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Teaching practice in higher education: pedagogical training as a mobilizer of change [1]

RC: 63540
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DOI: 10.32749/nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/mobilizer-of-change

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

CORRÊA, Maurício Barros [2], SANTOS, Rosimeire Martins Régis dos [3]

CORRÊA, Maurício Barros, SANTOS, Rosimeire Martins Régis dos. Teaching practice in higher education: pedagogical training as a mobilizer of change. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. 04 year, Ed. 03, Vol. 10, pp. 45-62. March 2019. ISSN: 2448-0959. Access Link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/mobilizer-of-change, DOI: 10.32749/nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/mobilizer-of-change

SUMMARY

This study deals with the theme of pedagogical training as a mobilizer of change and its objective is to determine the importance of teaching practice in Higher Education as a mobilizer of change, also seeking objective: to analyze the quality strategies in human formation and to define the meaning of the construction of knowledge and pedagogical training to mobilize changes, leading the citizen to a full and conscious knowledge of his role in the environment where he lives and in society. Initially questioning the importance of teaching practice in Higher Education in pedagogical training to mobilize changes, the study deals with the education of the educator in terms of quality strategies, meanings and theoretical-pedagogical contributions to teaching practice, as well as the theoretical-pedagogical conceptions of learning, its new paradigms and guidelines. Through qualitative and exploratory bibliographic research, the study concludes that if current times are of technological changes and evolutions, it is necessary that the teaching practice recycle some ideas and definitively abolish the traditional education model, objectives and assumptions, understanding education from the perspective of its challenge of forming for the integral and continuously, reinforcing positive values and ideals and resizing the role of the teacher as a mediator of learning , able to lead its students to the critical census which will lead them to a lifelong learning and at the same time, the awareness that knowledge is not a continuous process and that it has to be fed at all times with the constant search for continuing education. Role that educational institutions, too, should instill in the heads of their teachers.

KEYWORDS: Pedagogical training, Teaching practice, Higher education.

INTRODUCTION

The pedagogical process, at any level of teaching, must contemplate the specific demands and questions of the students’ own reality, with all its implications and contradictions and, therefore, the training of teaching professionals should recognize the pedagogical trends that best contemplate this need.

In this sense, teacher education implies a quality requirement capable of facing the challenges posed to the teacher’s task in an ever-changing environment, marked by technological development, by the speed with which information circulates, by the increasing need for an academic education that contemplates all these factors and offers effective responses also to human formation.

Based on these assumptions, the following question is the following question: “What is the importance of teaching practice in Higher Education in pedagogical training to mobilize changes as a problem to be investigated in this study: “What is the importance of teaching practice in Higher Education in pedagogical training to mobilize changes? ”

This questioning, in an initial approach, leads to the hypothesis that pedagogical training can not only consider theoretical-practical efficiency, but rather a human formation that guarantees the quality of the formation of other human beings, in a process that is continuous and capable of improving itself to keep up with the demands of a society in constant development.

To investigate this question, the study is directed to the theme of pedagogical training as a mobilizer of change, whose choice is justified by its relevance and timeliness, since it is essential that higher education prepares educators aware of their role in society, able to respond to the challenge of qualifying the process of change in teaching and learning, directing it to a human and citizen formation that at the same time, meet the demands of a society in constant improvement and change.

The main objective of the study is to determine the importance of teaching practice in Higher Education as a mobilizer of change and, specifically, objective: to analyze quality strategies in human formation and to define the meaning of knowledge construction and pedagogical training to mobilize changes.

The approach to the theme and the search for achieving the objectives is carried out through the methodology of collecting information of a theoretical nature, through the realization of bibliographical research, through bibliographic research in documents related to the theme.

This research, regarding the approach to the problem, is characterized as qualitative research, because it seeks the analysis of information obtained from reliable sources on the subject in question and, as for the objectives, as exploratory research, seeking data in diversified media, through specific bibliography, to know and become familiar with the theme.

1.  THE TRAINING OF THE EDUCATOR

Following this discussion will be presented the quality strategies in human formation, the meaning of the construction of knowledge and teacher education, and the theoretical-pedagogical contributions and teaching practice.

1.1 QUALITY STRATEGIES IN HUMAN FORMATION

In higher education, according to Luand (2009), learning is linked, especially, to the understanding of institutions that teach undergraduate courses as responsible for training qualified citizens to work in the labor market as professionals.

It is also possible to understand it from an perspective that, according to the growing trend, evaluates universities as companies at the service of a constantly growing and evolving labor market. (LUAND, 2009)

In any case, for various reasons, there is a real need to evaluate the fulfillment of the public mission of the university, taking as reference the society or, in opposition, according to Luand (2009), the efficiency in offering adequate training, according to the assumptions and choices made. Also, one of the biggest challenges to the teaching-learning process in higher education today is the development of a new ethics in human education, from teacher education to student education.

In any case, Luand (2009) points out that while it preempizes the advancement, development, technology and information, the university teaching-learning process does not antagonize with the development of the experience of citizen education in the broadest sense. This premise challenges the claims of uniformity, universality, unity and traditional centralism of human formation, giving new contours to the idea of formation, considered as something integral, continuous, technical and, above all, human.

Another fundamental issue in relation to the quality of higher education evoked by Luand (2009), is that for the human being to know, it is fundamental that this knowledge be constructed from comprehensive assumptions, since both the personal character of knowledge and also the intentionality of the act of knowing to be able to act within the real world must be considered.

In this sense, it should be reinforced that educating is to favor the development of a process that will extend throughout life, which occurs progressively, depends on interactions and is not established individually. Just as each one has his own way of learning, it is by communicating this learning that he improves, integrates and solidifies. (LUAND, 2009)

According to Pimenta and Anastasiou (2014), it is up to the teacher to put himself not as the keeper of ready, finished knowledge, which only needs to be communicated to be absorbed, but as someone who also learns. This premise applies to any level of education and is not excluded from higher education. It is a posture that recognizes learning as a continuous process, never finished, integral and complex, and it is up to him, as a teacher, to seek self-learning at all times and teaching experiences, constantly expanding his expectations of performing a teaching practice that constantly improves and also learns from each student.

This is also, according to Pimenta and Anastasiou (2014), is the perspective that guarantees the learning of the student and the teacher himself.  The teacher allows the improvement and qualification of the way he conducts the teaching-learning process. The student provides new significantities in relation to content and knowledge, cultural and social identification with the object of knowledge, the specification of learning contexts and the approximation to technical, theoretical, but also human, human, knowledge and their own formation.

They add Pimenta and Anastasiou (2014) that the teacher is asked a provocation to transform their methodological practice, so that he can stimulate, motivate, awaken in students the desire to know and reflect, the search for a better performance through understanding the scope of what they learn, the ability to overcome challenges and difficulties regarding their training , as to their life in society and their future professional performance.

In addition, Leite, in Patto (2009), notes that the teacher needs to be clear that his professional training has also been composed and consists of challenges and experiences that attribute meaning and expand his professional vocation and responsibility as a teacher. The way in which it interacts, communicates, dialogues – or not – with students determines their ability to qualify their praxis, to reflect on their pedagogical practice and their performance, to be more than a mediator between the student and knowledge, starting to exercise the true role of educator, capable of proposing, listening, stimulating the debate, reflection and the role of the student in his/her training process.

Vargas (2007, p. 35), also observes that when referring to the quality of higher education, it is necessary to go beyond the representations “qualities”, reaching “determinations” not derived from experience, even if this experience is its starting point. Quality, then, can be defined as “what determines the nature of something, which makes something stand out, the identity of something as a synthesis of the properties that constitute it”. In higher education, quality is the result of a historical process of scientific, moral and aesthetic excellence, based on a dialogal and communicative reason that seeks truth, correction and authenticity within the scope of culture, society and the person.

In other words, due to the dual dimension of the quality of higher education institutions and, above all, their relationship with knowledge, universities have their own particularities, such as the central orientation for knowledge, the authority of their specialists, the internal organization and the articulation between the areas of knowledge, the central interest in awakening thought and developing the potential of students. However, according to Vargas (2007), if universities do not realize their idea or profile and obey other interests, which have nothing to do with this quality, they lose their ability to adapt to their surroundings, because they are not able to make sense of their time, to produce a comprehensive synthesis of themselves and to express it in their institutional practices.

1.2 THE MEANING OF THE CONSTRUCTION OF KNOWLEDGE AND TEACHER TRAINING

Ferreira, cited by Martins and Duarte (2010) considers that the function of any social institution is to expand and improve the experience of its professionals and the university, in this sense, should prioritize a training that considers that education is a continuous, inexhaustible and permanent process for all individuals. Therefore, no professional is considered “ready”, either at the end of his initial training or specializations, or in the course of his teaching experience, in summary the continuing education, can never be abandoned.

Likewise, man is always the result of the action of social and cultural transformation and of the ways in which he evolves to adapt to it, aware of his ability to adapt and print, from his action, new transformations. The more complex requirements, interdisciplinarity, new real and virtual spaces, democratization of teaching, sociocultural demands, the teaching-learning process itself are challenges to be faced appropriately, through a constant work of self-improvement. (MARTINS and DUARTE, 2010)

In the same sense, Nóvoa (2007, p. 24), comments that teacher education is often constituted in a discourse disconnected from pedagogical practice, feeding the division between knowledge and doing, which “can play an important role in the configuration of a ‘new’ teacher professionality”, stimulating the manifestation of a professional culture among teachers and an organizational culture in schools.

Zeichner (2009) also argues that the training of educators at a higher level cannot be left on the sidelines of political formation. Thus, critical and social components should also make up this formation, because only the formation of subjects who reflect on their doing and on the contextual relations of their performance, in view of social justice, can provoke effective changes. In this path where one wishes to transform and overcome fragmented, Manichean or polarizing conceptions of formation, another type of training is currently outlined: “continuing education”, another perspective that values the knowledge of the educator and understands, among other things, an interactive/reflective process, seeking to contribute to an analysis of the teaching practice and consequently to a professional development in the work environment itself.

Schön, in Nóvoa (2010, p. 13), corroborates this perspective by advocating a reflexive practice of reflection-in-action, in the sense that an effective reflexive practice needs to integrate the institutional context. The training, in this sense, cannot be dissociated from an intervention in the professional field and that the “professional development of the teacher must be articulated with the school and its projects”.

The training of educators, therefore, in to address a perspective of the future, must contemplate important aspects, such as those highlighted by Zeichner (2009, p. 45-47):

a) uninterrupted continuation of training, enabling each educator to develop their potentialities;

b) provides a greater appreciation of professionals, identifying them with their social functions, providing the resizing dimension of the idea of citizenship;

c) innovates, transforming paradigms and attitudes and, consequently, clarifying the meaning, dimension and responsibility of teachers;

d) enhances the experience of the education professional, through reflection on the experiences lived in daily life;

e) enables reflective, formative spaces, collaboration, empowering for dialogue;

f) moves and streamlines accumulated knowledge, updating them and presenting new possibilities, emphasizing the development of a critical-reflexive awareness essential to teaching practice.

It is of paramount importance that the future educator understands that reality requires a professional committed to research in order to reflect and have full conditions to meet current and sociocultural needs, contributing to a fairer society that offers the same conditions of equality and competitiveness to the community as a whole.

However, for Formosinho (2009), continuing education is not considered as an extension of initial training, in the traditional logic of recycling and updating, in which universities provide the training “service” to schools and teachers, highlighting five trends essential to the training of educators:

a) intense completion of training actions in relation to professional contexts. Training is perceived as a strand of change in traditional teacher performance, in the idea of the production of knowledge and the meaning of this knowledge;

b) individualization of training pathways, ranging from traditional self-teaching forms and individualization practices centered on group interaction;

c) use of research procedures for training, which involves perspectives of construction of controlled solutions and professional knowledge developed and evaluated, usually in training teams, constituted for studies and projects in the form of action research or other modalities of action and intervention;

d) development of integrated training in the very exercise of the profession, making the awareness of professional practices the orientation of desirable transformations for the acquisition of new competencies;

e) attention to appropriate learning strategies by trainees in the course of training.

Teacher education must take into account a continuous process, where theory and practice must go hand in hand, prioritizing research in order to lead the student to new discoveries and questions, enabling the production of previously unknown knowledge.

Pinazza, in Oliveira-Formosinho et al (2007), notes that teacher education should focus on significant experiences, since only such experiences have formative value.

Another finding, resulting from the first, is that the formation of educators must effectively train a reflective professional, aware of his own learning process, which arises through experience, daily living, as well as the relationship between acts and their consequences. (PINAZZA, in OLIVEIRA-FORMOSINHO, 2007)

Still within this discussion, it is not enough, according to Pinazza, in Oliveira-Formosinho et al (2007), to disseminate knowledge of psychology, sociology and statistics in the curricula of teacher education, because these contents, although scientific, do not directly reflect on pedagogical science. For the constitution of this science, one should consider, mainly, those directly involved in educational practice, that is, teachers.

Thus, pinazza, in Oliveira-Formosinho et al (2007), ratifies the importance of the participation of teachers in the process of constructing scientific knowledge of educational practice and emphasizes that only in this way will there be a significant approximation of scientific findings in the field of practical achievements and distancing from the artificialities of pure methodological prescriptions.

Similarly, contributions of this size have great value for the discussion and practice of the education of educators, because they enable formations that have as a recurring practice the action-reflection-action as a fundamental axis directed to consolidate a constructivist model of professional education of the educator. (ZEICHNER, 2009)

Nóvoa (2013) understands that this is the model that can bring about real changes in practice, because part of the challenges to be faced by educators and constitutes an effectively significant learning, since theoretical studies have resonance in everyday reality and serve as support to solve issues and challenges identified in practice.

Thus, “training strategies are necessarily hybrid, appealing according to their own coherence and contextualized to different methodological theoretical contributions”. (NÓVOA, 2013, p. 27)

Its greatest importance lies in the fact that the reality of education, of the school environment, is constantly pressured by social contexts that are both adverse and dynamic, although education remains the only way to achieve the necessary balance between education and the possibility of facing the challenges of contemporary society. (SCHÖN, in NÓVOA, 2010)

Also, according to Schön, in Nóvoa (2010), the possibility of promoting access to knowledge and culture, the mission of the teaching professional, the possibility of contributing to the integral formation of the citizen, imprint to the formation of educators peculiar characteristics and renewed demands, because they will be responsible not only for the success or failure of this formation, but for the qualitative transformation of the social environment , humanizing him and making him more righteous through those to whom his praxis is addressed.

In addition, Schön, in Nóvoa (2010) states that the role of teacher training is to develop a critical, dialogical and dialectical awareness, that is, the degree of theoretical abstraction to which the teacher reaches to explain his pedagogical practice.

As observed from the analyses of the authors surveyed, each of the factors described in the study, on the education of educators are important variables that affect the attitudes of teachers and the excellence of their pedagogical practice, limiting or facilitating the development of a quality education.

Also, for Imbernón (2010), given the complexity that teachers experience in their practice, it is possible to think that there are several factors that impact the quality of their intervention, emphasizing the importance of training to face the challenge of qualifying the training of students.

1.3 THEORETICAL-PEDAGOGICAL CONTRIBUTIONS AND TEACHING PRACTICE

Pain, in Souza (2011), states that the teacher, in order to interpret what the student means, needs to know the individual learning process, in which four fundamental levels of elaboration intervene: the body, the organism, the intelligent organization and the symbolic organization.

For the understanding of each instance, three categories must be distinguished, namely: the internal ones, the subject’ s, intelligence, desire, body and organism; the external, social, other, science and culture; – the vehicles of learning, language and action.

According to Souza, Pain defines the two structures related to relationships between people as follows:

Thus, we have one structure for our logical thinking and another for our dramatic thinking, which concerns relationships between people. Logical thinking will build reality and symbolic or dramatic thinking will build another “reality”, which I put in quotation marks, because it is a reality that is based on a fault, on an unreality, because it is based on desire. We build our personal relationships because of what we don’t have and we need to receive from each other. This is due to the desire and impossibility of having this relationship. (PAIN, in SOUZA, 2011, p. 79)

Also, Imbernón (2010) notes that teacher training is the formation of the political agent, first of all, of the citizen who actively participates in the necessary decisions and reconstructions in his society.

Political actors are essentially responsible for contributing to the common good of the nation through the most efficient instruments and means to achieve this reality. To this end, citizenship delegates to them the power to make decisions that involve everyone, within what is established by the laws and the dynamics of democracy. (IMBERNÓN, 2010)

According to Imbernón (2010), this delegation is channeled through three main tasks: thinking as a philosopher; communicate as an educator; manage as an administrator. The teacher as a political agent, therefore, should seek a permanent formation, which allows him to understand the meaning of going beyond the immediactivity, always asking himself what are the most convenient conditions for each citizen to grow in autonomy and ability to enjoy the opportunities that must always be assured to all.

Each of the factors are important variables that affect the attitudes of teachers and the excellence of their pedagogical practice, limiting or facilitating the development of a quality education. (IMBERNÓN, 2010).

2. THEORETICAL-PEDAGOGICAL CONCEPTIONS OF LEARNING

The following will be the new paradigms of learning, learning in the field of higher education, the guidelines of initial and continuing education.

2.1 THE NEW PARADIGMS OF LEARNING

The old learning paradigm, in which the teacher teaches, without giving the student time to assimilate and perceive what has been taught, creates barriers that make it difficult for students to find meaning in knowledge. As learning is not a passive process, a “storage” of formulas, the subject who learns processes these standards continuously. (KLEIMAN, 2012)

In the crisis of traditional teaching foundations, according to Kleiman (2012), the teacher needs to review and problematize the theoretical devices and, together with this, select readings that allow him to build a trajectory of success, since this knowledge will be used in the formulation and equation of problems related to the daily life of the teacher and the interpretation of reality in the school context.

In this sense Kleiman (2012, p. 95) warns that “the difference between being educated and being educated implies differences in the degree of familiarity with various uses of everyday learning”.

It is important, in view of this finding, to observe that it is part of the primary functions of the teaching-learning process to train educated individuals, in the full sense of the term, and not only educated individuals.

If the school, as Weisz and Sanches (2014) observe, is continuously rewarded amid the social contexts of aggression, unemployment, arbitrariness of governments, education is the only way to democratize social justice by also providing equal possibilities of access to knowledge that is produced and accumulated in social history and culture.

The new learning paradigm considers that the speed and constancy of the transformations that the current world goes through makes everything present itself in an increasingly dynamic way, causing the need to know, define and manifest a position in the face of events at every moment. (WEISZ and SANCHES, 2014)

At all times, new demands arise to express ideas and feelings, to listen and to read diverse opinions, formulating and issuing judgments about them, understanding the facts in order to be able to issue coherent judgments about them and their implications. Therefore, thinking of teaching as an exercise in understanding the world requires a reflection on school practices, as well as the apparent conflict of interest existing in teacher education, making it even more responsible for the development of comprehension mechanisms that enable a truly satisfactory insertion in society. (WEISZ e SANCHES, 2014).

Still, according to Weisz and Sanches:

The important leap that has taken in the knowledge produced on the issues of teaching and learning already allows the teacher to look at what the student has produced, see what he already knows and identify what kind of information is needed for his knowledge to advance. This has become possible because, in recent decades, many studies have helped consolidate a conception that considers the learning process as a result of the action of the learner. (WEISZ and SANCHES, 2014, p. 25)

According to Weisz and Sanches (2014), in this perspective, knowledge is a critical construction that takes place through the interaction of the organism with the environment, the subject with the object, but also of the individual with society. The act of constructing knowledge has a political dimension, because there is no neutrality and is permeated with intentions directly related to the transformation of reality. Education is a continuous, integral, dialogical, progressive and collective process. The process of knowledge construction is unique and unique, but it takes place in the relationship with the other. You learn from the other, never alone.

Knowledge is a set of representations that the subject makes of the reality in which he is inserted, related to the historical moment of each one and of society, constituting from the historical summaries in which the truth is given as probable, temporary, relative and, therefore, always historical knowledge. (WEISZ and SANCHES, 2014)

Kleiman (2012) adds that the concern with the democratization of practices, methods and processes of knowledge stems from observing the need for teaching practices to exercise the functions of training methods, selecting relevant aspects for students to learn and, at the same time, to use innovative methods, contributing to students effectively constructing positive meanings of the teaching experience.

2.2 Learning IN HIGHER EDUCATION

The teacher, in higher education, is the reference of the student as a professional and as a person, is seen by him as someone he trusts and with whom he shares convictions and aspirations. This relationship depends, in so that it is solid, that the teacher knows himself and abandons authoritarian postures, placing himself before the students as an individual that can be wrong, of correct, of criticism and suggestions. In this way, the teacher opens himself to the acceptance that he always has something to learn, that his formation is a continuous process, that he is a human being, with strengths and weaknesses. (KOPZINSKI, 2010)

Thus, according to Kopzinski (2010), the greatest value of the teacher in the relationship he establishes with students lies in this issue and it is necessary to modify habits and attitudes rooted in the teaching practice of higher education to achieve success as a professional and as a person. This is a hard, difficult path, but one that must be sought and trodden with persistence and determination.

One of the obstacles to these changes is the lack of recognition that exists in relation to the teacher, the lack of prestige and respect for the person and professional, especially on the part of the students, who usually see in the teacher someone who receives a salary and in return must accept the demands that are made to him. Many teachers react to this by assuming unsafe, arrogant postures, using methodologies that oppress, charge, label and inspire the fear of students, abusing the power they allegedly possess. (KOPZINSKI, 2010)

Anyway, according to Leite, in Patto (2009), what is needed is to establish in the classroom a true dialogical relationship, a relationship in which thoughts and words are fruits of reflection, communication, where knowledge is constructed from shared emotions and values, respect and transparency.

Demotivation, disinterest, frustration of expectations are variables that do not participate in a dialogical relationship between teachers and students, because when there is authentic communication the teacher is able to manage experiences and coexistence, helping to overcome obstacles to the knowledge and training of students. (LEITE, in PATTO, 2009)

For the author, conflicts will always occur, because they are part of human life, but the teacher who assumes a leading role in pedagogical practice becomes able to perceive these conflicts and determine their causes, acting in the appropriate way to situations to solve them effectively.

2.3 THE GUIDELINES FOR INITIAL AND CONTINUING EDUCATION

Resolution of the Ministry of Education No. 2 of July 1, 2015 defines the National Curriculum Guidelines for initial higher education and continuing education.

In its text, it establishes the principles, foundations, formative dynamics and management and regulation procedures, the planning of teaching and evaluation programs and processes in the context of initial and continuing training of teaching professionals, including indigenous school education, field school education and quilombola school education.

The principles referred to in this Resolution are set out in Paragraph 5 of Article 3, comprising:

a) it is the public commitment of the State to teacher training for basic education, so that the rights of children, young people and adults to receive quality education, in accordance with the National Curriculum Guidelines for Basic Education, are guaranteed;

b) teaching professionals should receive training that prepares for a professional exercise that recognizes and values the diversity, democracy, justice, inclusion and emancipation of individuals and social groups;

c) the National Policy for the Training of Professionals of the Teaching Of Basic Education is based on the collaboration articulated between the MEC and universities and education systems and networks and their institutions;

(d) it is essential to ensure a quality standard in training courses;

e) theory and practice must be articulated in teacher education, that is, technical knowledge and didactic knowledge are inseparable, as well as research and extension;

f) teaching professionals are necessarily trained in the spaces of basic education institutions;

g) the units that contribute to the teacher education have ensured their organicity and, therefore, the teacher education must contemplate, in their project, a solid and specific theoretical and interdisciplinary basis;

(h) access to initial and continuing training is based on equality in access, reducing social, regional and local inequalities;

(i) initial training, continuing education and the various levels and modalities of education are articulated with each other;

j) continuing education is essential to professionalization, integrates with the daily life of the school and its pedagogical project;

k) teaching professionals are culture training agents and have the right to permanent access to cultural information, experiences and updates.

This common base of teacher training is inspiring the proposals of curricular organization for teacher education, consolidating, as a public policy, an initial training that is technical-professional, with strong and incisive emphasis on the technical and methodological aspects that make up the teaching work.

The national common basis to be ensured by this training must be guaranteed, regulated by a conception of education as a permanent process of emancipation, of the specificity of teaching practice as a work in which theory and practice are united and, therefore, requires consideration of the reality of schools and the profession.

In this sense, the Resolution determines curricular interdisciplinarity and integration to form knowledge that qualifies for the work and exercise of citizenship, as well as access to research and pedagogical support material of quality and pedagogical dynamics that contribute to the critical, collective and interdisciplinary professional exercise, creative, innovative and autonomous. (BRASIL, 2015)

The process of teacher training, in the sense that attributes to it the Resolution, accompanies what Schon (2013), considers essential to change in the teaching process as a whole: to follow the changes and transformations through which knowledge, education and society, the evolution of information and communication technologies, critical reflection and the incorporation into the pedagogical process of different languages , the efficiency of the idea of inclusion and respect for differences and diversity.

This new conception of teacher professional education also corresponds to what Zeichner (2009, p. 12), considers as the consolidation of a reflective work of teaching practice, as a form of permanent reconstruction of personal and professional identity in mutual interaction with school culture, with the subjects of the process and with the accumulated knowledge about the area of education. As “reflection consists in thinking about praxis, in order to transform it and make it more competent, it constitutes a political act, since it presupposes a planned and intentional action”.

At the same time, it contemplates the recognition that it is essential that the teacher keep up to date with cultural, social and technological evolution, because it is increasingly decisive in school and influences his pedagogical practice.

Likewise, it is essential to recognize how this evolution modifies the profile of students, deepening their knowledge to be able to face the challenges of this “new education”, making students able to participate in the permanent processes of democratization of access to education. (PIMENTA, 2007)

Especially, in the context of continuing education, Articles 16 and 17 of MEC Resolution No. 2/2016 recommend training actions and refresher courses, extension, improvement, specialization, master’s and doctorate programs aimed at new knowledge and practices, involving, among others, activities that include the development of pedagogical projects and innovations.

In this sense, already in the initial considerations, the document exposes the importance of contemplating, among other rights and duties, the pluralism of ideas and pedagogical conceptions, provided as a principle in Law No. 9,394 of December 20, 1996 – Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education. This premise initially contemplates the existence, in the universal scope, of new educational conceptions in the education process of the student, which constantly arise and specialize, as well as studies on ethical, aesthetic and artistic education, transforming pedagogical conceptions about the use of teaching tools.

Moreira, in Moreira and Candau (2008), notes that there are, therefore, countless pedagogical ideas and conceptions whose practice passes between traditional methodological conceptions, popular education and a pedagogy of creativity. Recognizing and accepting this plurality implies stimulating the school’s ability to get out of conventional paths and produce something unheard of in the educational, ethical, aesthetic, experiential field, reordering known experiences in a new type of relationships, developing broad levels of awareness, participation and social transformation.

Thus, it is essential to consider, among these premises, the support of these ideas and conceptions to build an initial and continuous formation of teachers that stimulates creativity, free expression, inaugurating, in pedagogical practice, a participatory environment and the strengthening of the dialogical character of the educational process, stimulating the necessary changes.

3. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

The present study dealt with the theme of pedagogical training as a mobilizer of change and its main objective was to determine the importance of teaching practice in Higher Education as a mobilizer of change

In this sense, it analyzed the quality strategies in human formation and, specifically, in the formation of educators, from the contribution of several theorists.

It also presented the new paradigms of learning and its implications in the teaching of higher education, as well as the guidelines of initial and continuing education as elements capable of printing changes capable of guaranteeing the quality of training, in a process that is continuous and able to improve itself to keep up with the demands of a society in constant development.

In a general approach of the objectives that led the elaboration of the study, it is possible to affirm, initially, that the idea that permeates excellence in teacher education is to transform this training into an environment of effective training.

In practice, this idea means ensuring both access to theoretical and practical knowledge and understanding and learning that resign teacher education, referring to teaching practices that legitimize not only what is determined in the legislation dedicated to standardizing this formation, but a process of change that produceemancipations, that form citizens and reinforce the ideal of a democratic experience.

These emancipation practices, which escape from the more traditional behaviors, based on the contributions of the theorists evoked during the study, carry the unusual, lead to new pedagogical arrangements, to practices that turn to the development of creativity, to self-formation, autonomy, the protagonism of subjects in the process of schooling.

Given the theme analyzed and its consequences, it is perceived that the mobilization of change implies going beyond scientific knowledge (which is no longer sufficient to promote learning), and it is necessary for the teacher to have flexibility and use the available resources – materials and humans – to make a difference.

It is necessary to worry less about the content of the discourse (because communication transcends words) and more about opportunities to develop skills that allow students and themselves to learn their whole lives.

Thus, the teaching of higher education contributes to the qualitative education of the educator when, without giving up the commitment to transmit technical, theoretical and scientific knowledge, the teacher is also concerned with maintaining a high sense of the formation of the human being as a whole.

In this sense, the need for humanization of the teaching-learning process is highlighted, because the most important in any professional training project, in any higher education course, are the people, for whom teaching is organized and because of which university technical training is promoted.

Furthermore, it is important to emphasize that the quality of education in higher education corresponds to a permanent, autonomous formation for learning through experience, experience, meaning and meaning of knowledge for the construction of citizenship for the improvement of a society in permanent change.

It is therefore up to the teaching of higher education, to reinforce strategies and possibilities, to establish new parameters, new teaching, pedagogical and technological resources, to recognize the new roles that educators play in social life, the challenges that are faced by them, empowering them to face these challenges as opportunities to strengthen their qualification and to effect the quality of teaching.

Thus, the teaching of higher education is essential to the education of the educator for change, that is, for the qualification of his/her education, since it is important to discuss the profile of teachers, the results of students, the physical structure of institutions, times, resources, spaces, curricula, social insertion, etc., the most important is to define what it means , essentially, the responsibility of training individuals who educate individuals, with all the burden of meanings that this formation contemplates.

The initial and continued formation of teachers, the knowledge and the theoretical and practical articulation of change, the recognition of the purpose of education as a right of citizenship make the teacher aware of his professional attributions, capable for the adoption of dialogical postures, the theoretical deepening and the recognition that education, besides being obligatory, is an inalienable and universal right.

It provides, likewise, that the teacher puts himself in the condition of those who teach and those who learn, recognizing that learning times are not reserved for the stages of schooling, but that they pass through them and extend throughout life.

Thus, it is affirmed that education is a teaching process and practice, from a perspective of responsibility for change, assumes different dimensions and depth, influenced by educational legislation and educational policies, but also by the training processes experienced by teaching professionals, aggregating the representations they build about their roles in daily didactic-pedagogical practice.

Finally, if the current times are of change, it is necessary that the teaching practice recycle some ideas, objectives and assumptions, understanding education from the perspective of its challenge of forming for the integral and continuously, reinforcing positive values and ideals and resizing the role of the teacher as a mediator of learning.

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[1] Work of completion of the lato sensu a distance postgraduate course in Teaching higher education 2016D – 6M, by the agreement UCDB and Portal da Educação. PERNAMBUCO, 2017.

[2]Graduated in Accounting. Specialization in Financial Administration from the University of Pernambuco (FCAP/UPE). Consultant in Business Guidance – SEBRAE / PE – Specialization in Micros and Small Companies (Accounting for Success – Sebrae Nacional / CFC).

[3] Graduated in Teacher Training and Pedagogy. Master and PhD in Education from the Catholic University don Bosco (UCDB). Advisor of the work of completion of the lato sensu postgraduate course at UCDB, Professor.

Submitted: January, 2019.

Approved: March, 2019.

5/5 - (1 vote)
Maurício Barros Corrêa

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