Environmental education: Approaches and perspectives

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GAMA, Altamir Almeida da [1]

GAMA, Altamir Almeida da. Environmental education: approaches and perspectives. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. 07 Edition. 02 year, vol. 03. pp 52-60, October 2017. ISSN: 0959-2448

SUMMARY

The primary concern of this article is related to environmental education in the educational process. He aims to discuss and analyze giving foundations and perspectives guiding the reader to have a broader view on the topic, taking into account essential factors for improvement of education. A literature search was performed considering the contributions of authors like REIGOTA (1995), MANI (2002), farm (2005), oak (2004), LIBÂNEO (2005), among others, seeking to emphasize part of the context of environmental education and your importance factors teaching and learning, so as to ensure that the educational process happens with quality.

Keywords: environmental education, approaches, perspectives.

Introduction

The present work has as theme environmental education approach and perspectives, he aims to discuss and analyze giving foundations and perspectives guiding the reader to have a broader view on the topic, taking into account essential factors for improvement of education.

In this perspective, issues built that guided this work:

  • What is the role of the school and the purpose of environmental education in teaching contextualized?
  • What principles of human action and the environmental issue facing the technological advancement and capitalism?

When looking for direct actions for the improvement of living conditions in the world, are major challenges that present themselves; one of them is related to changing attitudes towards the basic heritage for human life: the environment.

Then the need for a work aimed at the awakening to a critical consciousness regarding such reality. A work showing the importance of environmental education, in the light of the emergence of another way to analyze the environment; with responsibility and commitment in the fight for your development, keeping him healthy in the present and for the future. For this, it is essential that all work in partnership, with attitudes, values and procedures of contributors changes through a sustainable pedagogy.

In this context, the objective of this article is to approach and give grants and foundations guiding the reader to have a broader view on the topic, taking into account essential factors for improvement of education.

To achieve the proposed objectives, it was used as a methodological resource, the bibliographical research, conducted from the detailed analysis of materials already published in the literature.

The final text was based on the ideas and conceptions of authors such as: REIGOTA (1995), MANI (2002), farm (2005), oak (2004), among others who analyze environmental issues and give Environmental education highlights sensitizing managing citizens aware of the crucial importance of preserving the environment and living beings.

Development

Environmental education: concept, purpose, principles of human action and the technological means.

Environmental education is justified by the law of April 1999 9,795. Feldmann (1993) States that this law exposes the following articles and paragraphs:

Art. 1° environmental education means the processes by which the individual and the collective construct social values, knowledge, skills, attitudes and expertise toward the conservation of the environment of common use of people, essential to the quality of sound life and your sustainability.

Art. 5° Are fundamental goals of environmental education:

IV – the promotion of individual and collective participation, permanent and responsible, in preserving the equilibrium of the environment, the protection of environmental quality as a value inseparable from the exercise of citizenship.

These items are analyzed that the Government proposes to develop rights and duties in different groups of society, based on sustainable improvement of coalitions planet. Is profitable and potential of school context aware students, family, and all the participants, the effect processors environmental educational practices.

Thus, according to Brazil (1997) education takes one more demand when makes the following observation:

The teacher will need to meet more widely the concepts and procedures in the area so I can address them properly. Although the most important thing is not to get the students master the concepts mentioned in the proposal of contents, especially the more complex as the environment, diversity and sustainability. It is up to the teacher to know them better and better for you, from this concept, can integrate the various contents and address natural and social reality in a comprehensive manner and rich, showing how its elements interconnect, greet and interact with each other (Brazil, 1997, p. 77).

With that, the need to find solutions that can conceptualize planning rationally about the dimension of the agis interatuem the proposals where these daily practices within schools, to this occurs to multidisciplinarity.

For Mani (2002) the questioning and the understanding of the consequences of changes in the environment allow you to understand them as something produced by human hand, since the dawn of mankind. Since when did on Earth, humans use nature for your survival.

According to the author at first human beings survive collecting plant products, animal hunting and fishing. Later, he saw that it was possible to reproduce plants and animals, by the practice of agriculture, which allowed him to ensure your survival, allowing the human population grew.

As humanity increases your ability to intervene in nature for satisfaction of growing needs and desires, there are tensions and conflicts about the use of space and resources.

For the same author when it comes to discuss environmental issues, not always spells weight that has market relations, lobbyists for the determination of the conditions of the environment, that is, not always considered in such discussions what to interpretaç margin will the main environmental damage as a result of a process of capitalist development.

The solution of environmental problems in the course of the story has been considered increasingly urgent to ensure the future of mankind and depends on the relationship between society/nature, both collective and individual dimension. This means that the environmental perspective is a way of seeing the world at which to highlight the interrelationship and interdependence of the various elements in the establishment and maintenance of life (BRZEZINSK, 2005, p. 64).

Mani (2002) States despite the understanding of the environmental problems arising from the process of development of mankind, we need to consider that from the 15th and 16th centuries, the revolution in navigation techniques allowed a greater distribution of population in the world, as well as the intermixing of peoples of distant continents and the deployment of capitalism as the economic and social system. This means that, from these centuries, a model of civilization has built on industrialization, with your way of production and organization of work, the mechanization of agriculture, pesticide-intensive and the concentration of population in cities.

The author adds that the exploitation of natural resources has intensified greatly and acquired another feature, from the development of the industry and the development of new technologies, associated with the process of formation of a world market that carries from the raw material until the construction of the most sophisticated products that have become global demand for this market.

Given this, there is no doubt that, with the growth of the world's population through the centuries, the natural spaces had to be occupied by humans. However, what if discusses these days is the need to seek out new alternatives to the relationships between societies and nature. Such relationships may not be included on the agenda or guided by foolish and irresponsible exploitation of natural resources, since there is the understanding that the model based on consumption or waste your time, which is a result of practicing capitalism on a global scale , urgently needs to be revised, because he is responsible for the destruction of nature or ecosystems. For both, there were ideas that you can the world develop economically, since adopt sustainable model. This is based on the rational exploitation of natural resources in the preservation of the environment, may maintain the ecological balance and to combat social and economic inequalities between people and Nations.

This is a matter that needs to be discussed in depth, because the maintenance of the economic model that we are living, structured in consumer society, already showed your inability to reconcile, respect and care for the environment.

As such a model of development has caused negative effects more severe, there were demonstrations and movements that reflected the awareness of the population about the danger that plots the population flows to adversely affect so violently the your environment. In several countries, the concern for the preservation of species appeared many years ago. At the end of the last century, began demonstrations for the preservation of natural ecosystems that culminated in the creation of national parks conservation (FARM, 2005, p. 105).

Lake (1984) talks around the middle of the 20th century, the scientific knowledge of ecology added an environmental movement back in the beginning, mainly for preserving large areas of ecosystems "untouched" by the human being, to conform this movement, parks and reserves have been created. That attitude or struggle of environmentalists hasn't been seen with good eyes, once preached human clearance of these spaces, making your economic exploitation. The resistance left the representatives of capitalist interests and groups of scholars who had a different view.

This situation leads us to a reflection on the conception of debate on how to achieve economic growth of Nations, exploring the natural resources rationally debate this, confronting unavoidable with the current economic development model .

Therefore, care must be taken, for the economic use of the Land by humans has character of conservation, that is, the smallest possible impact and respect the conditions of renewal of same. In the documents signed by the vast majority of countries in the world, including the Brazil, on ensuring access of all economic and cultural goods needed for personal development and a good quality of life in relation with the concept of sustainability.

Therefore, you have to question goes beyond the simple action of Recycle, reuse, or reduce the waste of resources, strategies that are not, by themselves, the logic of economic development. You need to point to other social relationships, other ways of life that are directly related to environmental education.

Reigota (1995) States that the school is the social space and the location where the individual will result to your process of socialization. It is essential that each subject developing their potential and adopt constructive attitudes and social behavior, contributing to the construction of a socially just society, in a healthy environment. What it mean values, represents an example of what society wants and approves. Environmentally correct behaviors must be learned in practice, in everyday school life, contributing to the formation of responsible citizens.

It is essential that each develop their potential and adopt constructive attitudes and personal social behaviors, contributing to the construction of a just society, in a healthy environment.

With environmental content permeating all disciplines of the curriculum and context with the reality of the community, the school will help the student to understand the correlation of the facts and have a holistic view, namely, the world in which he lives. For that environmental education should be addressed systematically and, at all levels of education, ensuring the presence of the environmental dimension of interdisciplinary way of various disciplines and curricula of the school activities (REIGOTA, 1998, p. 98).

Given that the environmental education in the school context is of fundamental importance to the discussion of the principles of human action articulated environmental issues.

Environmental education: Contextualized and sustainability Education

According to Carvalho (2004) the reform of elementary school provides a pedagogical approach that facilitates a bridge between theory and practice and, in this perspective, one must work the scientific content of a contextualized manner, removing the student from the condition of spectator, the study involved participatory dimensions of both the personal life, social and cultural.

Working with contextualized knowledge implies having to address the cross-cutting issues in the teaching and learning process. In this sense the school needs to open up to life, substantiate all your action in everyday reality.

For Ferreira (2005) interdisciplinarity pervades all elements of knowledge, assuming the integration between them. However, it is wrong to conclude that she is just that. Interdisciplinarity is marked by an uninterrupted movement, creating or recreating other points for discussion. With this, one can understand that it is and can be a factor that contributed significantly to teaching, because it deals with issues that can be addressed in several disciplines.

Tristan (2004) argues that the reality of contemporary society is reflected in the interaction and the multiplicity of spaces right with the acquisition that passes to permeate the teaching-learning relationships and assigns meanings to these spaces created by man. The epistemological setting current a embedded knowledge network that cross, crisscross, extrapolating borders before very severe, causing uncertainties and insecurities about our know.

According to the author the school presents itself as a social space through the educational ideal should provide a constant rethinking of values and attitudes. This scenario brings us to rethink, to resize the bounds and the frontiers of knowledge where this inserted environmental education.

Gautam (2003) highlights in the context of globalization and the new role of the international organizations, the education professionals have a key role as executors of the educational policies drawn up as a means to adjust education to market requirements. And one of these requirements is the way these educators deal with environmental issues in the classroom and beyond.

Environmental education is linked to the concepts or representations that if attributed to the environment. It has been consolidating and becoming a parameter in establishing other thinking, education of your set, the number of publications, projects, experiences and people involved with the subject, in all spheres.

The work in environmental education should develop the sensitivity, responsibility, competence and environmental citizenship goes beyond the classroom. Education happens as part of human action to transform nature into culture, giving them directions, bringing it to the realm of human understanding and experience of being in the world and participate in life in a sustainable way.

Carvalho (2004) the quest for sustainable relations requires the company to develop and implement actions, even if on a small scale, to ensure minimal quality of life on the planet, sustainability, thus implies the use of renewable resources qualitatively and in quantities compatible eat renewability. In addition to social relations that allow appropriate quality of life for all.

Conclusion

In the current economic climate in which you live both in political, economic and educational spheres and sociocultural, is almost impossible to keep the flame of desire, the availability and love, above all, on inside of the professionals working in the educational process of our society and much less to sensitize individuals about the importance of environmental issues.

We must dare to innovate and walk, mainly with intentionality in everything we do, with a focus on what's best for the planet and for us, the role of education is centered on building a socially just and ecologically balanced world, which requires individual and collective responsibility in local, national and planetary levels. And that's what is expected of environmental education.

Of course, education alone is not enough to change the direction of the planet, but it certainly is a necessary condition for that.

Therefore, this study reflects some of panorama which pervades our environmental education society. As if realized, even with all the difficulties, environmental education can still help forming citizens, critical and aware of their attitudes and realities by all act with greater commitment and responsibility.

REFERENCES

BRAZIL, National Curriculum: Portuguese Language Parameter. Brasilia: CNE, 1997.

BRAZIL, The Federal Constitution. Brasilia: CNE, 1988.

BRZENZINSKI, Would. LDB Interpreted. Many Flagstone Looks. In Brzenzinski (org)-9. Ed. São Paulo: Cortez, 2005.

CARVALHO, Izabel Cristina de Moura. The formation of the subject. São Paulo: Cortez editora, 2004.

FELDMAN, Fabio. Features on environmental education, Establishes Environmental Education policy and other matters. 9797 law, published in Official Gazette 28/04/99. Brasilia, 1999.

FERREIRA, Mary Eliza m. p. Science and interdisciplinarity. In The Farm. Interdisciplinary practices at school. São Paulo: Cortez, 2005.

GONÇALVES, Luiz Alberto Oliveira. Curriculum and public policies. Belo Horizonte: modern, 2005.

LAKE, Anthony. What is Ecology. São Paulo: Brasiliense, 1984.

Mazzotti, Andrew Bonilha. Educational Sciences. Rio de Janeiro: modern, 2002.

REIGOTA, environment and Social Representation. São Paulo: Cortez, 1995.

TRISTAN, Martha. The environmental education in the training of teachers. São Paulo: Facitec, 2004.

[1] 6th-9th teacher of elementary school in munício of brief-Man. Graduated in biology from Universidade Vale do Acaraú-grape, graduated in Geography from the University of the State of Pará – UEPA and graduate student in environmental education and sustainability by Universidade Candido Mendes-UCAM.

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