Pedagogical practice of teachers

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

SILVA, Patricia Amorim da [1]

SILVA, Patricia Amorim da. Pedagogical practice of teachers. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 06, Ed. 02, Vol. 06, pp. 117-125. February 2021. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/pedagogical-practice

ABSTRACT

The article aims to explain about different pedagogical practices and how the education of the educator influences the use of these practices impacting on the student’s learning in a non-formal and/or informal context. The problem to be discussed in it is the dissonance between classroom practice and the theories developed around pedagogical didactics. This work was developed through a qualitative research through the analysis of specific bibliography of the area. The careful reading of several scientific papers and the collection of data from them made it possible to have an idea of the dimension of this dissonance resulting from the lack of communication between practice and theory in the day-to-day classroom and to outline possible measures for the reversal of this picture.

Keywords: pedagogical practices, teachers, non-formal education, informal education.

1. INTRODUCTION

The work intends to discuss what pedagogical practice is and how it is performed within the educational scenario and how it develops over time and experiences as an education professional.

It is important to highlight the dichotomy between classroom theory and practice. There are many theories about pedagogical practices, but not all of them can achieve the particularities of daily life. These pedagogical theories and practices are essential and present in any work that involves some learning process in both formal and informal education.

2. RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT

This research was built on theories and methodologies that involve pedagogical practices in non-formal and informal education according to different national and international authors. The issue of pedagogical practices in this environment, covering basic education up to higher education. The history of these practices in Brazil and worldwide.

Education in our society is constituted in three ways:

Formal education – the objectives related to teaching and learning programmatic content are systematized and regulated by laws; Non-formal education – it is more diffuse, less hierarchical and less bureaucratic. Education programs do not necessarily need to follow a sequential and hierarchical system of progression; Informal education – occurs freely and cultural values are acquired through interaction with different social groups.

3. WHAT IS PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICE

The meaning that pedagogical practice can assume varies, that is, it consists of something that cannot be defined, only conceived, changing according to the principles on which our idea is based. The construction of knowledge is seen as a process carried out by both actors: teacher and student. This type of pedagogical relationship is not asymmetric, in the sense that both sides: teacher and student, teach and learn, building and reconstructing knowledge together. The teacher learns from the student, by researching his reality, his cognitive and affective development, while the student learns, through a process of reconstruction and creation of knowledge of what the teacher knows, has to share. (VERDUM, 2013).

Pedagogical practice is the union of theory and practice in the exercise of teaching and apprehending knowledge, in pedagogical action. These practices involve being aware of the entire educational process and the tools used by teachers to make it happen.

It involves the reflection of teachers about their knowledge and duties for the development of good pedagogical practice. This also leads us to permeate our educational memory. What clippings are made of our realities, of our relationship with the school, with knowledge and with life in general.

The personal trajectory of each educator will interfere with the way he understands and conducts these pedagogical practices in the classroom. This is relevant for this article because the advances of practices must follow the advances that have occurred in our society as the use of technology, bringing the acquisition of knowledge more attractive and close to the reality of students.

4. THE PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICE AND THE TRAINING OF EDUCATORS

It is necessary that the educator has a differentiated view of the educational process, so that he can exercise reflection and analysis of the reality where he is inserted.

This formative path will define who the individual is as an educator, his pedagogical conceptions as a consequence of the knowledge acquired and the experiences experienced in the classroom throughout his life. This implies debate, discussion about the society in force and the society we want.

It is probably not by chance that the question of the relationship with knowledge is taken up by trainers and researchers in educational sciences. Faced with the pedagogical act, with the activity itself, and not only with its conditions of possibility, they will be interested in “this infinite sum of infinitesimal differences in the ways of doing or saying”, which, according to Bourdieu and Passeron, defines the relationship with knowledge (CHARLOT, 2005).

It is essential that this educator be trained and prepared to act in different social, economic and cultural contexts, expanding different world views and teaching and learning possibilities. The pedagogue needs to be prepared to act in any reality.

The reflection on the part of the educator plays a very important role in the application of these pedagogical practices and in their adaptations. This reflective process only contributes to the formation of an educator tuned to different contexts and updated the new pedagogical practices. Reflection is essential for the construction of the teaching identity and for its professional development, because it allows the teacher to be able to transform his practice and constitute himself as an autonomous subject that can bring about changes in the educational context (ALARCÃO, 1996).

The analysis of this educational practice is essential for teacher education. The critical attitude of the teacher in relation to his professional practice, which allows the analysis of daily life and thus can act actively. Through this way the teacher reconstructs his questions, his knowledge and the way he intervenes in the educational process.

5. PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICE IN INFORMAL EDUCATION

Informal education takes place mainly in cultural institutions, such as museums, galleries and arts centers. Pedagogical practice mainly involves reading works of art.

Critical reading of works of art is a powerful tool for understanding reality, developing sensitivity, creativity and acquiring knowledge. Contributing to the perception of the world around and in the best expression of your thoughts and ideas. Make our children and adolescents agents of their own rights, with creative visions and artistic discernment, that is, give them voice and listen to them. Make them active members in society.

According to Paulo Freire “Women and men, historical and social beings, we have become able to compare, value, intervene, choose, decide, break, for all this, we have become ethical beings” (FREIRE, 1996). And in this context, pedagogical practices and the role of educators are essential in making us beings capable of seeing the world from different perspectives and analyzing everything reality around us critically.

The involvement of children and adolescents with the arts has a significant impact on their academic development. Major universities have been dedicated to proving this, such as Harvard University which published an entire edition on the issue of art and learning in the Harvard Educational Review (GOLDBERG and PHILLIPS, 1992). Another example is the literature review on art research and learning by Darby and Catterall (1994) for the Teachers College Record.The publication Champions of Change: The Impact of the Arts on Learning (FISKE, 1999) research conducted by Columbia University Teachers College, Harvard University, Harvard’s Project Zero, Stanford University, University of California and University of Connecticut showed that art-education can improve academic performance, create a learning environment and connect learning experiences with the world outside of school.

Here are some search results:

  • In a study of more than 2,000 elementary school students in four U.S. states, columbia university researchers found that children who received at least three years of arts education at school scored significantly more on quantitative tests of creative thinking than their peers with less arts education. Students with more arts education achieved an average rating of 20 points more than their peers in creative thinking, fluency, originality, crafting, and completion tests (“Learning in and Through the Arts: Curriculum Implications,” Burton, Horowitz and Abeles in Champions of Change).
  • In a study of 91 school districts in the United States of America, evaluators found that the arts contribute significantly to the creation of flexible and adaptable knowledge in workers that companies demand to compete in today’s economy (Gaining the Arts Advantage: Lessons from School Districts that Value Arts Education, President’s Committee on the Arts and Humanities and the Arts Education Partnership , 1999[2]).

6. PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICE IN NON-FORMAL EDUCATION

The pedagogical practice in non-formal education occurs mainly in companies, hospitals, NGOs, associations, churches, among others. Although they are based on some school precepts, they transcend the walls of the school. The educator sees himself in the obligation to perform functions beyond the school environment, because he now sees himself inserted in another reality, another daily life.

In non-formal education, content and discipline become one of the pedagogue’s concerns, but not the main focus. The educator needs to arouse the interest of these students in learning in the midst of a difficult reality. Other day-to-day issues end up taking much higher proportions than in a school environment.

When professionals are unable to recognize or respond to conflicts of values, when they violate their own ethical standards, when they fall short of expectations created by themselves regarding their performance as specialists or seem blind to public problems that they helped create, they are increasingly subject to expressions of disapproval and dissatisfaction (SCOHÖN, 2000).

António Nóvoa bases the work of the professor by differentiating it as a “set of practices”, taking care of specialists, who are called to devote more time and energy to him. Pedagogical practice has a much greater importance in the present for student learning, as it is no longer linked to a normative system as in the past (NÓVOA, 1995).

These non-formal institutions can also present themselves as support for students when they are out of school. As a pedagogical support as a place for sports and/or artistic practices. Because nothing prevents them from walking in parallel.

Pedagogical practice in these spaces can be manifested through social, religious values or even in the professional training of these students. There is no concern with classifications, evaluations, the main focus becomes the well-being and citizen education of the individual.

7. LEARNING METHODS

According to Maria Irene Miranda, psychopedagogist and PhD in Psychology of Education, the institution’s methodology cannot be considered right or wrong. “The best method is what the teacher mastered. Because so he innovates, creates and is not stuck only in didactic material” (MIRANDA, 2012), he said.

Below we will see the characteristics of the main methods.

  • Traditional

This is the transmission of content, whose teacher is the central figure, and its function is to transmit knowledge and information to students.

In traditional schools, as an evaluation system, the mesura of the amount of information absorbed by the student is the same as a system of evaluation. These schools aim to prepare them for entrance exams since the beginning of the school curriculum and are classified as rigid.

  • Constructivist

Developed by the philosopher Jean Piaget, it centralizes the student in the learning process, playing an active role in the search for knowledge when interests and questions begin to emerge. This method aims to prioritize the knowledge brought together with the child. Information and content are fundamental, however, the process through which the student comes to them and how it establishes relationships and comparations is the most important. So schools believe they form more critical citizens.

  • Montessoriana

Created in 1907 by the Italian physician Maria Montessori, this pedagogical model aims at ensuring maximum autonomy to the student during the learning process. Being the child the central element of this process. That said, teachers and parents act as mere facilitators of knowledge, in order to provide a scientifically appropriate environment for the development of knowledge according to the interest of the student. Works aimed at motor activities that bring the student closer to science, art and music are suggested.

  • Waldorf

Developed by the Austrian philosopher Rudolf Steiner in 1919, this method focuses on the total education of the child, valuing his imagination. The student is encouraged to create and invent their own toys using simple materials such as wood, clay and patchwork. Thus, this method is opposed to the use of television and industrialized toys. There is a premise in teaching that is to form human beings.

The schools have free outdoor area, natural materials and wood, and stimulate the play of rope, house, wooden leg and other games allowed by imagination.

The division of these students is based on age groups and not on grades. They’re against literacy before they’re seven years old. And this system has no repetitions, moreover, teachers teach the same class during a seven-year cycle.

  • Hybrid Education

First used by the Clayton Christensen Institute, it is a teaching methodology that seeks to unite the traditional method — face-to-face, in the classroom and with teacher mediation — with online learning, which uses digital technologies. Among its advantages is the democratization of knowledge, which arises from the moment the student can access certain content wherever he/she is. Individual follow-up of students by teachers and parents, so that the necessary attention can be given for each case. The adoption of the method does not simply imply replacing traditional resources, such as notebooks and case, with digital instruments: it is necessary to rethink the whole class, so that technologies are intrinsically linked to the teaching plan.

8. CONCLUSION

Pedagogical practices are an important part of learning, so that they occur effectively the learner needs to stop seeing the educational process as something individualized, which is restricted only to their knowledge. The educator’s gaze should cover the school’s social relations, the school structure and the reality of the students.

At a time when consumerism and utilitarianism contribute to the “atrophy” of sensitivity, the study of art can be a way of training the senses, to refine taste, in short, to better understand human nature itself.

It is the teacher’s role to plan the lesson, selecting the teaching contents, stimulating the curiosity and creativity of the students, so that they become subjects of their own history.

In a more technical way the teacher should pay attention to problems such as low vocabulary increase, disinterest in hearing stories, difficulties in summarizing, memory problems, difficulty concentrating on something they do not like, not being able to plan, not having a sense of urgency; difficulty in acquiring new learning.

It is up to the teacher to know the personality of the students, not only intellectually, but also their physical and emotional characteristics.

It is possible to conclude that the role of the educator is indispensable in any environment, whether school or not, since human formation, citizen is necessary. Regardless of the place, we are always learning and/or teaching, because human development cannot stop.

The student is in training, in development. Each of these development steps presents different characteristics, different needs, and different ways of understanding things. In this sense, the importance of the teacher’s role in the student’s integral knowledge is understood, whether in the physical, emotional, intellectual and social aspects.

Thus, the present work points to the need, to face new realities, to always keep up to date, and to perceive oneself as a subject in contemporary society, which should reflect on this daily life that interferes in the teaching work are directly linked to the social reality that transcends in the school context and consequently in pedagogical practice.

9. BIBLIOGRAPHIC REFERENCES

ABELES, Hal, BURTON, Judith, & HOROWITZ, Robert. Champions of Change: Studies. Learning in and through the Arts: Curriculum Implications. Nova Iorque: Center for Arts Education Research, Teachers College, Columbia University, 1999.

ALARCÃO, Isabel (Org). Formação reflexiva de professores: estratégias de supervisão. Portugal: Editora Porto, 1996.

CHARLOT, B. Relação com o saber, formação dos professores e globalização: questões para a educação hoje. Porto Alegre: ArtMed, 2005.

DARBY, J. T., & CATTERALL, J. S. The fourth R: The arts and learning. Nova Iorque: Teachers College Record, 1994.

FISKE, E. B. Champions of Change: The Impact of the Arts on Learning. Washington DC: Arts Education Partnership and President’s Committee on the Arts and Humanities, 1999.

FREIRE, Paulo. Pedagogia da autonomia: saberes necessários à prática educativa. São Paulo: Paz e Terra, 1996.

GOLDBERG, M. R., & PHILLIPS, A. Art as Education. Harvard Educational Review: Reprint Series. Massachusetts, 1992.

LONGLEY, Laura, Ed. Gaining the Arts Advantage: Lessons from School Districts That Value Arts Education. Washington, DC: President’s Committee on the Arts And the humanities, 1999.

MIRANDA, Maria Irene. Os métodos aplicados na educação infantil. [Entrevista concedida a] Marcelo Calfat. Do Correio de Uberlândia. Publicado em O Jornal de todos os Brasis GGN, 2012. Disponível em: https://jornalggn.com.br/politicas-sociais/os-metodos-aplicados-na-educacao-infantil/ [Acessado em 15 de abril de 2017]

NÓVOA, António. O Passado e o Presente dos Professores. In NÓVOA, A. (Org.). Profissão Professor. Portugal: Porto, 1995

SCOHÖN, Donalb. Educando o profissional reflexivo: um novo design para o ensino e a aprendizagem. Porto Alegre: Artes Médicas, 2000.

VERDUM, Priscila. Prática Pedagógica: o que é? O que envolve? Revista da Pontifícia Universidade Católica (PUC). Rio Grande do Sul: Porto Alegre. v. 4, n. 1 (2013)

APPENDIX – FOOTNOTE REFERENCE

[2] www.pcah.gov/gaa/index.html

[1] Master in Belas Artes and degree in Visual Arts.

Posted: February, 2021.

Approved: February, 2021.

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