ambiente escolar ou pela grande maioria das vezes em que as conexões não suportam a quantidade de acessos e travam o que compromete significativamente a comunicação (SÁ et al., 2020, p. 5)
An article published in the Jornal Estado de Minas on Remote Teaching addresses the same issue: “The failure to transmit content, recorded early on, was the subject of complaints on social networks”. In addition to this problem, the socioeconomic profile of students increases inequality of access:
No que concerne ao segundo eixo relacionado à influência do perfil socioeconômico dos alunos nos processos de aprendizagem, evidenciou-se que o acesso às tecnologias é limitado e limitante. Limitado, sobretudo, em função da comunicação instável, e, limitante por não contemplar todos os alunos. Os discentes de classes menos abastadas estão sujeitos a uma empreitada desigual, onde quem tem bons aparelhos, conexões e dispõem de locais adequados para estudarem saem à frente dos alunos que não possuem o mais básico dos requisitos para o ensino remoto que é uma conexão de internet (SÁ et al., 2020, p. 6).
Technologies are important teaching tools, with the potential to aggregate and meet educational demands in times of a pandemic, however, differences in access to content, especially due to Brazilian social inequalities, weaken educational processes, especially for the poorest. For João Luiz Gasparin (2003, p. 46) the teaching/learning process “no longer consists only in studying to reproduce something, but in providing solutions […] for the challenges that are posed by reality”.
2.3 PEDAGOGICAL TRENDS IN THE CONTEXT OF REMOTE TEACHING IN THE STATE OF MINAS GERAIS
On remote teaching, Charles Hodges et al. (2020) describes the following:
[…] é uma mudança temporária de ensino para um modo de ensino alternativo devido a circunstâncias de crise. Envolve o uso de soluções de ensino totalmente remotas para instrução ou educação que, de outra forma, seriam ministradas presencialmente ou como cursos combinados ou híbridos e que retornariam a esse formato assim que a crise ou emergência diminuísse. O objetivo principal nessas circunstâncias não é recriar um ecossistema educacional robusto, mas, sim, fornecer acesso temporário à instrução e suporte educacional de uma maneira que seja rápida de configurar e esteja disponível de forma confiável durante uma emergência ou crise (CHARLES HODGES et al., 2020, p. 7)
Moreira and Schlemmer (2020) describe that with “[…] the suspension of face-to-face activities [generated] the obligation of teachers and students to migrate [to online activities, in an attempt to transfer and transpose, often, unfortunately, with little success ] for methodologies and pedagogical practices typical of physical learning territories [in relation to] what has been called emergency remote teaching” (MOREIRA; SCHLEMMER, 2020, p. 07).
According to SEE Resolution No. 4310/2020, REANP has specific methodologies for organizing mandatory school activities in order to comply with legally established teaching hours, guarantee student learning and compliance with Pedagogical Proposals, at the levels and modalities of Teaching, offered by state schools (MINAS GERAIS, 2020).
Learning is a continuous process that occurs uninterruptedly, but there is often frustration in this process, due to the difficulty in trying something new, lack of mastery and articulation or even strategies that do not arouse interest.
Se a escola tem por missão preparar melhor os futuros cidadãos para os desafios do terceiro milênio, ela tem a obrigação de favorecer a associação entre TIC e a pedagogia. Seria, pois do seu dever aproveitar o gosto suscitado pelas novas tecnologias da informação e da comunicação. Também deve aproveitar as possibilidades novas, convidativas, promissoras e diversificadas que as TIC representam para a formação dos jovens e ir bem além do ensino tradicional (KARSENTI, 2010, p. 339).
To talk about strategies for the learning process is to discuss the existing capacities and skills and that during the learning process were improved by the developed competences. Learning requires interaction, exchange of experiences of the individual with the environment in which he is inserted, in addition to the exchange relationship with his educational community.
According to Moran (2018, p. 3) “Deeper learning requires spaces for frequent practice (learning by doing) and environments rich in opportunities”. Nonetheless. According to Fernandes, Oliveira and Costa (2020), many teachers do not feel comfortable using active pedagogical methodologies in the teaching and learning process because they do not have knowledge about them or because they are in the “comfort zone” of traditional teaching.
In basic education, it is expected that, through the use of games and everyday situations, students are encouraged to develop using logical reasoning, the five senses, the ability to communicate and socialize at school, at home and in the community. . These strategies use and stimulate creativity and self-confidence, give the perception of limits and respect for others and for yourself, in addition to transmitting teachings about teamwork, cooperation and helping others, as well as developing environmental awareness and respect for the environment. life, from animal care and the correct disposal of waste to understanding food.
From the point of view of traditional humanist theories, under the influence of behavioral theory, the teacher is one of the main elements in the teaching-learning process of subjects. Teaching is an important act that facilitates learning, and the student is dependent on the teacher, because those who are taught learn faster than those who are not. However, it was observed that remote teaching, in the way it is structured, is guided by the passivity of the student, having him as a receiver of the knowledge transmitted by the videos posted on social networks, in the list of exercises proposed in the PET. Mainly aiming to create and modify student behaviors so that they perform the required work and have a standard posture, even disregarding the limitations in relation to access to such activities. In other words, the figure of the teacher disappears and is replaced by digital tools.
During the years 2020 and 2021, “the tools for you to study at home safely in this period of social isolation” were created and reformulated (MG, 2020). An excerpt published by the Minas Gerais State Department of Education (2020) deals with the monitoring of student learning: “To closely monitor the learning of our students, we will carry out, throughout the school year, four assessments and also We will offer the tutoring program for those students who most need pedagogical support”. It suggests that learning will be verified by punctual assessments, thus disregarding the processes involved in the treatment of teaching and learning, thus aligning with the traditional conception of teaching.
It is worth mentioning that in 2020, the PETs were prepared exclusively by the Secretary of State for Education, without the participation of teachers. For this year, it is expected that the PETs will also be prepared with the participation of teachers.
Figure 1 – Calendar for the availability of PETs for the 2021 school year
The teaching-learning process in the school environment is not restricted to the basic content of Portuguese and mathematics, it goes much further. The educational system must be concerned with providing subsidies to students so that they are able to live in society.
As already mentioned, planning is extremely important for a quality teaching performance focused on student growth. This situation becomes explicit insofar as there is a need for contextualization and association with real situations in the application of contents. Interaction is fundamental in this context, not only between the teacher and the student, but between the students. However, there are indications that the proposal of the Minas Gerais State Department of Education, which involves several mechanisms for this interaction to occur, is not having the expected success. This is what Mourão’s article (2021) says when reporting students’ problems in accessing the platforms:
A minha dificuldade é acessar a Conexão Escola porque, às vezes, quando a gente consegue acessar que é bem pouco, aí na hora que vai fazer a prova ele trava e o código que já forneceram pra mim e, na hora que eu vou entrar pra ver a aula, não funciona, fala MCSF, de 12 anos (MOURÃO, 2021).
Other examples are the three children of Wouney and Gláucia, residents of Ouro Preto, “My biggest difficulty is not having an explanation from the teachers at the Conectação Escola”, comments YMSF, 10 years old (MOURÃO, 2021).
The Minas Gerais State Department of Education (2020, p. 10) rebuts the criticism, stating that parents and students do not know how to access correctly:
Quando do primeiro acesso, seja do estudante, ou do professor, tem uma senha padronizada. Então o estudante tem a senha, a sua data de nascimento. Quando ele faz o primeiro acesso, é solicitado que ele mude essa senha. Então, às vezes, os estudantes estavam modificando a senha e esqueciam de anotar e na hora que tentava entrar no aplicativo de novo ou ele esquecia a senha ou punha a senha antiga. Aí não há permissão de entrada.
Regarding those who do not have access to the internet, the alternative is, according to SEE (2020, p. 10) “for students who do not have access to the internet, the state is providing printed material”. There are, at the moment, two types of students: those who have access to the internet, but have difficulties in accessing it, and those who do not have access to the internet, leaving only printed material.
In fact, it was, and still are, the limitations with problems of access to the Internet and to technological tools among teachers and students of Basic Education, mainly in public schools. Teachers and managers had little time to assimilate the tools for remote work, creating problems of didactic-pedagogical organization in understanding their functions. However, it was necessary, at any cost, for the educator to adapt to the remote teaching model using the tools that were within their reach, which sometimes were not the most appropriate, which made the learning process even more difficult for many. students.
3. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
We can say that the pandemic directly affected public education policies in Brazil and in the world, answering the guiding question of this study: How was the teaching-learning process in public schools in Minas Gerais during the period of the Covid-19 pandemic? It was possible to verify that for the educational sector not to be paralyzed, many adjustments and changes needed to be carried out. Therefore, distance education, through Emergency Remote Teaching, was effective as the safe path in relation to face-to-face classes.
Emergency remote teaching, guided by digital technologies, online classes, platforms and Virtual Learning Environments (VLE) were the opportunities adopted in many educational policies and programs during the pandemic period and worked by public schools in Minas Gerais as teaching and learning mechanisms. . Minas Gerais teachers had to reinvent themselves, learn and rebuild the way they teach, plan classes and content with active methodologies to reach all students in an equal way, with Internet access being a major barrier to be confronted and overcome.
In the state of Minas Gerais, there were many challenges faced by all those involved in the process for the operation of the Special Regime for Non-Present Activities, especially with regard to the adaptation of pedagogical trends to remote teaching, considering, among others, the limitations of access to the Internet and to digital devices as well as arrangements for managers, teachers and students to behave as if the current remote reality were something commonplace.
It is necessary to review the role of the school as a whole, as this environment could provide students with the development of intellect, contributing to the transformation of the world view, with the improvement of the quality of life, with the application of ethical and moral values. In the impossibility of going to school, digital tools should be structured to, in addition to performing specific tasks, enable the exchange of knowledge and ensure that students are understanding the exposed content.
Thinking about these issues, exchange relationships with students should be sought, respecting and guiding the education of children and young people. In this context, in the scenario researched, the role of the teacher is in the opposite direction to that recommended in various theories of learning which propose a teacher who guides, mediates and stimulates the teaching-learning process; and a student who assumes a leading role in the conduct of this process. The reality performed by the remote teaching structure of the Minas Gerais State Department of Education in the period analyzed in this work gives us indications that both the teacher and the student had difficulties to play protagonist roles in the teaching and learning processes. In addition, in the materials found on the websites related to the Minas Gerais REANP, it was noticed the lack of methodological support capable of giving didactic-pedagogical meaning to the material produced for conducting remote teaching. Leading to the realization that, in fact, remote teaching planned and executed in the State of Minas Gerais failed to differentiate itself in methodological terms from face-to-face teaching.
In this way, it was possible to verify that one of the main characteristics of remote teaching offered in the state of Minas Gerais is precisely the disarticulation of pedagogical didactic actions, absence of active and progressive methodologies in the course of the remote learning process, this because a large number of teachers were not prepared to have digital technologies as a central resource for the development of their classes. In addition, many students did not have access to the technologies necessary to integrate online teaching mechanisms into their daily lives.
It is believed that it is important to think about the adoption of active methodologies and progressive practices where the stimuli are planned in the activities, and the teacher uses skills such as interpreting, analyzing, synthesizing, comparing, among others, with the help of technology, so that the classes are innovative and attractive. However, much more than a broad and quality education for students, it is necessary to analyze the concrete conditions of teachers and students, considering material and emotional issues so that such methodologies are successful in their application. It is necessary, greater investment, mainly in the preparation and training of educators and students, in the development of digital tools that meet the needs of the academic community and that can be accessible to this same community in order to constitute an educational practice.
As said, educational practice must allow the student, in addition to having access to content, to critically reflect on the reality that the virus has imposed on us. It is in school education that the individual has access to literacy, literacy, first mathematical concepts, and other sciences such as geography, history, physics, biology, art, which are important tools for their training, health and conscious action in the community of which they are part. . On the other hand, their lack or access to poor quality education can contribute to the increase in social inequality. It therefore has the power to transform, give new meaning or reproduce inequalities inherent in a class society.
Agreeing with Perrenoud (2000) who considers that the concern to adjust teaching to the conditions of students and teachers does not only arise out of respect for people and good pedagogical sense, since indifference to differences has the potential to transform initial inequalities into inequalities of learning and, consequently, social, cultural and economic inequalities of students from the lower classes throughout their lives.
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APPENDIX – FOOTNOTE REFERENCE
2. “Haiti” is a song from the album Tropicália 2 (1993), composed by Caetano Veloso and Gilberto Gil, in celebration of 26 years of Tropicalismo.
3. The term Special Regime for Non-Present Activities (REANP) is not included in any CNE or MEC document. In a Note of Clarification, dated March 18, 2020, the CNE authorizes “the performance of distance activities” in all Basic Education, including Vocational Education, EJA and Special Education (BRASIL, 2020b). Resolution CNE/CP nº 5/2020 contains “special teaching regimes that include non-face-to-face activities mediated or not by digital information and communication technologies” (BRASIL, 2020). On a CONSED page (https://consed.info/ensinoremoto/), updated on July 13, 2021, and on the respective secretariats’ websites, it appears that the states of Alagoas (Special Regime for Non-Presential School Activities – REAENP) , Ceará (Special Non-Present Regime), Espírito Santo (Non-Present Pedagogical Activities), Goiás (Special Non-Present Class Regime – REANP), Minas Gerais (Special Non-Present Activities Regime – REANP), Paraíba ( Special Teaching Regime) use similar terms, with organizational characteristics related to online, televised, printed activities and, sometimes, with some kind of reference to different notions of hybridity in teaching.
4. According to Oliveira et al (2021, p. 94), when analyzing the operation of REANP, they argue that “for students who do not have access to the Internet”, schools should “ensure that printed material is made available to the student. With the support of the 47 Regional Education Superintendencies [of Minas Gerais], it will be up to the schools to identify how the material will reach all students”.
5. Information on the website https://estudeemcasa.educacao.mg.gov.br/inicio. Accessed on: 27 jun. 2021. In order to prepare teachers in the use of the proposed tools, SEE/MG offered courses on the use of digital technologies in school teaching. To learn more, see https://escoladeformacao.educacao.mg.gov.br/index.php/inscricoes-abertas/341-curso-google-foreducation-recursos-e-possibilidades-t2. Accessed on: 28 jun. 2021.
6. Information at https://estudeemcasa.educacao.mg.gov.br/fortalecimento-das-aprendizagens. Accessed on: 27 Nov. 2021.
7. When talking about behavioral theory, it is necessary to demystify the idea that this theory is bad and cannot be applied today, as there are misunderstandings in the interpretation of authors who disseminate their own reading of the topic.
8. Practical Guide for the Beginning of the Academic Year 2021 https://estudeemcasa.educacao.mg.gov.br/#h.d3hr4wm3rr6c
9. Conselho Nacional de Educação – CNE – is the National Board of Education in Brazil.
10. Conselho Nacional de Secretários de Educação – CONSED – is the National Council of Secretaries of Education in Brazil.
11. Nacional dos Dirigentes Municipais de Educação – UNDIME – is the National Union of Municipal Education Directors in Brazil.
12. Secretary of State for Education.
 Doctoral student in Education at Eikon University International Education. Master in Education from Eikon University International Education. Post-Graduation “Lato Sensu” Specialization in Psychopedagogy in Educational Contexts by the Catholic Faculty of Uberlândia. Graduation Degree in Pedagogy with Qualification in School Supervision of 1st and 2nd Degrees, School Inspection of 1st and 2nd Degrees, Educational Guidance and School Administration of 1st and 2nd Degrees from the Federal University of Uberlândia. ORCID: 0000-0001-8108-3810.
Sent: December, 2021.
Approved: February, 2022.