Student dropout and permanence at the federal institute of São Paulo: reflections

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

KIESSLING, Hélio Fritz [1], CRUZ, Maria do Carmo Meirelles Toledo [2], ALMEIDA, Júlio Gomes [3]

KIESSLING, Hélio Fritz. CRUZ, Maria do Carmo Meirelles Toledo. ALMEIDA, Júlio Gomes. Student dropout and permanence at the federal institute of São Paulo: reflections. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 06, Ed. 08, Vol. 04, pp. 171-193. August 2021. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access Link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/federal-institute

ABSTRACT

This article discusses the theme of student permanence and considers the equality of conditions for access and permanence of the student in school as one of the constitutional principles to guarantee the right to education. The objective is to know texts produced by authors who maintain links with the Federal Institute of São Paulo (IFSP) and that address actions of student permanence of students in the Institute as a means of reducing dropout. In the exploratory bibliographic research, academic works produced by IFSP servers and students whose themes are dropout and student permanence were considered. The analysis of these works involved the content of the abstracts, the keywords and the final considerations of the works they wrote. Thus, it was identified that the authors see evasion as a complex phenomenon that involves personal, social and institutional factors. In the analyzed productions, there is a dialogue between evasion and permanence and the need for the union of efforts to create actions that, in addition to existing ones, contribute to students staying in school and finishing their studies is pointed out. They also highlight the importance of student care actions promoted by IFSP, as well as improvements in the quality of education through actions involving school environment, access, infrastructure, curriculum, management, education professionals and didactic-pedagogical support.

Keywords: Student Stay, Vocational Education, Federal Institute of São Paulo.

1. INTRODUCTION

This work was elaborated from experiences experienced by one of the authors during his work as a professor at the Federal Technical School of São Paulo (ETFSP), from 1977 to 1996, and at the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of São Paulo (IFSP), from 2013, accumulating the function of coordinator of the Electrotechnics course, 2016 to 2019. The theoretical framework results from exploratory documentary research that underlies the master’s thesis “A Educação como Direito: A Permanência como Princípio na Educação Profissional Integrada ao Ensino Médio”, which is under development in the Graduate Program in Education (PPGE) of the University Cidade of São Paulo (UNICID).

The purpose is to reflect on the theme of student permanence in the IFSP. In the first section, data released by plataforma Nilo Peçanha (PNP)[4] and some clippings of works produced by Daros (2013) are presented; Antunes (2018); Silva and Haas (2019); Dore and Lüscher (2011); Lins (2021) and Cislaghi (2008), focusing on dropout and student permanence. In the second section, actions are addressed that create conditions of permanence so that students can stay in school and complete their studies successfully. In the third section, some papers prepared by IFSP students converge on actions aimed at reducing dropout and considerations to promote student permanence are presented.

Ifsp has existed for more than 110 years and has undergone several transformations. The last, which occurred on December 29, 2008, by Federal Law No. 11,892, creates the IFSP, equating the Federal Institutes (IFs) with federal universities and consolidating the multicurricular and multicampi characteristics. It is an autarchy and offers several types of vocational education: technical (integrated, concomitant or subsequent); technological graduation; bachelor’s degree; bachelor’s degrees; stricto sensu and lato sensu graduate programs, as well as rapid courses open to the community (Proeja[5] and FIC[6]) and courses in the distance education (EaD) modality, which consolidate the verticalization [7] of professional education. The IFSP currently has 37 units in the state of São Paulo and offers 801 different courses, with 62,660 students regularly enrolled (PNP, 2020).

In general, student dropout is a problem faced in the IFSP and here is “understood as a complex social phenomenon, defined as the interruption in the cycle of studies” (BAGGI; LOPES, 2011, p. 370 apud DAROS, 2015, p. 352). Thus, for the study of permanence, it is necessary to understand the reasons for school dropout (DORE; LÜSCHER, 2011).

2. UNDERSTANDING EVASION TO PROMOTE STUDENT PERMANENCE

Student evasion can be demonstrated in various ways, ranging from the simple counting of enrollments performed to audits of public accounts control bodies. The Court of Auditors of the Union (TCU), after a review carried out in the IFSP (fiscal year 2011), pointed out completion rates in the courses in the order of “46.8% for the integrated average, 37.5% for Proeja, 25.4% for the Bachelor’s Degree, 27.5% for the Bachelor’s degree and 42.8% for technologist courses” (TCU, 2013, p. 2 apud DAROS, 2013, p. 94), indicating dropout in several courses. This control implied the call of those responsible to take action through Judgment TCU No. 506 of March 13, 2013.

Daros (2013, p. 100) collected the reasons for the evasion of students from the campuses who kept this information (Chart 1).

Table 1 – Main reasons for evasion raised by IFSP campuses between 2009 and 2013.

Main Reasons for Evasion Methodology year Campus
Working hours; learning difficulties; family problems Questionnaire at the time of student departure 2013 Araraquara
Problems at work (change of hours and overtime); unidentified with the course; difficulty in learning Questionnaire at the time of student departure 2013 Bragança Paulista
Factor external to the school environment (health, financial difficulty, lack of time for studies); difficulties with the teaching methodology; difficulties in the teacher-student relationship Questionnaire at the time of student departure and testimonials of evaded students 2011 Itapetininga
Incompatible working hours; passed the entrance exam in other institutions; did not identify with the course Consultation of secretariat data 2012 Hortolândia
He could not reconcile work with the course; difficulty in following the course Questionnaire at the time of student departure 2009 São João da Boa Vista
Work; incompatibility with the course; moving to other courses Questionnaire at the time of student departure 2013

1st semester

Sertãozinho

Source: Daros (2013, p. 100).

It is observed that for Daros (2013) to conduct a research in order to map the main reasons for school dropout, the TCU judgment was motivated and that the researcher was based on existing documentation of campuses that kept records of the reason for student abandonment. The reasons reported are of a personal/family nature and few as internal factors to the school.

In another study, Santos (2018) proposes to research the democratization of access to federal institutes, focusing on the law of quotas, but clarifies the author, who is concerned with “to what extent the expansion of the offer of vacancies and the policy of reservation of vacancies contributed, or not, to the greater democratization of access to this special modality of high school, the EMI?”. Thus, Santos’s (2018) research covers this theme more completely from where we summarize some reasons for evasion in other units of Technical Professional Education of Medium Level (EPTNM) of the IFs (Chart 2).

Table 2 – Research on evasion in units of Federal Institutes

Federal Institute author Courses Causes
Federal Institute of Triângulo  Mineiro Piedade, 2017 Electrotechnics; Logistics; and Mining Personal and vocational issues; Structural and administrative factors of the school; and Didactic-pedagogical factors
Federal Institute North of Minas Gerais Silva, 2017 Chemistry; and Informatics Factors related to learning and disciplines
Federal Institute North of Minas Gerais Gomes and Laudares, 2016 Nursing Work; Mobility/transport difficulty
Federal Institute of Brasilia Silva; Dias e Silva, 2015 Events; Computer science; and Public Services Income
Federal Institute of Santa Catarina Sais and Vieira, 2016 Buildings; and Electrotechnics Incompatibility between work and study (lack of time to study, low income and transportation problem)
Federal Institute of Santa Catarina Padoin and Amorim, 2015 Telecommunications; and Refrigeration/Air Conditioning Lack of identification with the course was the most pointed factor
Cefet-RJ Figueiredo, 2014 Telecommunications Gaps in course choice; School factors; Personal difficulties; Influence of friends; Opportunities and institutional and/or governmental disinterest

Source: Santos (2018, p. 162).

It can be seen that in these cases pointed out by Santos (2018), personal/family factors, internal issues to the school and low-income/resource issues to remain in the studies arise.

In order to obtain more information about the reasons that lead students to abandon their courses, we searched Lins’s research (2021) for a similar picture in which the author exemplifies some reasons for school dropout, reproduced in Chart 3.

Table 3 – Factors that contributed to the dropout in mid-level technical courses

Author(s) Researched Institution Factors that contributed to avoidance in the course(s)
Andrade et al. (2015) CEFET-MG Approval for higher education, professional activity in a different area of the chosen course, socioeconomic situation, lack of affinity with the course, family problems and difficulties in reconciling work and school.
Matos, Vasconcelos and Santos (2015) IFTO Individual factors: difficulty in adapting the curriculum structure, indiscipline, health problems, pregnancy, disability, dependent on psychoactive substance.

Internal factors: insufficient faculty, infrastructure and qualification. Absence of teachers and lack of cafeteria on campus.

External factors: lack of interest in school activities, lack of knowledge of the curriculum structure, family unemployment, violence, lack of urban and intermunicipal transportation.

Oliveira et al. (2015) IFRJ Socioeconomic vulnerability; difficulty in reconciling work and study; expectations not met by the course; transfer; distaste in the first periods; “bloated” curricula; certification by ENEM and teachers without pedagogical training.
Queiroz, Brandão and Santos (2015) IFPE Work; non-identification with the course; entry into higher education; family reasons.
Silva (2015) IFTO Learning problems or difficulties in disciplines (in particular mathematics, physics and chemistry); repetition; difficulty in the student’s relationship (with a teacher or classmate); frustration of expectations regarding the course; factors such as schedule and course hours; excess of disciplines; precarious training of elementary school; motivation, interest or commitment to the course.

Source: Jardim (2016, p. 40 apud LINS, 2021, p. 9)

Table 1 (data researched before 2013) and Tables 2 and 3 (data from 2014 to 2017) are observed that the reasons/causes of the student’s departure from the course/school are mixed between personal, social and institutional issues. This situation dialogues with studies by Dore and Luscher (2011); and Figueiredo and Salles (2017).

Santos (2018, p. 161) considers that “it is essential to identify the causes of evasion, even if this is not an easy task, due to its complex, dynamic and multifaceted character”.

In this context, Lins (2021) in his research on the factors causing school dropout points out that:

In terms of results, as factors that cause evasion, the research had the following results: individual factors (psychological issues); factors internal to the institution (problems in didactic-pedagogical issues) and factors external to the institution (difficulties in some disciplines, precarious training in elementary school and socioeconomic issues). (LINS, 2021, p. 2).

Observing it to be something complex, dynamic and multifaceted, involving individual factors of the student and/or internal to the educational institution and/or external to it, in the governments of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva (2003-2010) and Dilma Vana Rousseff (2011-2016), we sought to work on the social inequality that entailed difficulties in entering and staying in school, with laws and decrees that were sanctioned to improve access and give conditions of permanence so that socially vulnerable students could complete their studies.

The creation of the IFs itself was a strategy for more adolescents and young people to have access to Education and, among other actions, the following legal provisions were sanctioned: Decree no. 7,234 of July 19, 2010, which creates the National Student Assistance Program (Pnaes) and Law No. 12,711 of August 29, 2012, that stipulates social and racial quotas for admission to universities and federal institutes, enabling more young people and adolescents to access a public school.

Lins (2021, p. 21) considers that personal/family factors have great weight in the student’s decision to continue or not his studies, but socioeconomic issues are also significant for school dropout and that “it is essential that the institution favors, through its Student Assistance Programs, the permanence of a greater number of students who do not have sufficient financial resources”. Daros (2013); Antunes (2018) and Silva and Haas (2019) describe and analyze the implementation of the Pnaes in the Federal Institutions of Higher Education (Ifes) and how, in this process, procedures were developed that would benefit students in situations of vulnerability. Daros (2013, p. 87) criticizes the “bolsification of student assistance”, and states that the transfer of income, with a focalist and non-universalist character, makes it difficult for “student care to be expanded, actions are not translated only in programs and assistance, but in expanded projects of student assistance, such as the construction of university housing and restaurants, that enable the attendance of a greater number of students.”

Santos (2018) presents how the democratization of access to IFs benefits many adolescents and young people, who, without the law of racial quotas, would not have the opportunity to attend a public school. In the specific case of IFs, EPTNM students are also eligible to participate in the Pnaes, because the IFs have administrative autonomy to offer this program also at the middle level.

Since 2017, the Student Dropout Rates in IFSP are scaled and disclosed annually by the PNP, and register a reduction from 2017 to 2019, in most courses, with the exception of professional master’s degree (Table 1).

Table 1 – IFSP student dropout rates from 2017 to 2019

Courses 2017 2018 2019
General Average 28,00% 24,30% 21,80%
Professional Qualification (FIC) 43,60% 44,70% 41,50%
Technician 19,40% 15,60% 14,80%
Baccalaureate 10,50% 8,70% 10,30%
Degree 16,60% 15,90% 15,60%
Technology 16,40% 16,50% 14,50%
Specialization (lato sensu) 17,50% 19,50% 15,60%
Masters 0,00% 0,00% 0,00%
Professional Master’s Degree 10,00% 8,30% 13,00%

Source: PNP (2017; 2018; 2019).

The highest dropout rates occur in the vocational qualification courses of initial and continuing education. In the other courses, oscillations occur, which do not exceed 20%, but need to be analyzed. There are other factors, besides social inequality, that should be analyzed, because they are interrelated with the occurrence of student dropout.

Dore and Lüscher (2011), who rely on Rumberger’s[8] concepts, describe that, in addition to social inequalities, characteristics, in part, individual/community characteristics of the student, the decision between evading or staying in school goes through other institutional perspectives, which, in turn, unfold into factors, as exemplified in Chart 2 of Santos’ study (2018).

Cislaghi (2008) identifies the factors that lead to the student’s dropout or stay in school and presents a model of knowledge management system aimed at reducing evasion and promoting permanence. The author raises causes for evasion and analyzes models developed by academics[9], considering that the analysis of these models:

[…] provides an understanding of a close interrelationship between four terms: evasion, the phenomenon; wear, as a longitudinal process that can move a student from his initiative to obtain a higher level education; permanence, as the ultimate objective of a set of institutional policies and programs to keep a student and also, as the resulting from several factors that lead the student to decide to remain in a higher education course in which he has entered (CISLAGHI, 2008, p. 66).

Based on the analyzed models, Cislaghi (2008) relates the student’s decision between escaping or remaining, in three spheres, in which the student is included: the individual, his collective and that of the institution he chose to attend. In the model elaborated by Cislaghi (2008), it is possible to see the student’s interrelations in the environments in which he is inserted (Figure 1).

Figure 1 – Model of student-school-community interactions for the study of student permanence.

Source: Cislaghi (2008, p. 74).

3. STUDENT PERMANENCE AND ITS VARIABLES

Student permanence is the act of the student meeting conditions to remain in school and complete their studies successfully. The full-time modality or cases of students who are retained several times and who continue for more years in school are not being considered as extension of the school until the end of the studies.

The Federal Constitution (CF) of 1988 brought improvements, for the area of Education, which had been being called for years; among them, “Education, the right of all and the duty of the State and the family will be promoted and encouraged with the collaboration of society, aiming at the full development of the person, his preparation for the exercise of citizenship and his qualification for work” (Art. 205) and that “Teaching will be taught on the basis of the following principles:” (Art. 206) “equality of conditions for access and permanence in school” (item I, our griffin).

Even before the 1988 CF was enacted, government actions, such as school feeding programs (meals); didactic material; school transport; scholarships; among others, they were already being practiced to ensure permanence and, in the post-CF period of 1988, we began to fight for new possible strategies to provide a conditions of equal access and permanence. Pnaes is one of them. The Program was established through Normative Ordinance No. 39 of December 12, 2007, signed by the then Minister of Education, Fernando Haddad:

in the use of its attributions, considering the centrality of student assistance as a strategy to combat social and regional inequalities, as well as its importance for the expansion and democratization of the conditions of access and permanence of young people in federal public higher education (MEC, 2007, p. 1, our griffins).

This achievement is achieved after years of disputes made by members of civil society; National Union of Students (UNE); National Association of Leaders of Federal Institutions of Higher Education (Andifes); and the National Forum of Pro-Rectors of Community and Student Affairs (Fonaprace). It is materialized, initially, through the National Plan of Student Assistance suggested by Andifes to the Ministry of Education (MEC) and which became Ordinance No. 39/2007. In the document, student assistance should work with the following areas: I – student housing; II – food; III – transport; IV – health care; V – digital inclusion; VI – culture; VII – sport; VIII – day care and IX – pedagogical support (MEC, 2007).

In 2010, the Pnaes is institutionalized by Federal Decree No. 7,234 of July 19, 2010, which, as established, was implemented in the Ifes, as well as in the EPTNM, which are part of the IFs. Student assistance is composed of the Permanence Assistance Program and the Universal Actions Program.

Although it has been implemented and is providing student assistance through student assistance policy (PAE), with universal and focused actions, it should be clarified that authors such as Leite (2012; 2015); Dutra and Santos (2017) and Daros (2013) discuss the focused nature of granting this benefit and whether this action fulfills the student purposes or becomes social assistance. For Leite (2012, p. 470), “to approach care in its most apparent form: as a punctual and personalized help to groups of greater ‘social vulnerability’ […] the expression ‘social vulnerability’, although it is the one currently used, victimizes individuals, concealing their true genesis”.

Daros (2013, p. 87) explains that “federal institutes and universities have opted for the so-called ‘scholarship of student assistance’, which is nothing more than the transfer of income made to students through food, transportation, housing, daycare, among others.”

For Leite (2015, p. 425), “the direct transfer of income through financial aid (pecúnia) misvalues the principles of student assistance”, becoming a social assistance action.

Considering that the Pnaes was initially conceived to “ensure the access, permanence and completion of the course of the students of the Ifes, from the perspective of social inclusion, improvement of academic performance and quality of life” (ANDIFES, 2007, p. 2), it is understood that:

[…] the understanding of care as an investment, despite the merit of trying to break with dominant ideary at the time that conceived it as an expense points to a productivist conception of this object, giving the basis for the incorporation of a sense of return, of counterpart, of functionality. (NASCIMENTO, 2013 apud DUTRA; SANTOS, 2017, p. 162).

For Leite (2015, p. 464), “a student assistance policy cannot be limited to creating and implementing mechanisms for the low-income population; it should also be concerned with principles of universal care.”

To analyze other permanence actions, Mendes (2020) was used, which addresses the bibliographic production on student permanence carried out between 1987 and 2019. The survey included 230 master’s dissertations; 35 doctoral theses; and 36 articles published in journals. The area of Education was the most explored, with 98 jobs, followed by Social Work, with 58; Administration, with 31; Psychology, with 18; public policies, with 14; interdisciplinary studies, with 13; and Economy, with 12 jobs. Finally, Mendes (2020, p. 403) considers that “research involving the institution’s employees is still few in number, and could contribute to a more effective operationalization of the student permanence policy”.

Santos et al. (2020) in their research work outlined the profile of students evaded from the Building Technician course, in the subsequent modality, of IFMG – Campus Piumhi. An analytical-descriptive study was conducted through a survey of data from the academic secretariat of the institution. The authors report that “this study confirmed how complex and comprehensive the problem of avoidance is because it is “silent” and by the plurality of its causes that may be linked to factors internal and external to the school environment.” (SANTOS et al., 2020, p. 12). In addition to corroborating the studies of Daros (2013), Santos (2018) and Lins (2021), Santos et al. (2020) suggests that:

This is a problem that needs to be discussed and fought with preventive measures that allow the integration of the student in the ifmg’s formative space. It is believed that it can help in combating dropout: the creation of a university restaurant (since the cost for students’ food would be lower), the improvement of student assistance policies (due to the diversity of income of students and the less favorable conditions of some), the growth of the supply of monitoring to students (since if the student has completed high school at an expressive time, may have a greater difficulty in the disciplines of the course), pedagogical and psychological assistance, leveling courses, among others. (SANTOS et al., 2020, p. 13).

It is observed that, just as there are several reasons for the evasion, it is necessary to analyze them and transform them into actions that give the student the conditions to stay in school and complete their studies, as suggested by Santos et al. (2020).

4. WHO IS REFLECTING ON STUDENT PERMANENCE IN IFSP

In a bibliographical research with the keywords ‘permanence’ and ‘evasion’, carried out by the Pergamum system of the IFSP library, from 2012 to 2021, 13 works authored by IFSP servers and students were identified (Chart 3). Of these, eight were students (62%). The social workers were the servants who most conducted studies (three of them).

Table 3 – Authors of papers addressing evasion and permanence with a link with the IFSP

Author Link with IFSP Campus
ALMEIDA, Francisco Antonio Professor of Informatics Barretos
DANTAS, Maria Conceição Borges Social Worker São Paulo
DAROS, Michelli Aparecida Social Worker Reitoria
HERMÓGENES, Natasha Silva Pires Student of Degree in Physics. Advisor: Prof. Jucivagno Francisco Cambuhy Silva São Paulo
LEITE, Karina Priscila Aparecida Pinto Graduate Student Prof EPT Sertãozinho
MATUMOTO, Carolina Ayumi Technology Student in Systems Analysis and Development. Advisor: Prof. Vitor Brandi Junior Capivari
MOURA, Marta Alves de Lima Student of Degree in Mathematics. Advisor: Profa. Dr. Natália Nassiff Braga Caraguatatuba
NORBERTO, Juliana Alvim Technique in Educational Affairs São Miguel Paulista
PEREIRA, Daiane Galvão Student of Technology in Systems for Internet. Advisor: Prof. Ricardo Alexandre Neves; Co-supervisor: Prof. Gustavo Aurélio Prieto São João da Boa Vista
RIBEIRO, Aline Pires [10] Student of Bachelor of Business Administration. Advisor: Profa. Dr. Renata Plaza Teixeira Jacareí
SANTOS, Danielle de Souza Pedagogue Reitoria
SANTOS, Thais Cristina Student of Bachelor of Business Administration. Advisor: Profa. Dr. Renata Plaza Teixeira Jacareí
SILVA, Ana Rita Dantas Social Worker Sorocaba
SILVA, Paula Eduarda Soares da Student of Technician in Industrial Automation. Advisor: Prof. Dr. Leonardo Borges da Cruz Jump

Source: Own elaboration from the bibliographic documentation researched.

When analyzing the works produced, it is observed that Almeida (2017); Hermógenes (2016); and Ribeiro and Santos (2021), address the evasion of students in the Computer Technician course of the Barretos campus; Degree course in Physics at the São Paulo campus; and in the Jacareí campus administration course, respectively. The theoretical basis is convergent with the above in the second section of this article when it points out the diversity of causes that lead the student to abandon studies and that these can be classified into personal, external and internal factors to the school institution. There are reflections of these authors with alternatives to minimize this problem.

At the conclusion of his work, Almeida (2017, p. 129-130) summarizes the main causes of evasion and suggests that “some intervention actions to combat and reduce dropout and retention, minimizing the students’ learning failure and that may be instituted by IFSP Brt [11] are:

      • Study the possibility of updating or readjustment in the Pedagogical Project of the Course to make the dependence of two or three curricular components more flexible and to effect a greater integration between the disciplines of the common core with those of the technical nucleus;
      • Increase the hours of care of teachers to students with difficulties in monitoring the disciplines always aiming at the rescue of learning. Such learning difficulties and deficiencies were strongly emphasized in the reports of the evaded students;
      • Develop activities and actions to raise student awareness about the importance of including the study in their daily routine;
      • Develop a personalized study plan for students in situations of retention or risk of dropout according to the possibilities of the institution and each student;
      • Perform diagnostic evaluation at the beginning of the curricular components to identify possible deficiencies of students’ learning and propose relevant pedagogical and andragogic intervention actions;
      • Implement actions aiming at a greater inter-relationship teacher-student-school-family so that students feel an integral part of IFSP Brt and have a more proactive participation in the construction of their learning and in the development of their skills and technical skills required by the labor market;
      • Among other actions that allow the recovery and reconstruction of students’ learning. (our griffins).

Hermógenes (2016) does not make considerations about actions to promote permanence, however, it is perceived that, in the study conducted, it demands more actions for personal and internal factors to the institution.

Ribeiro and Santos (2021) consider that reducing student dropout factors in IFSP  requires better preparation of teachers in relation to didactics and teaching methodology. They also point out that financial, behavioral, social and geographic factors influence the student’s decision to stay or not in the institution.

It is observed that, in the three cases analyzed, to avoid evasion, they suggest the participation of the entire school community, because the initiatives require actions of the servants and/or departments, directly or indirectly involved in the process, and the family.

Dantas (2015, p. 1-5) addresses the importance of tracing the profile of the incoming student, so that “in possession of this information it is possible to build a permanent process of review and reconstruction of pedagogical practices, school management, as well as the services to be offered to these students”. Knowing the profile of the student, the institution, with all its servers, and / or departments, should create conditions “not only with the democratization of access of these students, but also as permanence policies that are concerned with this process of setting, integrating and including these in the IFSP”.

Daros (2013); Norberto (2019) and Santos (2018) talk about student assistance, its history and links of its subjects. Daros (2013, p. 59) praises that, through the “symbiotic relationship” between teachers and students, it is possible to understand the specificity of Education, which is soured by concepts, ideas, symbols, habits, attitudes and knowledge”. Over time, this relationship began to be considered between school and student, because, in a new “emancipatory conception of education and training, it advanced towards overcoming the dichotomies between teachers and specialists, pedagogy and bachelors, specialists and generalists, because the school advanced towards the democratization of power relations within it” (DAROS, 2013, p. 63).

The reasons that lead a student to abandon his studies may vary, but for Daros (2013, p. 111), it is essential that the signs that precede the dropout are perceived in time, so that “investigative practices of social workers, pedagogues, psychologists and teachers are intensified, in order to understand the reasons for the absences of students and seek intervention strategies”. From the Pnaes, the Sociopedagogical Department was structured to serve all its students and, in the interviews conducted by the researcher, with assistants from other campuses, the main elements presented are summarized as well:

a) the reception of the student;

b) Expansion of students’ participation in the institution’s decisions;

c) Strengthening collective activities that stimulate the student’s sense of belonging to the IFSP;

d) Opening the IFSP to the external community – so that students know the courses better before entering the institution;

e) The social accompaniment of students;

f) Identification of situations that may lead students to leave the courses;

g) Encouraging critical reflections and building new knowledge;

Multidisciplinary support involving, mainly, pedagogues, psychologists, TAEs[12] and teachers, in addition to social workers. (DAROS, 2013, p. 145).

It is noted that there is a call, from the collective of the school institution, when it is intended to control the evasion and promote conditions of permanence of the student.

For Norberto (2020, p. 80), the PAE is functional, but needs improvements, because “there is a tendency indicating that the proposed regulations for the application of the PAE partially meet the proposed objectives, but the contradictions of the process of implementation of this policy should be considered”. They corroborate with this statement the problems reported by the students and identified by the researcher (Chart 4).

Table 4 – Problems pointed out by students

National Student Assistance Program (Pnaes) Ignorance of the national legislation regulating the actions of the National Student Assistance Program (Pnaes) – Federal Decree No. 7,234, of July 19, 2010
Student Assistance Policy (PAE) of the Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of São Paulo (IFSP) Little understanding of the objectives and purposes proposed by the IFSP Student Assistance Policy (PAE)
Access to IFSP PAE normative acts Ignorance of the material available at the official address of the Rectory of ifsp with all legislation and normative acts that regulate the PAE of the IFSP
Operationalization to receive financial aid For the first receipts, there was a mismatch of information provided by IFSP about whether the amount is deposited in savings account or withdrawn directly in a bank branch, with payment order

Initially, there was disagreement about the obligation of the student to open savings accounts in certain banks to receive the aid

Delay in receiving aid due to divergences in bank data provided by the student to the administration of IFSP – SMP

Banks In the case of receipt by savings account, there was a mismatch of information provided by the bank branches regarding the minimum age for opening an account without the legal guardian and collection of fees for account maintenance

In the case of receipt by payment order, there is divergence in the criteria for withdrawal of the amount in the branches of the same bank, such as the obligation of the student to be accompanied by the legal guardian

Unified Public Administration System (Suap) System updates indicating changes in visualization and monitoring of IFSP PAE selection processes

Source: Norberto (2020, p. 80).

Santos (2018) discusses the democratization of access to Integrated High School (EMI) through the vision of Pedagogy, which works with the sociopedagogical, and must build a path for the student, when able to access a course in the IFSP, to remain and complete his studies. On the other hand, for Santos (2018, p. 209):

It is not possible, within the limits of this research, a detailed analysis of the phenomenon of evasion, but it should be emphasized that it is one of the major obstacles to the democratization of EMI courses in the IFSP. This, in agreement with the studies of the educational field, we understand that evasion is a complex, multifaceted, dynamic and relational phenomenon, in this direction, we highlight the importance of overcoming the conditions that are not always favorable for young people to remain and successfully complete EMI courses.

Leite (2020) analyzes the permanence of students of the Proeja course, in Mecânica, at the Sertãozinho campus. The survey questionnaire was referred to 165 graduates of the course with questions directed in relation to the factors that contributed to the student completing the course successfully. The answers were classified into individual, internal and external factors to the course. For Leite (2020, p. 138), the results were satisfactory, since “in the studiedsite (Campus Sertãozinho of IFSP) it was possible to identify that, over the years, several internal committees were created, which aimed to monitor the permanence and success of students”.

Matumoto (2018) and Pereira (2014) present the construction of a system and data analysis that can be developed to control student evasion. Matumoto (2018) considered the existing information of the evasion occurred in the courses of the Capivari campus and structured a modeling system using the WEKA[13] tool to assist in detecting symptoms of students who are about to escape. The input data are the personal factors, internal and external, related to evasion. After the tests, they concluded that:

Above doing the research it was necessary to understand the reasons that cause the evasion of a student, often imperceptible when one does not have much direct contact with it. Especially when it is possible to observe that characteristics such as gender, ethnicity, age and school origin have a greater role in the dropout profile, according to the results of the research, which is consistent with common sense and the reality of higher education courses in the area of technology. (MATUMOTO, 2018, p. 44).

Pereira (2014) presents a data warehouse proposal for the analysis of school dropout on the São João da Boa Vista campus, which, through student profile information, can detect symptoms of dropout, enabling prevention actions. The tests were satisfactory, but the researcher recommends that:

for future work, in order to continue this research, the improvement in existing databases (Academic, Electronic Journal, PAE and CPA) in order to refine relationships and propose innovations so that they can meet other requirements.

The Student Assistance database deserves special attention, as this database is currently only fed to the profile of students seeking the benefit. The suggestion is that this database can be extended to other students on campus so that a complete social profile of the students is. (PEREIRA, 2014, p. 102).

Moura (2017), a student of the degree course in Mathematics, at the Caraguatatuba campus, performs a work in which he relates the data of school dropout disseminated by the official organs of the municipality with mathematical exercises that point to various results. To establish the work, Moura (2017) developed a theory of school dropout, generating knowledge and alerting users of this data.

This discrepancy presented was discussed in the work of Kleine Ribeiro (1991), who made harsh criticisms of the statistical data system on education in Brazil, especially with the data from school censuses.

However, in relation to school censuses, it is important to note that there is a previous problem, which may compromise data collection even if the collection instruments are adequate. These are the school records themselves, that is, the way in which school records are defined and systematized about the different events of each student’s school life in the school year. (MOURA, 2017, p. 59).

In this section, it was pointed out that 14 authors presented 13 papers that involve the evasion and the factors that help the student to stay in school. Regardless of the objectives and factors that circumscribe their approaches, school attendance is a subject of recurrent concern.

5. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

The objective of this work was to know texts produced by authors who maintain links with the IFSP and that address actions of student permanence of students in the Institute as a means of reducing dropout. Considering that student dropout means loss for all involved, because the student who does not complete his studies will participate in the labor market at a disadvantage, the school starts to have idleness in its facilities; the teacher does not see fulfilled his task of training students; and the State loses in the investment made in schools and by not training professionals who should generate benefits for the country.

The theoretical framework showed the importance of the study of the provoking factors of school dropout in order to create actions that give everyone the conditions to access the school on an equal basis; remain and complete their studies successfully.

Student assistance programs have been created that live to ensure students’ permanence, but there are other factors, besides issues of social inequalities, that affect the student’s life. Knowing what these factors are and how they interact in the student’s life is important, because from them one can think of actions that motivate the student’s stay in school.

The more people who acquire this knowledge and work together, the better the solutions to combat school dropout.

In this work, 14 researchers were identified who explored the theme of evasion in order to create conditions of permanence for their students. It was possible to identify in this research that there are other servers in the same institute who share the same concern.

The knowledge generated from this study can be disseminated, to lead other servers to work with the theme. To ensure school stay, it is necessary the participation of all those involved in the IF. The research also showed that few teachers and servants studied this theme. And it is the social workers who have most analyzed the phenomenon. Thus, similar reflections can contribute to the fight against school dropout and new studies to emerge within the IFSP.

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APPENDIX- FOOTNOTE REFERENCE

4. The Nilo Peçanha Platform (PNP), initiated in 2017 by the Secretariat of Professional and Technological Education of the Ministry of Education (Setec/MEC), is intended for the collection, treatment and publicization of official data from the Federal Network of Professional, Scientific and Technological Education.

5. National Program for the Integration of Professional Education with Basic Education in the Modality of Youth and Adult Education (Proeja), established by Federal Decree No. 5,840 of July 13, 2006.

6. Initial and Continuing Formation (FIC) was instituted by Federal Decree No. 8,268 of June 18, 2014.

7. Verticalization is provided for in Article 6, item III, of Law n. 11,892/2008, as the purpose and characteristics of the IFs to “promote the integration and verticalization of basic education to professional education and higher education, optimizing infrastructure, staff and management resources” (BRASIL, 2008).

8. Russell W. Rumberger is Professor Emérito, Ph.D., Stanford University in the Department of Education. […] Professor Rumberger has published widely in several areas of education: education and work; the education of disadvantaged pupils, especially pupils who have dropped out of school and pupils from linguistic minorities; school effectiveness; education policy. He has conducted research on school dropout for the past 30 years and has written more than 40 research papers and essays on the subject. Source: UC Santa Barbara, The Gevirtz School. Available in: https://education.ucsb.edu/russell-rumberger. Accessed: 17 Aug. 2021.

9. Cislaghi (2008) addresses the models presented by authors such as Spady (1970; 1971); Bean (1980); Bean and Metzner (1985); Tinto (1975; 1993; 1997); Pascarella (1980); Astin (1985); MacKinnon-Staney (1991); Cabrera; Nora; and Castañeda (1992); Nora; Barlow; and Crisp (2005); and Brandon; Hirschy; and McClenton (2004).

10. RIBEIRO, Aline Pires and SANTOS, Thais Cristina, are students of the Bachelor of Business Administration on the Jacareí campus, which is guided by Profa. Dr. Renata Plaza Teixeira, conducted together the research “A study on the main factors of evasion in the higher course of administration at IFSP – Jacareí.”, resulting in this present study in thirteen studies and fourteen authors.

11. IFSP-Brt – Federal Institute of São Paulo, Barretos campus.

12. Technicians in Educational Affairs (TAEs).

13. The WEKA tool, developed in Java, is a collection of Machine Learning algorithms for data mining. It was created at Waikato university in New Zealand and is an open source software (MATUMOTO, 2018).

[1] Master’s degree in Education from the University city of São Paulo (ongoing). Specialist in Teacher Training for Higher Education by the Federal Institute of São Paulo. Degree in Electrotechnics for Vocational High School from the Federal University of São Carlos. Graduated in Production Engineering from the Faculty of Industrial Engineering. Graduated in Electrical Engineering of Operation from the Faculty of Industrial Engineering. Technician in Electrotechnics at the Federal Technical School of São Paulo. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2897-0629

[2] Guidance counselor. PhD in Public Administration and Government from the São Paulo School of Business Administration of the Getúlio Vargas Foundation – EAESP-FGV . Master’s degree in Public Administration and Government from EAESP-FGV. Specialization in Administration for Third Sector Organizations by EAESP-FGV. Graduation in Public Administration from EAESP-FGV. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0003-4375-5270

[3] PhD in Education from the University of São Paulo – USP; Master’s degree in Education from the University of São Paulo; Degree in Pedagogy from the University of Guarulhos; Degree in Letters from the Pontifical Catholic University of São Paulo. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-9093-8785

Submitted: August, 2021.

Approved: August, 2021.

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Master's student in Education at Universidade Cidade de São Paulo (ongoing). Specialist in Teacher Training for Higher Education at the Federal Institute of São Paulo. Degree in Electrotechnics for Vocational High School from the Federal University of São Carlos. Graduated in Production Engineering from the Faculty of Industrial Engineering. Graduated in Electrical Operating Engineering from the Faculty of Industrial Engineering. Technician in Electrotechnics from the Federal Technical School of São Paulo. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2897-0629

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