Reflective teacher: from theory to a new university

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

FERNANDES, Devanir Ramos [1], MACHADO, Alexsandro Dos Santos [2]

FERNANDES, Devanir Ramos. MACHADO, Alexsandro Dos Santos. Reflective professor: from theory to a new university. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. 04 year, Ed. 09, Vol. 01, pp. 98-115. September 2019. ISSN: 2448-0959

SUMMARY

By introducing the concept of reflective teacher, some criticism arises to technical rationality, highlighting its inability to deal with the unpredictable, since it mechanizes the thought denying the real world of the practice lived, reducing the practical knowledge of the teacher to knowledge as a technique. Analyzing the breadth of the presence of the concept in the educational literature on teacher education, both in initial and continuing education, and even the possible criticisms that the approach raises, in addition to the one presented here and seeking to consider the the various positions on the issue. Teachers are guided in their educational action for their personal and cultural history, but who also make successive options and that mark their trajectory, not being entirely at the mercy of sociocultural circumstances and personal conditions, interfering in them intentionally. Having an intentional awareness, through which they understand the reality and the possibility of intervening in it, their awareness being attributing meanings and through it they have the possibility of discovering and positioning themselves before the world, choosing how do, realize their lives. Thus he can understand that even with the predominance of a training focused on technical rationality the teacher makes use of his reflexive capacity and an encouraging horizon is established once we live a tendency to put reflection in a central place in the teacher education, so the conditions of elevating the teacher to the status of effective subject of knowledge are establishing themselves.

Keywords: Teachers, training, reflective teacher.

1. INTRODUCTION

Much is said about training teachers of basic, fundamental and secondary level, but there has been not much importance to teacher training for higher education. This fact is true since many university professors do not have the didactics necessary for the construction of knowledge and it is common to listen to students who a particular teacher knows the subject, but cannot transmit it, or that it leads badly to Class. He is charged with the university professor who has full dominion over the discipline he teaches, whether this practical or epistemological domain and leaves aside the pedagogical domain. Currently the teacher is no longer known as the holder of knowledge, knowledge but as a mediator who assists his students and creates possibilities for the production of knowledge, encouraging criticism and reflection, building together this knowledge based on constantly renewed questions and theories. For Zeichner(1992) this renovation goes through three primordial characteristics. The first concerns reflection on practice within the space of action, classroom. The second is about the democratic and emancipatory objectives of students. The third characteristic of the reflective teacher says about working with the whole group and not with some just

From the new educational configuration, discussions related to teacher training have highlighted the issue of reflection, which is a trend in wide dissemination. Donald Schön is one of the theorists of prominence in the discussion about the reflective teacher, being he, without a doubt, one of the authors who had greater weight in the diffusion of the concept of reflection. Thus, in accidental situations, singular, in which there are conflicts of values, gains prominence the character of reflexivity in the professional's performance. The idea of the reflective professional seeks to consider how this professional faces situations that cannot be solved with the use of technical resources. In this model, the main concept in the training process is that of professionalization centered on commitment to a reflexive practice and with the acquisition of knowledge and competencies removed from the analysis of the practice. (PAIVA, 2003)

After conceiving criticism of technical rationality, Schön (2000) states that the teacher's practical thinking involves some dimensions that are interdependent: knowledge in action, reflection in action and reflection on action. Knowledge in action refers to the knowledge that manifests themselves in know-how, are automatic, spontaneous actions. Knowledge does not precede the action, but it is tacitly incarnated in it.

Reflection on action happens when we think about what we do or when we think while we do something. This process of reflection in action is not necessarily punctual and fast, being able to transform the professional into an investigator in the context of practice. Therefore, the practice is seen as a way of investigating, of experiencing the situation enabling a new understanding. Reflection on action enables the analysis of knowledge in action and reflection in action introduced in the context of the practice itself. Reflection tends to focus interactively on the results of the action, on the action itself and on the intuitive knowledge implicit in the action, aiming to describe, analyze and evaluate past intervention. The reflection on action and reflection in action are, according to Schôn (1992), essential components in the process of continuing training of the professional.

The institutional component of professional practice is not ignored by Schôn (1992), and teaching reflection can question bureaucratic limits in the definition of its tasks and the values that the institution assumes. The author also considers that reflexive practice cannot happen to the social context in which it occurs, since the professionals involved in it are seen as participants in a wide social conversation while playing their roles.

2. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

Most university professors begin teaching by walking an unknown path, many sleep students and wake teachers, because there is no specific training for higher education teacher, with this the absence of a training didactic-pedagogical has been an obstacle to the good performance of the university professor and consequently a higher quality education. According to Tardif (2000) in short, the sources of teacher vocational training are not limited to initial training at the university; it is in the true sense of the end of continuous and continuous training covering the entire teaching career. To enter the higher teaching, according to educational legislation, that is, the New Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education (Law No. 9394/96), in Chapter VI, Article 66 cites:

Art.66. The preparation for the exercise of the superior magisterium will be done at the graduate level primarily in master's and doctoral programs.

Sole paragraph. The notorious knowledge, recognized by a university with a phD course in an area, can meet the requirement of academic degree.

But not everyone who has a graduate, master's or doctorate is able to be a teacher of higher education, as much as the professional has one of these titles if in this training does not contain the pedagogical didactic disciplines necessary for the the same will not be enabled to teach at the higher level.

The sole paragraph of this same article opens the doors of higher teaching for any individual, even without regular training, since he has recognized knowledge in a given discipline, by a university with a doctoral course in a related area to the discipline in that stands out.

The titration itself does not guarantee the quality of teaching, because many HEI require their teachers to act in areas beyond their abilities, so that they can meet another requirement of the LDB (9,394/96) than in art. 52 incisos II emphasizes the titration of faculty.

Art. 52. Universities are multidisciplinary institutions for the training of higher education, research, extension and mastery and culture of human knowledge, which are characterized by:

I – Institutionalized intellectual production through the systematic study of the most relevant themes and problems, both from a scientific and cultural point of view, and regional and national;

II – One third of the faculty, at least, with academic degree of master's or doctorate;

III – one third of full-time faculty. Sole paragraph. It is provided to create universities specialized by field know.

Therefore, the university professor must have the knowledge and skills to be a reflective and investigative professional so that he can reflect on his teaching practice, helping his students build their knowledge so that they also become critical and reflective professionals.

According to Paulo Freire (2003) education has a political character and it is impossible for the educator to remain impartial to this, with this the teacher must have commitment to some idea and defend it respecting all the opposing opinions, thus the educator should be formed without authoritarianism respecting democracy and teaching the importance of it to its students.

Zeichner (1993) apud Paiva (2003), without rejecting the knowledge provided and produced in universities and research centers, points out that teachers have theories that can contribute to the improvement of their daily school. The author supported the origin of the term reflexive practice in Dewey(2008), highlighting that much of the production of this is still relevant to teachers, and the same states that reflection is a way, a way of being a teacher. The fact that schön's conception of reflection (1992) suggests that professionals engage individually in reflective practices is criticized by Zeichner (1992), who considers this limited and reductionist approach to the sense that a practice reflexive should have.

According to Paiva (2003), Zeichner identifies and employs principles that articulate with the concept of teacher as reflective practice. The first principle refers to the fact that in the practice of reflective teaching the teacher's attention is focused on his own practice as well as to the social conditions in which this practice is situated.

Another principle is linked to a democratic and emancipatory focus, that is, situations of inequality and injustice in the classroom should be considered in the teacher's decisions. Finally, a reflexive practice is committed to reflection as a social practice. It is possible to detect in Zeichner's perspectives about reflection in practice, a guidance in search of social reconstruction, the overshear of an effort to contextualize the social and ideological and political problematization of teaching and training of Teachers.

For Jesus (1999) teacher training can be an instrument for the acquisition of relevant professional skills that increase the teacher's self-confidence and probability of success. Regarding the initial teacher education, Santos (2002) points to the need to rethink the curriculum in order to overcome the gap between theory and practice, that is, the need to establish the interconnection between the two.

For Esteve (1997) apud Jesus (2002) the initial teacher's training should develop the ability to identify his teaching style, to discriminate the relational problems that can occur in the classroom and also to perspective the resolution of problems due to teaching-learning activities. Therefore, teachers, in their initial training, need to be prepared to identify and confront the difficulties existing in teaching activity, in order to be placed in situations of anticipation of their professional future, clarifying the expectations about the possible situations they will face (JESUS, 2002).

The concern with continued training of university professors has been growing in recent years, a fact this has been noted due to the growth of congresses, courses and seminars related to the subject, this concern has been due to the expansion of higher education and the growing number of teachers, who are most often not prepared for the exercise of teaching, hence the importance of social, historical, political and mainly didactic improvement that will lead the teacher to reflect on his practices pedagogical as a trainer.

According to Pimenta e Anastasiou (2008, p. 141), employment opportunities "have been increasing with the expansion of private educational institutions throughout the national territory, such expansion is not being accompanied by a process of professionalization".

With the increase in higher education institutions and an increase in the offer of courses, both existing and new, there was an increase in the number of vacancies offered, opening up access to universities to the portions of people who were previously difficult to access to education Top. The result of this is a much greater cultural diversity and the need for teachers to be able to deal with such a diversity of cultures, in addition to encountering students not so prepared both in knowledge and emotionally for university entry.

Taking into account all these factors there is a concern regard ing the training of teachers who worked in current higher education, both initial and continued education and we should take into account the questions made by Morosini (2000, p.11): "Who are (will) these new teachers? Will they be prepared didactically? "because Morosini states that there is an intimate relationship between the teacher's didactic performance and the student's performance.

Therefore, continuing training should be treated in a serious and effective manner and higher education institutions must be engaged in this process, offering their teachers support and encouragement with short, medium and long-term proposals, which should be inserted in their Pedagogical Political Plans.

For Marques (2000, p.209):

"All institutions responsible for education should be involved in the processes of continuing education of the educator. However, special attention should be paid here to the specific responsibilities of the university. School of education of the educator, the university is not only the formal formative process. It must continue and provide him with the ruptures required by the exercise of the profession in the concreteness of renewed requirements. It is important to assume as its attribution the stages of initial formation as those of the continuing formation of educators, even because it could not fulfill one of the tasks without the other".

In higher teaching it is almost always required of the teacher skills that he does not always be able to acquire in his undergraduate degree, to remedy this problem is necessary for continued training through short, medium or long-term courses, in which he will be able to analyze and recycle their teaching practice.

Continuing training is a permanent and necessary process for the university professor and can be given by workshops, short courses, lectures, congresses beyond Strictu graduate and latu sensu, strictu sensu confers master or doctor titles, it is intended those who wish to delve into research practices last from 2 to 4 years and require greater dedication and the lato sensu known as specialization does not grant titles but a certificate lasts 18 months and requires less dedication.

Regardless of the type of continuing training to be followed it should not be standardized, as it must respect and recognize the different stages of the teacher's career as pointed out by Candau (1996, p.143):

"Every process of continuing teacher education has to have with fundamental reference the teaching knowledge, recognition and appreciation of teaching knowledge. For an adequate development of continuing training, it is necessary to have the different stages of professional development of the magisteriumI3/4 cannot be treated in the same way the teacher in the initial phase of professional practice, the one who has already gained a wide pedagogical experience and the one who is already moving towards retirement. "

The teacher is a professional who should always be in training, the greater purpose of the continued training of the university professor is to stimulate the criticism, creativity, research, reflection mainly of his pedagogical practices and for this to occur it should be done in a diversified way in short, medium or long-term courses, with greater emphasis on strictu sensu courses.

According to Cunha (2006), the training of the university professor,

[…] has been understood by virtue of tradition and ratified, as almost exclusively to the knowledge of the teaching content. It is expected that the teacher is increasingly an expert in his area, having appropriated with the stricto sensu graduate competition, of the knowledge legitimized academically in his scientific field. The content domain, in turn, should be based on research activities that guarantee the potential capacity of scientific production (CUNHA 2006, p. 258).

As has been described before, the teacher is not only a transmitter of knowledge, he is a mediator, a facilitator and has the responsibility to help in building the knowledge of his students and transforming them into critical, reflective professionals and concerned about how they will apply in their lives and in society the knowledge acquired.

The teacher must have an updated pedagogical practice and incorporated into his daily life and should be constantly evaluated by the students so that he can seek his improvement, so the evaluations are also important for the teacher, because in addition to being able to evaluate how your students are building your knowledge will also be able to evaluate how he is in the role of mediator is being useful for this construction. Thus, continuing education leads the teacher to a greater commitment to education, to reflect and improve their teaching practices, always concerned with the quality of teaching.

According to Pimenta and Anastasiou,

"The role of the teacher will then be to challenge, stimulate, help students in building a relationship with the object of learning that, at some level, meets a need of them, assisting them in raising awareness of the needs presented socially to a university education. (PIMENTA E ANASTASIOU, 2008, p.215)

What does it mean to be a teacher prepared for higher education? How should the teacher's training be to act in an HEI? These questions take into account a series of questions about the fact that the teacher has adequate training and is prepared to teach classes in higher education. It also raises the question of what are the necessary knowledge for teaching practice, as well as what skills they should have for good teaching practice in higher education.

In the HEI, supported by LDB no. 9,394/96 and decree 2.207/97 (law regulating the Brazilian education system), the university professor does not necessarily need to have obtained a strictu senso graduate title (master's and/or doctorate), requires that an HEI have a portion of teachers to hold these titles.

There is a certain consensus that teaching in higher education does not require training in the field of teaching. For her it would be sufficient the domain of specific knowledge, because what identifies it is the research and/or exercise of the professional in the field. (PIMENTA, 2008)

As Pimenta (2008) mentions, in fact this occurs nowadays, some teachers, also called expert teacher (the graduate, but does not have a master or doctor's degree), which usually has professional experience, comes from the market , lived experiences in professional situations. This is not to say that the knowledge acquired by it is despicable, quite the contrary, real situations serve as models to be employed within the classroom. However, many of these teachers are there to "do one on the outside", an extra income, and in this context, what is put into question is the quality with which all this rich experience is placed in the room and how it adds value to the training and knowledge of the student.

In most higher education institutions, including universities, although their teachers have significant experience and even years of studies in their specific areas, unpreparedness predominates and even a scientific lack of knowledge of what the teaching process and learning, for which they become responsible from the moment they enter the classroom. (PIMENTA, 2008)

Pimenta (2008) still places that these courses where these teachers enter, already come formatted, with menu of the courses ready, where planning is individual, which can generate a lack of pattern in the teaching and learning process. They are not guided as to the methodology employed, the same happening with regard to the evaluation process. There is no need for feedback on the outcome, that is, whether the goal has been achieved. Thus, it is noted that teaching in higher education goes beyond the boundaries of the classroom, generating a doubt: What is the purpose of undergraduate education?

From the 1990s, there was a significant increase in the number of higher education institutions as well as the number of new courses offered by Brazil. With this growth, demand for teachers has also grown, the market has warmed up and new opportunities arose. To meet this demand there was a need to hire teachers. Many of these universities have emerged due to an urban issue – whether the student cannot move to an HEI. Ies goes to him. Today the large urban centers of the great capitals, are full of IES to diminish student times and movements.

This growing demand for teachers generated a drop in the quality of teaching. Teachers unprepared from the pedagogical perspective and without didactics to educate, bringing only their knowledge of the labor market.

More developed countries are already concerned about the issue of the quality of education, and are already mobilizing in order to identify the points to be worked on. And in this way Pimenta declares the importance of strengthening the teacher's participation in the administration and management of hei teaching departments. Your performance should not be limited to the classroom scenario. It must be fully inserted in the proposed pedagogical project, because it is an integral part of the whole, and above all it is who is on the tip with the student.

By researching the term pedagogy in literature, magazines or even on websites on the Internet we will find a number of definitions:

• Pedagogy is science or discipline whose goal is reflection, ordering, systematization and criticism of the educational process.

• Teacher function or work; Teaching; Art or science to teach; Instruction methods.

• Driving the knowledge. Concern about the act of teaching and learning.

It is noted that in the definitions of pedagogy, words are commonly present, knowledge, education, teaching, science, education, theory, practice, teacher, teaching, school, among others. According to Libâneo (1998), pedagogy has the following definition: Theory that investigates the theory and practice of education in its links with global social practice.

From the above definitions, it is observed that pedagogy is not only and only related to education, it is a link to social practice, which is justified by the fact that education is one of the means of socialization of the individual. As Libâneo points out, pedagogy is present not strictly in the educational complex, but in all sectors of society.

One of the most significant phenomena of contemporary social processes is the expansion of the concept of education and the diversification of educational activities, leading, consequently, to a diversification of pedagogical action in society. In various spheres of social practice, through informal, non-formal and formal education modalities, the production and dissemination of knowledge and modes of action (knowledge, concepts, skills, habits, procedures, beliefs, attitudes) is expanded), leading to pedagogical practices. We are facing a genuinely pedagogical society, as beillerot's expression. (LIBÂNEO, 2001)

It can be observed that pedagogical practice has a wide range of coverage than only in education. It is within this context that the teacher should act and explore new activities and opportunities for human development, bringing into the classroom knowledge and knowledge, diversifying the form of relationship with the student individual and the classroom group.

To profile what higher education was like in its beginning in Brazil (Higher education landed in 1808 with the arrival of the Portuguese royal family to the country), just look a little into the past, where the focus was on the training of professionals for the exercises of certain professions and, therefore, the form of teaching strictly aimed at scientific knowledge, where teaching was practiced by professionals who held knowledge, but without any support for teaching and learning, transforming it into a process without pleasure.

The teacher acted merely with a transmitter, or concept multiplier, the student was not the main focus, but rather the passage of knowledge. Teachers were renowned figures, with professional success. Philosophy was: who knows teaches, and very well accepted by society and for the culture of the time.

The teacher today faces a problem with regard to educating. What skills should you put into practice in your professional day-to-day activities? It is very important to effectively define the teacher's function, prioritizing the student's learning, given this being one of the main objectives of higher education.

As shown by Behrens (2003) the role of the teacher transcends only passing on knowledge. The teacher, in the holistic approach, plays a fundamental role in overcoming the paradigm of fragmentation. Seeking to overcome reproduction for the production of knowledge, the teacher needs to seek alternative paths that base relevant, meaningful and competent teaching actions. The educational model that is present in Brazil and that does not lead to effective learning is the transmission of knowledge forming mere content repeaters, a concept used by (MORIN,2016)

Now there is a possible way in this context that is necessary to think concomitantly about interdisciplinarity and transdisciplinarity. Promote a review of the curriculum of vocational training in higher education, promoting greater integration between the disciplines and the knowledge contained there, thus escaping the pedagogical model based on subjects isolated from each other, without connectivity, such as if it had been an insoluble puzzle, Changes in higher education would be necessary. Higher education will certainly review your vocational training curricula in the light of the new requirements that are put into the competent exercise of professions in our society and thus form subjects capable of reflecting and reflecting (BEHRENS,2017 )

However, the problem is not just about the teacher's training, it is important to take into account their knowledge, the skills necessary for the exercise of teaching, the training focused on research focused on the construction of knowledge and construction empirical knowledge. Situate the knowledge of the teacher in the interface between the individual and the social, between the actor and the system, in order to capture his social and individual nature as a whole (TARDIF, 2000)

Teacher education has been questioned in Brazil as well as other South American and European countries, very driven by changes in society, such as economic, information technology and communication, policies and education itself, such as devaluation of the teaching profession. In this seara, the figure of the reflective teacher appears. Reflexive practice enables teachers to self-evaluate themselves, reflect their practices, didactics, concepts, knowledge and in general their pedagogy.

The reflexive practice in the teacher has been seen with good eyes by several educators and researchers in education. According to Zeichner (1993), some points were relevant for the construction of reflective practice:

• The teacher ceases to be only the one who passes the knowledge and becomes responsible for defining his way of work.

• Begins to use your knowledge, tacit knowledge disposing only of academic knowledge, that is, it is more participatory and its vision has relevance in the teaching and learning process.

• Teacher practice is now recognized with a process of continuous improvement.

Nowadays, with the globalized mute, computerized, information coming by any means that can communicate, society is, so to speak, "bombed" information. However, information alone can derive a great strand of knowledge. That's one of the points the teacher should reflect. Evaluating what kind of information you are dealing with, your level of aggregation, questioning it, should put in discussion with the student, exchange this knowledge, and within this exchange enrich knowledge.

Antônio Nóvoa, in an interview given by TV Educativa do Brasil (TVE) in 2001, points out that the teacher has always been reflective and that the paradigm of the reflective teacher, that is, of the teacher who reflects on his practice, who thinks, which elaborates on this practice is the paradigm nowadays dominant in the area of teacher training. Sometimes it's a rather rhetorical paradigm and I, a little bit too, in a way of joking, more than once have said that what matters most is how teachers reflected before college students decided that they should be teachers Reflective. Identifying these practices of reflection – which have always existed in the teaching profession, it is impossible for anyone to imagine a teaching profession in which these reflexive practices did not exist – try to identify them and build the conditions for them to be Develop.

Also in his interview, Antônio Nóvoa, states that given factors, such as a more complex society in its way of being and information technology, today's professor needs to be aware that he needs to deal with more knowledge than existed in the past. It also asks that the teacher does not summarize the detention of knowledge, it is necessary to know how to transmit knowledge, and for this he essentially placed practice the skills to teach. These competencies declared by Philippe Perrenoud (2000) in 10 New Skills to Teach.

It is noted, therefore, that social transformations have propelled the teacher to the practice of reflection on himself and other systems that are around him. The "plastered" model of the academic past no longer has room these days. The education model needed to adapt to an increasingly critical, questioning and demanding social life. The teaching practice can not be a channel of one way needs to be two-way route – exchange and indeed continued.

In the current academic universe, there are several transformations. Such transformations imply a new way of understanding knowledge, and thus knowledge is constructed by the teacher-student binomial. In this new way of building knowledge, society and education become a supplier of the other, and thus, education can no longer dissociate itself from the information society, in which information and communication technology ends up exercising strong influences on the teaching and learning process

The technological advance in the post-war world to this day, and especially the advancement of information technology, affect the way of thinking, acting, working and education is not outside these impacts. ICT (information and communication technology) is present in most schools and universities around the world. Teachers today use technological resources such as TV, Data show, Computer, Smart Board, among numerous other resources, which support, agility and quality of their class.

Discipline is now taught not statically, as it was in the times of blackboard and chalk. She's got movement, sound, image, like she's alive.

The teacher can be called today "Professor 24 Hours". Many reporting features are available to students and teachers, either by email, messaging programs like WhatsApp, Google Hangouts. There are also virtual communities such as Facebook, Twitter and websites maintained by teachers where they provide support material and allow questions to be recorded on the site for later response.

And when you think of all this apparatus, you can see that information travels at "astronomical" speeds. The teacher in the meantime, should be very attentive because today's student arrives in an informed room. And that's where the great asset can be, because the teacher has in this network of communication, knowledge and information the opportunity to transcend the content, bringing to the daily life of education real situations, further promoting a work of inter and transdiciplinarity.

3. CONCLUSION

It is notorious that the teacher sees himself in a situation of exacerbated responsibility, because he has the function of perpetuating knowledge, integrating, socializing, passing knowledge, forming citizen, evaluating, motivating, exchanging, learning, being available intra and extraclass, among numerous other tasks. It has to be formed and informed, as updated as possible as well as having preview, all this with unmotivating salaries and professional investments well below what is necessary, not yet with a number of skills pertinent to a teacher.

It is charged, and because it does not say almost "guilty" for problems and quality of education, although in higher education spend little time with its students, this compared to elementary and high school, where contact is higher. Vale; similarly; that maxim that if a manager is bad in his day-to-day life inside a bank, the customer asks that the bank does not provide.

In spite of everything it is possible that teachers are prepared and cut with all these characteristics. A country that aims for growth, which wants to see its future trainees creating currencies for the country and forming a just, cohesive and perennial society, has to invest in education, municiar and prepare its faculty properly to meet their needs and achieve your future goals. Poorly prepared teachers mean below-expected results, and leads to unnecessary cost generation, revision of rules and standards, while investing parsimoniously and planned can mean positive results. Education cannot have immediate and radical solutions, it is gradual, it can take ten, twenty or fifty years. Just by quoting, countries like Germany and Japan, annihilated in the post-World War II world world, have largely risen due to investment in education, and this implies saying quality teachers and resources for work.

Back the initial questions of this study compared to the theoretical results obtained realize whether that the use of new technologies has actually promoted changes in the educational scenario. If on the one hand we observe advantages such as the teacher's proximity to the student and greater efficiency in the processing of information for management, on the other hand, we still face the difficulty of accessing new technologies by all actors involved in this change process.

Thus, it is perceived that the educational scenario has sought more and more new forms of management and pedagogical models based on technology, thus reaching a greater number of teachers and students. The classroom did not lose its importance only became more modern, allowing access to; much faster information in the search for knowledge. Technological changes improved much of the educational management, information management within institutions has become agile and safer.

This need to be "connected" to changes and the continuous use of technology brought teachers' students closer and broke several paradigms, enabling access for the most diverse people who previously had no condition or time to relate in a classroom or virtual learning environment.

Technology, as well as other formative means, should be, in the case of this article, aimed at the formation of a subject who specializes, master or doctor is ready to propose new pedagogical interventions fostering concrete knowledge in the university space. through interdisciplinarity or other strategies that lead the learner to reflect on the proposal as content, but much more, know, in a reflective way, look at its surroundings and provoke transformations that are worth it and worth it to other social entities

From this study, one can perceive the need for the development of new studies directed at the training of the university professor who needs to be reflective to make his graduates also holders of a reflective knowledge.

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[1] Master's degree in Education, From the UDE (Universidad De La Emprensa, Montevideo, Uruguay). Full Degree In Philosophy from USC (Sacred Heart University, Bauru, SP. Theology By Fajopa (João Paulo II Marilia College, SP.

[2] PhD in Education; Master's degree in Education; Degree in Psychology.

Submitted: July, 2019.

Approved: September, 2019.

 

Master student in education from UDE - University of La Emprensa; degree in philosophy from USC - University of the Sacred Heart; Bachelor of Theology from the Faculty of Theology Our Lady of the Assumption.

DEIXE UMA RESPOSTA

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