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The Student With High Skills And Giftedness And Their Presence In The Context Of Elementary School

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CONCEIÇÃO, Graziele De Souza [1]

CONCEIÇÃO, Graziele De Souza. The Student With High Skills And Giftedness And Their Presence In The Context Of Elementary School. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 06, Ed. 03, Vol. 12, pp. 111-124. March 2021. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link:


The present work aims to present some discussions about the student of Special Education, who has learning characteristics considered above average, such as those of high skills and gifted. In this sense, the work in question will highlight in general the aspects focused on the education of students with high skills, and giftedin regular education, highlighting the role of the school as an inclusive environment, in the process of teaching and learning them. Thus, for a better understanding of the subject, this study adopts a bibliographic methodology, which in turn addresses information related to the learning of students with high skills and giftedness in special education. As a result, it is noted that even with great advances in the area of special education, but the discussions concerning this subject need to be increasingly elaborated and developed.

Keywords: Integration, Inclusion, Teaching Strategies.


Studies in the area indicate that it is common to label the child with high skills/gifted (AH/SD), as the “genius child”, within the school context in all areas of learning, thus, this student goes through an immense expectation, and constant demands, which in many cases can lead him to school failure and social isolation, in addition to other psychological interferences, especially socialization.

Therefore, it is necessary that educators in the area know and investigate the forms of integration and teaching strategies that are efficient for the inclusion of students with High Skills and Gifted in elementary school, even in order to identify them as students with High Skills and Gifted, even more so because there is an immense difficulty to distinguish them from the other , as well as being able to serve them, according to their needs within school environments, which often compromises their overall development, because they do not have their talents or abilities, identified and recognized within the expected time, in order to improve them.

The author Fleith (2007a, p. 44), argues that “[…], gifted, due to its multidimensional nature, encompasses a multitude of variables and characteristics that manifest themselves simultaneously, […]”. In this sense, it is interesting that scholars in the area start to consider new ways of developing the process of stimulation of students with AH/SD, thus including both biological factors, as well as psychological, emotional, social, historical and cultural factors.

Gama (2006), for example, when quoting Gardner, points out that this theoretician “[…] proposes that gifted children are those who have a high level of what he calls raw standard, […]” (GAMA, 2006, p. 40), that is, from an early age, even during elementary school, his potential the potential of this student, even though it is remarkable still needs to be stimulated and developed.

In this perspective, there are possible teachers to be observed within the school environment, which can be useful in the development of students with AH/SD, because, according to Fleith (2007a), these students during their school life, may present different forms of learning, or types of intelligence, the following being,

(a) linguistics – skills involved in reading and writing;

(b) musical – skills inherent to activities of playing an instrument, singing, comporting, directing an orchestra;

(c) logic-mathematics – reasoning skills, numerical computation, problem solving, scientific thinking;

(d) spatial – ability to represent and manipulate spatial configurations;

(e) body-kinesthesis – ability to use the whole body or part of it in performing tasks;

(f) interpersonal – ability to understand other people and social contexts;

(g) intrapersonal – ability to understand oney, both feelings and emotions, as well as cognitive styles and intelligence;

(h) naturalistic – ability to perceive complex patterns in the natural environment. (FLEITH, 2007, p. 45)

Thus, for Fleith (2007a), it is essential to look sensitive ly with these students, even because, in order for education professionals to identify their main learning needs, and what is the best way to meet these needs, it needs to take into account that every human being has multiple types of intelligence (FLEITH, 2007a). In this sense, it can be argued that each intelligence presented by the student with AH/SD can be developed or weakened, according to the educational profile presented by the school environment of which the student is part, including the integration of the student depends exclusively on how this school acts before students with SEN.


For Fleith (2007a) in many cases educational managers and teachers are resistant to the inclusion of students with educational needs of AH/SD, mainly because they do not feel able. However, these students exist, and the school needs to make access to their knowledge, including through the integration of these students.

Thus, integration emerges in education as a tool, and according to the document proposed by the Ministry of Education – Subsidies for Organization and Operation of Special Education Services: High Skills, a right ensured, “The idea of integration necessarily implies reciprocity. This means that it goes far beyond the insertion of the special needs carrier in any group. (BRASIL, 1995, p. 11), thus, this attitude of the school, that of insertion does not “[…], is limited to the simple physical introduction, while integration involves the acceptance of the one who is part. (BRASIL, 1995, p. 11), making clear the relevance of the preparation of educational institutions for the reception of this student.

From this perspective, it is understood that inclusive education more than ensuring accessibility of students with special learning needs presupposes the integration and permanence of these in schools, even because, “From the operational point of view, the ideal of integration occurs at progressive levels from physical approximation, including functional and social , until instructional (frequency to the common education class)”, (BRASIL, 1995, p.11). In this sense, it is worth noting that this idea of integration needs to be based mainly on the teacher’s work.

For Freeman and Guenther (2000), the teacher who receives and adapts the student with AH/SD will be the “[…], the key person, who will help the child to absorb this experience and this material within the larger educational project, and to interpret it in a way that makes sense, […] (p.147), and in addition to these specificities, it will be up to the educator, “[…] to assist the child in developing the process of assimilation and integration of the educational experience […] (2000, p.147), that is, the teacher is the biggest investor in the student’s educational process.

Thus, it can then be argued that the integration of the student with AH/SD goes beyond the guarantee of vacancy in the regular classes of teaching, it concerns yes, the way this student will develop in the daily life of their school relationships, mainly through the direction offered by the teachers who attend these students.


In this sense, Miranda and Filho (2012), argues that specifically when referring to the student who has high skills, it is exclusively the school environment that can offer adequate learning, “It is important that the school learns about the specificities of the deficiencies met, […]” (2012, p. 142), because through contents and teaching methods, conceptions and theories, each student who presents in his behavioral characteristics of AH/SD, can have met his needs.

In addition, for Miranda and Filho (2012), the school is the school as a formal educator that can offer this student “[…], the appropriate means to make the student find in the school environment a context that provides learning and growth in the affective, social, cognitive and psychomotor aspects […]” (2012, p. 142), even though this is a huge challenge.

For Fleith (2007b), after the diagnosis of these students, the school needs first of all to become included, a space where these students are received to the point that they feel comfortable, “[…], we call attention to the need to create an educational environment that welcomes and stimulates the promising potential of students with high skills/gifted, (2007b, p. 9), or rather, the place needs to become able to develop learning experiences and personal interests of each identified student who will come to live in a group of odd.

In this emphasis lies the set of studies developed from the perspective of the Historical-Cultural Theory, which points out as an essential condition for the maximum appropriation of human qualities, the social relationship of Vygotsky (1896 – 1934) that explains the development of the human mind based on the principles of the Marxist philosophical tradition of dialectical materialism, in this sense the person, “[…] , as he becomes more experienced, acquires an increasing number of models that he understands.” (VYGOTSKY, 2007, p. 19), that is, the constitution of human psychological development, happens in the process of appropriation of culture through communication with other people.

Thus, the school is the most appropriate environment for any and all children of school age, can develop socially, including through inclusion in the case of children with SEN, as Fleith (2007b) points out, “All continuing education aimed at the inclusion of students with high skills/gifted care shows that these students also have special educational needs “[…], (2007b, p.39), and also according to the same author, these students ” need to be identified and attended in a […] specialized way in schools.” (2007b, p.39), thus, even in means to endless justifications, this student needs to be considered as a student of special education.

In this perspective, educational institutions would need to rethink their inclusive role before the student with AH/SD, because they can and should become the best place for children to obtain knowledge, because it is in this space that they have intentionally, the appropriate conditions to ensure maximum appropriation of human qualities, and that are external to the subject since birth, and need to be acquired by the new generations through their activity in socially shared situations, mainly, with the help of the teacher.


According to Fleith (2007a), there are numerous forms of work, which can be considered efficient and that can be developed with students with AH/SD, however the author highlights as the main ones, curriculum enrichment, grouping, and acceleration, “In programs of care for students with high skills/gifting, the main modalities used are presented under a general nomenclature – grouping, acceleration and enrichment”. (FLEITH, 2007a, p. 70)

Regarding the School Enrichment Model, Fleith (2007b), argues that it was developed by an important scholar in the field, educator Joseph Renzulli, “This model is quite democratic and can be implemented without requiring many changes in the school structure.” (2007b, p.57). For the author, teachers and the pedagogical team can offer appropriate and differentiated educational experiences for them, only improving the activities presented within the planning,

School Enrichment Model is quite flexible, which enables its adaptation to any school reality and its application in any series or modality of teaching, regardless of the social context. (FLEITH, 2007b, p. 57)

Thus, for Fleith (2007b), curriculum enrichment becomes an ally of the teacher who works with this student, whose sole objective is the expansion and deepening of certain themes studied by the regular curriculum, because it includes projects, study trips, competitions, lectures, in short, activities that develop creative thinking in a dynamic way.

Fleith (2007b), argues that the follow-up of the student with AH/SD is very important, therefore, their performance and school performance can demonstrate that their educational needs need to be developed through groupings, that is, special classes, resource rooms and even specialized centers, “In this type of grouping the teacher regent or the teacher of the resource room should plan activities that promote independent work (collective or individual), […] according to their interests and abilities. (FLEITH, 2007b, p. 107). Thus, it is perceived that the student can have time management for other activities.

Fleith (2007b) points out that students with AH/SD are interested in subjects in a unique way, mainly through the exaggerated demonstration of learning, far beyond the other classmates in the classroom, for the author, “Specific grouping systems involve educational practices of grouping students in special schools or classes, or in the form of small groups attended in the regular classroom differently from the other students.” (FLEITH, 2007b, p.71), so these teaching directions through groupings are considered efficient, even because the mediators of learning of these environments are experts.

Another pedagogical strategy considering the studies of Fleith (2007b), for the development of the student with AH/SD, concerns the acceleration of class, which is actually a means of offering these students contents of later grades, that of which the student attends,

It is a resource that is being adopted recently more frequently and allows some students to advance at their own pace. A broader definition, in addition to serialization, says that acceleration is the educational approach that offers the child learning experiences usually offered to older children. (FLEITH, 2007b, p. 73)

It is worth remembering that this flexibility must present to the students, curriculum proposals that meet their particularities, whether in the classroom or in the resource room, or through the acceleration of the class itself, as proposed by the “Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education – LDBEN, art. 59, II – ensures […] acceleration to complete the school program for the gifted in less time […],” (PANCHINIAK, 2011, p. 26), without any prejudice or privilege.

In this sense, it is worth mentioning that curricular adaptations need to meet the student with SEN, taking into account the fact that the AH/SD is a different student from the other, thus offering them opportunities and challenges, through more comprehensive methodologies, which meet the needs and interests of the student, thus effecting the real role of the teacher in this process, an aspect that will be discussed in the next item.


According to Fleith (2007b), the teacher regent of regular education who works with the student who presents AH/SD, can and should develop differentiated pedagogical strategies, making the curriculum more flexible, thus allowing students with AH/SD to present their topics of interest,

The role of the teacher in the group is that of mediator. Teaching planning is different from that for the traditional classroom. Activities should be based on the school enrichment model: exploration activities, instrumentation and development of services and products. There should be no superposition of regular teaching activities with those of the enrichment group so that students are not overwhelmed. The teaching environment in the group should have pleasant, flexible dynamics and without excessive control or routine. (FLEITH, 2007b, p. 116)

Thus, the SES teacher does not necessarily need to be a super-specialized teacher, he just needs to master the content of his discipline, promote dynamic and challenging strategies, because, “The teacher, of course, is the main mediator of the teaching and learning process of the student with AH/SD”, (FLEITH, 2007b, p. 26), still presenting a sensitive posture to the demands that the work with these students proposes,

A teacher sensitive to the peculiar characteristics of the gifted can take a moment in his classes so that the child or young person can express themselves more freely, talk about their difficulties, fears and doubts. (VIRGOLIM, 2007, p.45)

In general, students in the elementary school network, like all others, constantly need a greater stimulus on the part of the school, especially with regard to having opportunities to participate in activities and situations, where the interest of the student becomes the content within the teaching and learning process,

It is then up to the teacher to assist students in identifying their interests and present ing them with a diversity of themes or promoting differentiated activities, as well as identifying how much they wish to pursue this interest. (FLEITH, 2007a, 58)

The author Fleith (2007b), in the following citation lists different actions that can be developed by the school, mainly by the teacher, however, it is worth remembering that and in some cases this work can go beyond the walls of the school,

      • Develop students’ potential talent systematically;
      • Offer a differentiated curriculum, in which interests, learning styles and skills are considered as a priority;
      • Stimulate academic performance of excellence through enriching and meaningful activities;
      • Promote self-oriented, continuous and reflective growth through activities that stimulate leadership and creative thinking;
      • Create a learning environment conducive to the teaching of ethical values, which promote respect for cultural, ethnic or gender diversity, mutual respect and democratic principles;
      • Implement a collaborative culture in the school, so that direction, faculty and students, other members of the school team, family and community can contribute to the promotion of opportunities and decision-making about school activities, thus forming a wide network of social support in the development of talents;
      • Create opportunities and services that are not commonly developed from the regular school curriculum. (FLEITH, 2007b, p. 57)

Then, increasingly, it is perceived that the teaching process of special students in regular education will constantly require a greater professional positioning of the entire school community, because this sequence of attitudes requires that the school can promote not only the access and permanence of the same, within the educational institutions, but also the social and school potential of the special student when prepared to live in society , including in the family relationships of this student. The next discussion will be around that.


For author Fleith (2007C), educational inclusion is a right to all students, but for this to occur, some changes must occur, both in conception and management practices, with improvements in the classroom and also in the teacher’s academic training.

However, as Gama (2007) points out, it is also necessary to understand that, without the correct partnership between family and school, this process becomes ineffective, “The partnership between family and school must be established through open, frank and honest contacts […] (GAMA, 2007, p. 65), because thus, both family and school can offer the best opportunities to develop the potential of this student seeking the same goal.

In this sense, Aranha (2005), argues that family relationships are considered essential, within the process of the total development of the student with AH/SD, and according to the same author,

Solving social, emotional and school adjustment issues of gifted students with superior intellectual potential involves decisions and actions within the family and school in an integrated and inclusive way (ARANHA, 2005, p. 102).

Thus, the partnership between the school and the family needs to meet, not only the development of their capacities and potentialities, but also, guidance so that parents can have the necessary knowledge, to learn how to seek their rights of care, so the author draws attention to the fact that this partnership needs to be integrated, “Integrated because the family must find in school the place of construction, enrichment, deepening […]” (ARANHA, 2005, p. 102), because in this way, this family can come to really understand about all the support that basic education needs to have for this group of students.

Thus, the family environment itself can contribute or not, for this student to be able to have his learning capacity intensified within the educational environment, even because the family can be understood as a primary context of development of interaction of individuals with the environmental context, Fleith (2007c) argues that, “The family works, then, as a mediator of this process , both promoting a specific culture of communication and a particular emotional climate” (FLEITH, 2007c, p.24). Thus, this association between family and school, has as its sole purpose, the preservation of common interests that is the increase of the capacity of this student.

In this context, Fleith (2007c), recalls that, “Most parents recognize the abilities of their children around 5 years of age, […]” (2007c, p. 25), thus, it is the family that can initially be considered responsible for the development of the gifting or skills of this child, Burns and Virgolim (2019), discusses this aspect, giving the following example,

A child who reads before the age of five, for example, may be called precocious: she developed a skill some time earlier than is expected. (BURNS; VIRGOLIM, 2019, p. 10).

Therefore, therefore, the education of students with AH/SD has a strong relationship with support and family presence, because it is perceived that it is in the family that the whole investigation process is initiated. Thus, as Aranha (2005) points out, it is essential that those responsible for the child, can be used early to the indications, which in turn demonstrate that the child has AH/SD, these being,

[…], most parents notice, before the child reaches five years, at least some of these signs: • Attention and memory of recognition: recognize their caregivers, from an early age, they show signs of vigilance and duration of long attention; • Preference for novelties: prefer new visual arrangements over previous ones and notice novelties; • Early physical development: sit, crawl and walk several months earlier than expected; • Oral language: speak early, present great vocabulary and stock of verbal knowledge; • Over-reactivity: intense reactions to noise, pain and frustration. (ARANHA, 2005, p. 21)

However, the lack of information on the subject by the parents of the student with HA/SD, and the family in general, generate erroneous attitudes, which can result in negative aspects in the school life of this student, which in turn can cause the student’s disinterest in studying, Panchiniack (2011), recalls that “[…] often the students of this group are unmotivated, dispersed and poorly understood in their socio-educational environment.” (2011, p. 12), we thus realized that the demotivators of the development of the student with AH/SD, may also be related, with aspects of life in society,

In this sense, it is important to understand that the child is not gifted only in the period in which he/she is in school; it should be perceived as a human being who needs conditions, whether in the family, school or community, that favor their development and learning. (FLEITH, 2007b, p. 37)

Thus, for Fleith (2007c), family and school, teachers and parents, society as a whole, need to seek together, learning, which best suits, for the development of this student, because it is through this interaction, even if small, that the child with AH/SD, begins to feel realized in relation to the school environment of which he is part, improving his self-esteem, his sociability, his autonomy, even reducing the socio-emotional problems that exist and that are common, in the family of these children,

Not only does the family affect the child and the development of their potentiality, as the child affects the organization of the family, but neither one nor the other is responsible for the emergence and development of such talents. Genetics and the environment act interactively, favoring, maintaining or hindering the development of high skills. (FLEITH, 2007c, p. 26)

It is also worth remembering, that there are in elementary school, countless children who have indications of some skill that have not been worked, because nothing was done in relation to them, or because they went unnoticed because they apparently did not need special educational needs. However, the moment experienced, unlike before, shows that students with AH/SD need to be considered within the context of special education, especially with regard to quality education.

In this sense, it is necessary that a more elaborate discussion about the student with AH/SD, can be part of the daily life of special education, including through future academic research, because in the daily life of the classroom, it is observed that these students exist in large numbers within our schools, requiring activities that stimulate their skills and potentialities, and that in most cases, in their family context, they are not opportunistic.


It is noted that there was a great advance in studies and discussions about the student with AH/SD, and this caused a strengthening in relation to the movement of expansion of inclusion, which in turn allowed the unification of regular and special education, towards increasingly inclusive practices, with regard to the educational process of the student with AH/SD.

However, it is noted that there is still much to do in this area, so the need to identify as soon as possible this talent within education needs to be advocated, so that their skills are not lost and, even more, so that these individuals can direct their talents to the community of which they are part.

Historically, most of these students are not identified, are enrolled in schools according to their chronological ages, in classes that are generally far from meeting the level of actual development. In this sense, the presence of this student in the independent school of the year, needs to meet a huge number of factors, especially with regard to, in the opportunity to provide learning for both teachers for regular classrooms and educational care in resource rooms, which includes continued training in enrichment or deepening programs.


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[1] Specialist in Science Teaching. Specialist in Environmental Education. Specialist in Special Education. Specialist in Teaching Methods and Practices. Bachelor in Tourism and Environment. Degree in Pedagogy. Courses Specialization in Institutional and Clinical Psychopedagogy. He is studying Portuguese and English Language Arts. Brazil Institute of Education Faculty IBRA.

Submitted: February, 2021.

Approved: March, 2021.

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