Literary reading: the practice of Literary Reading as an integral Activity in the process of formation of readers of elementary school students in a public school of the municipality of São João da Baliza/RR

0
618
DOI: ESTE ARTIGO AINDA NÃO POSSUI DOI SOLICITAR AGORA!
Classificar o Artigo!
ARTIGO EM PDF

SANTOS, Elzeni Reis dos [1]

SANTOS, Elzeni Reis dos. Literary reading: the practice of Literary Reading as an integral Activity in the process of formation of readers of elementary school students in a public school of the municipality of São João da Baliza/RR. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. 03 year, Ed. 07, vol. 01, pp. 57-79, July 2018. ISSN:2448-0959

Summary

This research aimed to analyse the difficulties of learning in the discipline of literary Reading elementary State school Francisco Ricardo Macedo. The work is divided into three chapters, where include the concepts of literature with some theoretical concepts, with a brief parallel what is read and your importance to the individual; the importance of reading to the formation of Readers in elementary school, identifying the areas considered as stimuli for the motivation of literary reading, including the use of books and teaching materials and the function of the teacher.  The methodology that was used had a qualitative approach and the inductive method, through bibliographical research, descriptive and applied nature. Analysis and discussion of data, where the analysis of the data collected from the application of the instruments, the results can help teachers and students to exercise a more effective work to improve the teaching quality of literary reading.

Keywords: reading, literature, language teaching.

Introduction

Literature is fiction, the re-creation of a reality, through words. This combination reveals the way individual writer to interpret reality, there are many concepts of literature.  Besides, the man is modified on literary knowledge.

The choice of the theme came from a remark made in school: the first intention is encourages students to read the book and retell what you read in the living room to the colleagues in the classroom, activity that encourages creativity, rather than a spectator , the student becomes a sensitive listener the pleasure of reading and the enchantment of the text.

In addition, in shared reading of a literary text the possibility of invention, creation, is always open. This is perhaps the most fascinating aspect of this whole experience: open space for creation and creation is the path to autonomy and to statement.

Many are students who do not have a daily practice be of literary reading, the teaching of literature aimed at the improvement of reading. It is not a mechanical action that bothers you. Read is to establish relationship with the text read, you understand it and interpret it.

In this sense, the literature becomes an invitation to freedom of expression, where students can express their feelings, discover and better understand their own emotions. The age group of elementary school students varies from eight to eighteen years of age. At this stage, the adolescent is emotionally vulnerable, and ends up being influenced directly by the power of persuasion of the media, from friends, from the consumerist precepts, getting carried away, for the most part, by the false achievements.

The intention of this research is to contribute with suggestions for the teaching of Literature and practical knowledge-teacher's methodology, since the questioning part of as the teaching of Literature in the development process of the reading instruments for acquisition and retention of new knowledge, making the mind of the reader more open, increasing the competences and minimizing the weaknesses in reading improvement.

The formation of readers with proficiency has been an increasingly difficult challenge for teachers. Work discipline Literature requires the qualification of professionals, the training of students as readers, for interaction with the texts and the social environment. Besides, the lack of diverse literary materials in school also contributes to demotivation of teachers before the literary reading practices, and the textbook has become the primary means for the implementation of school activities.

Because of this, most students have great dissatisfaction by reading and some do not have the habit of reading nor the school content due to use of traditional methodologies, formalistic and monotonous for some teachers. So, educators demonstrate they are looking for culprits for the lack of interest of the students, what you realize is that teachers disclaim the responsibility of forming regular readers.

On this issue, as a general objective of this research is to understand the learning difficulties in the discipline of Literature of the elementary students of State Francisco Ricardo Macedo of 7th grade students.

In this way, specific objectives have been established which consisted of: Identify the methodology used by the Portuguese Language teacher for the teaching of literature, verify the difficulties encountered in the process of learning the reading of elementary school students and verify material and pedagogical conditions that the school offers to the encouragement of literary reading.

In the present research used the qualitative approach and the inductive method, through bibliographical research and descriptive and applied nature, where for the collection of information has been used questionnaires.

The theoretical basis of support of this work lies in: Paulo Freire (2003), John and Oliveira (2006), Antonio Candido (2000), among others.

The work is divided into three chapters, the first includes conceptions of Literature of some theorists, with a brief parallel what is read and your importance to the individual, the importance of literature for Readers in elementary school, identifying the spaces that are considered as stimuli for the motivation of literary reading, including the use of books and teaching materials and the function of the teacher.

The second chapter sets out the methodology that had a qualitative approach and the inductive method, through bibliographical research, descriptive and applied nature.

The third chapter deals with the analysis and discussion of data, where the analysis of the data collected from the application of instruments and finally got the final considerations.

The conceptualization of literature and your importance

There are several meanings or concepts assigned to literature. The dictionary defines as "the art of composing or writing in artwork and verse". In this context, the words beyond identified must have: respect, understanding, interpretation, to relate what is more relevant in a text, dialogue among other communications. According to Freire (2003, p. 28) "reading is important in order to offer the world and understanding man through this relationship is possible the discovery of reality about life".

Jordan and Oliveira (2006, p. 17) defined that "literature is the recreation of a reality through words." But it is not enough to make use of the word to produce literary art. You need to create more intense forms, that have a deeper meaning.

Also Earth and Nicola (1997, p. 99) state that "literature is language charged with meaning. Great literature is simply language charged with meaning to the utmost possible degree ".

Thus, the literature does not have a commitment to do a portrait of reality; In contrast, the literary artist more interested in recreating reality according to your own vision.

The Literature depicts a reality of the world in constant development in symbolic and plan also is a realization of language.

Currently, the Literature is given a concept of culture that preserves the playful character of the literary game, or even art that provokes new interests in human form capable readers and, consequently, writers, culture that motivates the critical sense, that meets individual needs, professional, cultural and social man. In this way, the literary art works as a playful game around the language, expressions, contents and forms, the same is not subject only to an intermediate goal of the practice. According to Silva (2007, p. 14) "the literature is not only a heritage, a set and static of texts written in the past, but presents itself as a historical process of continuous production of new talent".

Literature is important for its functional features, she can go beyond information object and passes the function as information education. Thus, the literature is identified from the moment that the student feels concerned by this art and become familiar with reading through the practice. When the learner conceives the literary culture as a way to systematize literary and non literary knowledge, the students in life the opportunity to build and insert a second culture in your historical and cultural context.

In the opinion of Scott (2007, p. 69), "understanding the world and understanding you can be enriched by reading". The understanding is fundamental in the Act of reading, so learning is set with the purpose that the authors wish.

The Act of reading

Is by reading what the search education student development, making it possible to draw up concepts of expand your field of oral language, elements of learning that are vital to the practice of citizenship. The vision is to create readers increasingly dependent, respecting the various levels of education, and this is possible through the reading of literary and non literary texts.

According to Martins (2005, p. 30) "it is necessary to consider the reading as a process of understanding of formal and symbolic expressions, no matter through what language". So, to encourage reading is the reading activity when held implies to be a joint process of knowledge inherent in each subject that performs the action.

In addition, each individual makes a different reading, object, image, manuscript, depends on your level of intellect and of the experiences and circumstances of life and motivation of each reader. For Martins (2005) "as we develop our sensory, emotional and rational skills also develop our readings in these levels, even though, I repeat, one or another remains" (p. 80). Reading levels are simultaneously, depending on the individuality of the need, experience and motivation of each reader.

Faulstich (2003) says that there are two kinds of reads: "informative Reading-if you do, we seek to answer the specific questions" (p. 14). Given this, we have two subdivisions of informative are: selective reading the reader choose the ideas according to the author, and the critical reading that requires a student's view of the subject being studied. Interpretative reading already requires total field of informative reading. To make interpretative reading is necessary to meet certain knowledge capabilities. " (p. 22).

The Act of reading assists in the development of the skills of textual production and linguistic analysis of the text. When the student acquires the habit of reading, as well as expand the cultural horizon, tends to favor the interpretation of texts (in all areas), because reading expands the universe of languages of the reader, both in vocabulary and in cultural aspects. The more we read, the more easily we have to understand what is implied, that we extracted a deeper reading of the text. In this way, the student ceases to be passive in reading and becomes active and interference, taking into consideration that knowledge results from a process of construction.

However, there is no way to talk about the Act of reading, without talking about the importance of the Literature carries in the universe of the reader. In other words, Silva and Zilberman (1990, p. 24) Express "you have to read literature to break the silence, desentravando, and retroalimentando the feelings and the intelligence of the world". In this context, "associated literature so reading." (p. 18). It is essential to note that literary reading is an instrument of empowerment of the subject in relation to other proficiencies and also allows the full exercise of citizenship, since through it is possible to take a more critical stance in the world.

The importance of teaching literature and reading in the classroom

The process of teaching literature and reading in the classroom requires renovations of methodological concepts and practices surpassing traditional methodologies as present in teaching.

Literary reading is topic of discussion where you question your development theorists for understanding the reality of society. In addition, for a better use of using ancient texts, since some teachers that develop in the student the idea that literature is not part of the modern world, making no avail the your study.

Defining the importance of literature in the classroom, Martins (2005) says that learning to read also means "learning to read the world, make sense of he and ourselves, what, good or bad, we do even without being taught". Given this, the teacher should introduce the student to the literary text, literary or not as a set of loaded language productions of senses. This means universalize, at school, the concept of reading as an artistic mode of language that conveys thematic and ideological components from which you can enhance the understanding of the social, economic and cultural diversity of the world in which we live.

One realizes that literature is as important as the other knowledge transmitted to high school students. The teaching of literature, as well as the other arts, develops the line of art. 35 of the law of Guidelines and Bases of the high school, which requires as one of its objectives in section lll: "improvement of educating as human beings, including the ethics training and development of intellectual autonomy and critical thinking" (BRAZIL .1996).

Would fit so to literature and the school have as goal the development of humanism, intellectual autonomy and critical thinking, regardless of whether the student will continue the studies or joins in the labour market.

In this way, it would fit to the role of professor form the literary reader, IE, a reflective, critical reader, who knows how to take ownership of what's right, seen.

So when the student does not have interest in literary reading, the teacher motivate you with their skills. The school and the teacher to create and organize conditions for the students of elementary school can practice reading. The teacher has to be involved in the Act of reading, where the student can make reading a habit and this becomes a learning process, where the reading can be developed along with understanding and interpretation by various means.

In addition, it is necessary that students have access to the literate world and that school and teachers extend their tasks to the teaching of reading and strengthen the means so that the students can devote to this task essential to your training.  Reading plays a key role in the student's individual and collective level, contributing to your personal enrichment, enabling him to have a real vision of the world.

Kleiman (2001) States that: "no one can do what is hard enough, or that you can't extract sense" (p. 16). In this context, it is for the teacher to negotiate in order to teach, you have to use reading strategies. In this sense Lajolo (1997) States that all the school activities of which the text participates must have sense, so that the text safeguard your meaning. " (p. 62)

An exit would be the teacher supply strategy models, causing the student to interact with the text, with the teacher and with the rest of the class. Because "to draw up a chance of reading it is necessary to activate prior knowledge of the reader about the subject" until it becomes an "experienced player", that is, until your reading become a conscious, reflective activity and intentional. (KLEIMAN, 2001, p. 56).

The literature as a discipline that involves various expertise, requires theoretical complementation to facilitate the understanding of the student with the text. The teacher can, therefore, provide materials that facilitate the understanding and make the student feel motivated to seek new sources to remedy their difficulties and curiosities. Second Mazzoni (2003), in "intellectual formation, which involves a slow and continuous process, it is necessary that the teacher is qualified and able to motivate students with critical thoughts, and to seek your own intellectual knowledge". (2003. p. 1)

Cândido (2000) States that the "social positio[do artista]n is an aspect of the structure of society". And, yet, "the public is the binding factor between the author and your work". (p.p. 22-3). To lead the reader to understand this fact, the author proposes exaggerating these "truths" in order that the student feel interested to analyze not only the intimacy of the works, as well as the internal factors that participate in your building through social and features that make the text a work of art.

There are several factors that undermine the teaching of literature. Since the physical structures of the classroom and the school, to external factors that hinder access to literary books or literature studies. Gradually, it is intended to point them out specifically. In this sense, closely linked with the teaching/learning of literature and reading, is essential to understanding the Act of reading.

To relieve the reading as importance in school education of the individual, are Act of reading, so you can enable the development of cognitive and intellectual abilities.

Schools and teachers have a big hurdle to overcome, that is to form critical reflective and aware readers.

The contribution of literature for readers

The Literature in high school is little studied, is reduced to a superficial knowledge, are extracted from the text only without context elements with little information or fragmented, which makes the learning process of the student while reader critical.

Literature is composed of several instruments covering various transmission knowledge, in the formation of readers is related to the construction of the textual universe of information that the student can acquire through the literary reading.

The literature class in the room involves the learner with activities and matters that develop the formation of opinions, awaken the critical sense and help in the construction of reflective citizen who will be ready for the world.

The Literature can help in the formation of the reader, through her travels in the text, the learner can understand playing, your own concept formulation, since it can be compared to your world and take ownership of certain senses that contribute to transformation of thought.

The teaching of literature involves understanding the interests of the reader and the provocation of new interests which arouse the practical limits.

Given this, we can say that the skill developed from the diverse reading and literary culture provide a range of opportunities in the life of the learner while reader, writer and citizen with universal thoughts.

For the formation of readers of literature contributes to the extent that is developed because there are no formalities and limits to your development.

Secondly Bordini and Ab (1988, p. 17), the role of the school is crucial in the process of formation of the usual reader, but for that you need to fulfill certain requirements such as "have a library with many books of different subjects in the area of literature, with librarians who prove the literary book, teachers, readers with theoretical and methodological and educational projects that give added value to the literature ".

In addition, Mali (2005) expresses that the textbook only adds to the lack of interest by reading, once trying to manipulate his readers in order to transmit values, customs, languages and principles of an elite culture rather than contemplate texts which explore the socio-economic and cultural context of the student.

We need to consider that the educational materials must be used in the classroom, but you have to have other materials for classes won't stay in a summary.

Yet the students lose interest by the literary reading because the textbooks present fragments and texts with mechanical exercises that do not stimulate the creativity, pleasure and reflection of literary and other literary materials.

The practice of literary reading

As, Jordan and Oliveira (2006) the literary language is manifested in two ways: the prose that is "used in literary texts (Chronicles, tales, novels, novels and literary (not scientific tests, news and journalistic reports, messages advertising, comic books "etc. (p. 19). the other way is already the "poem which is organized in verses, each of the lines of a stanza poem" (p. 20). In addition, the poetry refers to the literary form and is also the name that is given to production of verses of a poet, writer of poems.

No literary texts present a objective language, based on historical facts, concretes, statistics, etc. And the literary texts include these forms of language focused on the viewer's emotions and intentional with the concern expressed them.

The literary genre is the set of features that allow you to sort a literary work in a given category. Western literature should the Greeks the concept of three major literary genres the epic, lyric and dramatic.

The language of literature, on the form, can be prose or poem, about the content and structure, can frame the works in three genera.  According to Jordan and Oliveira (2006) "the epic genre, or narrative, is so classified by theme as the narration of facts". (p. 40). To be notable as a leading figure of the context, there is a need of the protagonist. "Lyrical genre is characterized by presenting how to theme the feelings, the emotions are present in the artist's personal and literary characters usually in verse structures. The "Dramatic genre is characteristic of text produced solely for public scenario". (p. 41). That is called play, which, in addition to the text, with cross-cutting elements as actors, scenarios, etc.

The criteria for classifying a literary work in a specific genre is the similarity of topics covered as well as the development and formal structures employed in the preparation of the works. However, every genre is the bearer of a message, the students need to read, needs to be ready for reading, as the National curricular parameters (PCN's), "reading the literary text is an event that causes reactions, stimulation, experiences multiple and varied "(2006, p. 67). However, each person to do a reading has a reaction in front of text when you understand, makes a critical analysis, evaluative and etc.

Freire define his teachings to the teacher play an important role in the formation of their students.

Castro, (1993) defines the characteristics of the literary work. So, to analyze a piece of literature, "it is necessary to take into account two things: your content (the ideas, the concepts, the meaning of the words, etc.) and your form (the sounds of words, your rhyme your graphic layout on paper, etc.)" (p. 60). These two aspects form the whole that makes up a literary text.

About that, there is urgent need of ability in reading and planning practices and strategies worked in the classroom, you need to make an alliance with the literature, since it is not possible to talk about literature reading.

So students can have a better learning, it is not necessary to only have access to textbooks and reading literary works, there has to be something more provocative, without the dynamic to the systematization of the class is done routinely by the establishment of political and social context against which stand out the biographical circumstances of authors and their works. So study fragments chosen by the authors of the books, which do not always have the need for clarity on the need to explore the literality of the texts selected.

PCNs (2006) States that "literary" literacy, consists of[…]: "undertake efforts to adopt the educating of ability to take ownership of the literature" and "literary experience" provided by "effective contact with the text". (p. 55). This teaching is given in the original series, even the Literature being implicit content.

According to Raj (2010) of vital importance are the studies that discuss the importance of literature, how and in what way has been your development within the classroom, what are the methods used by teachers and which influences the reading has raised in students of different classes, within and outside the institution.

For the development of the practice of reading, there is a need for the construction of the identity of the student reader, so that this create their competencies and skills needed to graduate. According to the NPC's, a competent reader should:

  • Understand the differences between literary and non-literary texts;
  • Identify characteristics of the author through the grammatical clues;
  • Recognize, reproduce, understand and evaluate your textual production and others;
  • Develop the full domain of discourse through the oral arguments by means of diverse genres, extending its possibilities of social participation in the exercise of citizenship.
  • Compare literary texts, observing verbal or non-verbal languages, analyzing the expressive resources of each one of them.

We need to consider that there are many skills and skills that the student must develop in high school, so the teacher needs to stimulate student creativity, the ability to read, understand, interpret, and inquire about the various genres text circulating in the Middle around them.

Jordan and Oliveira (2006, p. 69) claim that the two texts dealing with the same theme: love. "Are modern and contemporary authors and produced their works at the same time, around the first half of the 20th century". However both expressed quite different views on the subject.

Given this, the authors demonstrate the styles and individual styles:

Methodological landmark

This chapter presents some research used for the investigation of how the teaching of literature in an institution of elementary school in the municipality of São João da Baliza. Are described the procedures, methods and the data obtained from this study.

The methodological procedures necessary for carrying out this research from the qualitative approach which, according to Chizzotti, (2003)[…] part of a foundation that there is a dynamic between the subject a inter-dependencies alive between the subject and the object, an inseparable link between the objective world and subjectivity of the subject.[…] " (p. 79).

The method used in the research was the inductive method. For Minuayo (2003) has the following definition on meth[…]od: "research is the way of thinking to be next. Occupies a central place in theory and it is basically the set of techniques adopted to build a reality. " (p. 16).

For Gil (1999, p. 32) inductive method is required to be based on generalization of properties common to a number of cases, from a special to a broader issue.

For the development of this work was used to bibliographical research, where he acquired information based on thoughts of authors, descriptive research, observing and interpreting the facts researched.

The literature search was developed based on material already prepared, consisting mainly of books and scientific articles.

Doing secondary sources which is that which seeks the lifting of books and magazines of relevant interest for the search to be performed. Your goal is to place the author of new research on information about the subject of your interest. Another tool used was a questionnaire with open and closed questions both students how many teacher, being made up of a set of questions, which gives possibility of a sequence of responses regarding the theme under review. The purpose of the questionnaire is, according to Chizz[…]otti (2003), "raise the informants responses in writing or verbally about subject that informants know opine or inform. Is a planned dialogue "(p. 55)

As for the descriptive research, according to Gil (1999) descriptive research is applied and used with the goal of raising opinions, attitudes and beliefs, in order to discover the existence of associations between variables.

To have a scientific work, there has to be a survey of suggestions that are the views used to perform the work. Are the interviews, field notes, photographs, videos, personal documents, memos and other official records. When collecting data, analyzes a thoroughly, when intended that no detail of construction research.

The research is applied in nature, the investigator is moved by the need to contribute to practical purposes, more or less immediate, seeking solutions to practical problems. They are not mutually exclusive, nor oppose. It is an applied research, because research was the need to contribute to practical purposes, in order to solve the problem diagnosed.

Lakatos and Marconi (2009, p. 6) define two types of nature: pure and applied which was used for the performance of research:

Basic or pure research is one that seeks scientific progress, the expansion of theoretical knowledge, without the worry of using them in practice.

Applied research is characterised by practical interest, that is, that the results are applied or used immediately in the solution of problems that occur in reality.

Analysis and discussion of data

This chapter deals with the analysis and interpretation of data from a questionnaire applied to students and teachers of elementary school in the discipline of Portuguese Language and literature held at Escola Estadual Francisco Ricardo Macedo, with the goal of find out how are learning and how teachers work the literature in the classroom.

The data collection instrument applied to elementary school students was directed to groups of first, second and third year, with the aim of checking the placement of students facing the discipline of Portuguese and literature.

In this perspective, the students were asked if they liked to read and 47% stated that sometimes are motivated to read, 36% of students stated that they enjoy reading and others don't like to read. The response of students puts us in front of two important aspects. First, it is evident that the students have no pleasure for reading, which brings us to the second point: the need for practical and motivating activities, to promote the interest of the student to practice the reader.

When asked about the frequency with which they use the library, 74% responded that sometimes seek the library for reading, 13% have a habit of attending the reading and the acquis do not attend 13%. Realize that students have not entered in your daily life to search for this practice. In this respect, understanding the role of the school in the formation of readers, is mister that the development of reading to be done and that don't limit yourself just to the classroom, inhibiting freedom of choice and expression of student by choosing a different reading. With regard to this school space, directed the reading.

Whereas this theme, when asked how often students liam, 43% of students stated read eventually, with exception of the readings carried out according to the contents in the classroom; 29% said they only do readings at the request of the teacher; 19% say daily read and 9% said never read.

After you know the frequency, the student reader, we inquired about the preference of reading, asking what more they enjoy reading and the answers were quite varied. 26% of students said that they prefer other readings, which are worked in the classroom; 25% pointed the novels as the preferred reading; 22% said enjoy reading magazines; 11% gave their opinions by tales; 3% chose poetry and 3% showed a preference for paper.

Yet this questioning 10% of students said they have used to read.  You can tell that the preference turned out to be well diversified, being important form usual readers with extensive contact with the different types of readings. Do note that respondents three literary genres as favorite reading. To Lajolo (1997) ״é the door of a world literature as that being born with her falls apart on the last page of the book, in the last verse of the poem, in the last line of the representação״. On the contrary, goes beyond what was predicted, far beyond what is written, since what was read ״permanece Rico-bothering in the reader, incorporating as experiences, erecting a milestone in the course of reading each ˝ (LAJOLO, 1997, p. 43).

The question about "what is the favourite subject," 23% of students say that is 20% and Portuguese Language Literature and the other students are preferred by other disciplines. About this issue Freire (2003) States that "there is no education research or research without teaching". On that statement part of the teaching faculty teaching diverse classes of subjects of literary readings. "there is no teaching without discência" (p. 23), as "who form if form and reform to the form, and who is formed form and shape to be formed" (p. 25).

Asked if the students as teachers developed the teaching of literature and 63% indicated the use of textbooks as the only resource used by teachers; 16% said that the teachers use other resources; 15% pointed the literary fragments as read in the classroom; 3% said that teachers use poems and 3% say poetry.

On this question, students were asked if the readings proposed by the teacher were well accepted by them; to which 68% say do these readings by their own desires; 16% said they usually read at the request of the teacher and 10% say do readings for indication of the family and the other students reported other indications. One realizes that considerable scope does not have good acceptance of proposed readings. This may be explained due to the use of the textbook massante, seen that, almost always, the texts make no relation to reality and have no meaning for the students.

Therefore, in addition to textbooks, many other materials can and should be used in the classroom to be a pedagogical practice and develop a more consistent reader practice in students.

There's a lot is already known that the teacher should not be used just with teaching based solely on the books and Yes, working with magazines, newspapers, television sets and videos, retro projectors, data show, etc. .. The teacher has to be refreshing, to be able to view in the room things new, content-related work. Thus, the teacher with students ' learning, substantiated adequately in a particular conception of the role of the professional, can lead students to reflect about society's values and standards.

In addition, the reading activity in school should be more than a literary education, should be a practice that can contribute to the formation of the students, a chance to contribute to his achievements as is described in the NCP's, ˝ that can also be learning object, that makes s[…]ense to the student; that is, the activity of reading must answer from your point of view, the objects of immediate implementation […](2006, p. 55).

The survey also showed that, for the student, the school remains the space provided to develop and consolidate the practice reader. This is evident in the aspects pointed out by the students about who encourages reading. The school was cited by 26% of the students, showing up then the family 24%, 13% the professor and other students pointed to all media. This leads to reflection on the role of the family as an important reference point for the habit of reading; activity that can be initiated from childhood, with story-telling of history, the practice of reading with their children and other activities that can be performed at home, without the need of more advanced techniques.

In this regard, Libâneo (1999) States […]that ˝ teaching methods, so do not reduce any measures, procedures and techniques. " (p. 51) and Raj (2010, p. 60) States that: "the more deeply the receiver take ownership of the text and he turns himself in, richer is the aesthetic experience, that is, the more literarily literate reader, more critical, and humanized" ( p. 60).

Completing the questionnaire with the students, asked them about the interaction with what is read; If in the course of reading someone felt like changing history. 43% were willing only to know the story; 43% of change only the end of the story and 14% said to feel the desire to completely change the read. Freire (2003) emphasizes the importance of allowing this interaction between the work and the reader. He talks about it to enhance "the liberties of students, (…) Reinventing the human being in your learning autonomy "(p. 105).  In this context, open the doors for the pursuit and training concepts offered by the moral aspect that literature offers.

Yet enforcing this question, asked if the students after reading a book, what the attitude before questioning. It was found that the readings have influenced a few of them, for 43% responded that they don't take any position and only 26% said change the way of thinking and acting. Other students responded to debate the deal with colleagues and recommending reading for others.

The research revealed that the teacher has her classes planned bimonthly, which stands as a favourable aspect. It is important to note that planning is essential, but must be modified at any time, since nothing prevents the emergence of the lesson plan. As stated by Libâneo (1999) "the planning is a process of rationalisation and coordination of action, aticulado to school activity and problematic". (p. 222).

Questioned whether the teaching of literature and Portuguese can be worked out separately. The teacher answered that at times they can be studied together. On the other hand, the teacher said that are subjects to be studied separately.

Starting from this assumption, we sought to check the resources used by the teacher in class of Literary Reading and asked them how best to work the teaching of Literature in middle school. The teacher pointed out the movies, poems and the textbook as preferred resources for him. When asked about the difficulties in the teaching of Literary Reading the teacher pointed out the lack of proper material as the main difficulty and the lack of interest of the students. It turns out that the textbook remains among teachers and keeping the reader the lack of knowledge that can be obtained with other materials. However, for the understanding of the text is need the teacher take the students to identify and decode the linguistic signs.

Within this perspective, it appears clearly that teach[…]ers need ״ develop intimacy with the texts adopted and to have justifications for your donation to the ˝ (SILVA, […]2007, p. 49) the practices directed to the ˝ reader activity at school are not born of matter of fact, and not of authoritarianism at the level of the task, but rather a programming environment and properly planned, incorporating in your execution path, the needs, concerns and wishes of students-readers ״ (idem, 50).

Furthermore, dissatisfaction and lack of interest of students for reading may be due to the lack of appropriate material that makes students wouldn't have contact with diverse and significant materials.

Teachers and school need to rethink their practices and have new attitudes so that they can obtain the means to achieve the objectives of the teaching of literary reading with effectiveness and efficiency. Thus, the NCP's define that An […]educational project ״ committed to social and cultural democratization gives the school the role and the responsibility to ensure that all their students access to linguistic knowledge necessary for the exercise of citizenship, inalienable right of everyone. ˝ (PCN's .2006, p. 23).

On the data collected, it is necessary to clarify some points of the survey. One can see that the teaching practice in General is precarious, since the teachers surveyed work with textbooks practically all content, without features a practice more meaningful.

It was noticed that, as told by a teacher, when possible, prefer to work the literature along with other content other subjects, because the literature works as a link of this student with an outside world, while the various contents are present in every context.

However, there is a need for the appreciation of this art which conceives of human thought, transforms the reader in critical and knowledgeable citizen of his own story. You can't like what you know and not know something means knowing their particularities, and features some of their duties. And, in the case of literary reading, she can bring a world of discoveries, because how well Coutinho (1978, p. 08) the literary expression is an art not intended to inform ˝ unlimited, teach, indoctrinate, preach, document. Secondly it can contain history, philosophy, science, Religion, in[…]cludes precisely the social, historical, religious, etc., but turning this material into aesthetic.

Soon, here is the importance of consistent use, detached and of the literary text, as this is a tool for the formation of opinions and concepts; essential aspects in the formation of personal identity.

Final considerations

This work allow to realize that teachers do not have a practice focused on the importance of literary reading in the school investigated, i.e., there is a learning focused on the teaching of reading.

It was found that there is a bimonthly classes planning and school, in your vast majority, are planned and taught using only textbooks as basement.

It is important to note that the teacher has to have more knowledge of the contents, and may use other materials, the teacher can suggest in room with students, accepting even dicentes ' opinions.

It was noted that literary reading is little crafted by teachers, that is, the teacher aims to literary reading as a means that can develop in students a meaningful learning with formulations of concepts. The teacher is justified before the questioning that reading doesn't have a development due to lack of interest of students who don't like to read. Students read without interest, only out of obligation to answer questionnaires, coming out of elementary school with a reading deficiency.

It was noted that the question of the lack of suitable material, but also the lack of a more significant pedagogical practice focused on literary reading as a possibility of learning transformation of these students is little developed.

About it, so that teachers can find solutions to the problems of disability in reading, require everyone to have participation from the team manager and all school staff, mainly employees of the library and living room of reading. With this practice seeks the development of educating, enabling him to draw up concepts and expand your field of oral language.

Thus valuing reading creates opportunities for students to discover the pleasure of reading literature, developing skills of reading, understanding and interpreting different types of readings and genres of texts, thus discovering the concepts keys and understanding what was read.

Following this assumption, it is known that it is the responsibility of the institution to apply efficient and quality education. It is believed that there must be a partnership between the school and the participants of this kind, where all work towards improvement and intellectual autonomy of the learner. The school has to provide conditions necessary so students can act from the beginning of schooling as readers, because the reading is, above all, an object of teaching and constitutes a learning object also is necessary that has sense of fact to the student, which means, among other things, that must fulfill a function for performing purposes.

Given this, to teach literature is not required only the context present in the books, but especially the formation of the Faculty and the commitment, competence and the ability to develop, stimulate and want to ensure that training content teaching applied in the classroom.

There are many skills and competencies that students must learn in elementary school, so the teacher needs to encourage student creativity, curiosity, the ability to read, interpret and develop concepts in different social contexts.

This work enabled an understanding that there must be a preparation from the teacher, the teacher must be able to accept your role within and outside the classroom, thus associating your obligation and commitment to the need for the student to be a Reader. Given this, seek out new methodologies to make a practice of literary reading more motivated, as well students interact in the classroom.

On what was said, the Literature as a tool essential for formation of readers is not a focus of the disciplines of Portuguese and literature. It is characterized a crisis within institutional practice, as students in question stated that the reading habit is not a daily practice and also the students reported that the process of teaching is through the textbook only. In addition, the teacher also questioned the lack of interest of students for reading, which is precarious, and the lack of appropriate materials for the teaching of literature. It is the duty of the school provide a structured library, with a collection suited to the needs of the student, organize, develop and execute projects politicians focused on the evolution of the institution with the support and involvement of the whole community.

References

Vera Teixeira de Aguiar. BORDINI, Maria da Glória. Literature in formation of the reader: Methodological Alternatives-Porto Alegre. Open market, 1988.

Brazil. Ministry of education and sport. Fundamental Education Secretary. National Curriculum Parameters. Portuguese Language, first and second cycle. Brasilia: 2000.

___________. Ministry of education and sport. National Curriculum Parameters. Portuguese Language. Brasilia: 2006.

Candido, Antonio. The right to literature. 3ED. São Paulo: 2000.

_________ . A. literature and society. 8 ed. São Paulo: 2000.

CASTRO, Maria da Conceição. & Language literature. 1 ed. São Paulo: Saraiva, 1993.

COUTINHO, Afrânio. Notes of literary theory. Rio de Janeiro, brazilian civilization, 1978.

CHIZZOTTI, Anthony. Research in Humanities and social sciences. 6 ed. São Paulo. Cortez, 2003.

FAULSTICH, Anagha L. J. How to read, understand, and write a text. 16 ed. Petrópolis: Vozes, 2003.

FREIRE, Paulo. The importance of the Act of reading. 45 ed. São Paulo: Cortez, 2003.

_________. The importance of the Act of reading: in three articles that are complementary. 44 ed. São Paulo: Cortez, 2003.

GIL, Antonio Carlos. How to prepare research projects. São Paulo: Atlas, 1999.

KLEIMANN, Angela. Reading workshop: theory and practice. 8. Ed. São Paulo: Bridges, 2001.

Jordan Rose. OLIVEIRA, ClenirBellezi. Structure and art languages: language, literature, and writing: 1 ed. São Paulo: Moderna, 2006.

LAJOLO, Marisa. Et al. What is literature? : teacher's alternatives. Brasília: Open Market, 1997.

LEBÂNEO, José Carlos. Didactics. São Paulo. Cortez. 1999.

MALIK, Maria Helena. What is read. First steps series. São Paulo. Brasiliense, 2005.

___________ . What is read. 19 ed. São Paulo. Brasiliense, 2005.

MAZZONI, V.S. The pedagogical practice of teaching literature: a proposal of transformation. Plures – Humanities Magazine. Ribeirão Preto. V. 4, n. 1, p. 136-145, 2003.

MARCONI, Maria de Andrade; LAKATOS, Eva Maria; Fundamentals of Scientific Methodology. 6th Edition, São Paulo – Atlas, 2009.

MINAYAO, M.C. s. (ed.) social research: theory, method and creativity. 22 ed. Rio de Janeiro: Voices, 2003.

RESENDE, Vânia Maria. Infantile and juvenile literature. Reading experiences and expresses creator. Rio de Janeiro. Sami .2010.

_________. Literature in the classroom: an assessment of the educational processes. REVELLI-Magazine of education, language and literature of UEG-Inhumas. V. 2, n. 1 – March 2010.

SILVA, Vitor Manoel de Aguiar and. Theory of literature. 8 ed. Coimbra: Bookstore, 2007.

SILVA, Ezekiel Tan of. The Act of reading: psychological foundations for a pedagogy of reading. 10 ed. São Paulo: Cortez, 2007 p. 95.

_______________ . ZILBERMAN, Regina. Literature and pedagogy: point and Counterpoint. Porto Alegre: Open Market, 1990

EARTH, Ernani. NICOLA, José de. Language, literature essay: São Paulo &. Scipione, 1997.

[1] Professor of Public and academic Network of Complementary-FACETEN

DEIXE UMA RESPOSTA

Please enter your comment!
Please enter your name here