Intellectual disabilities and activity of the teacher: Contributions of psychoanalysis and education

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ARAÚJO, Nair Cristina Sousa de. [1]

ARAÚJO, Nair Cristina Sousa de. Intellectual disabilities and activity of the teacher: Contributions of psychoanalysis and education. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. Year 1. Vol. 9. Pp 843-853. October/November 2016. ISSN. 2448-0959

SUMMARY

This research sought to examine the role of the teacher as regards the relations established in the classroom with students with intellectual disabilities, and this is the crucial point for the development of learning is effective, the theoretical based on national and international official documents pointing to the inclusion as a right of all to have their potential developed and works related to psychoanalysis and education regarding concepts in research covered such as: transfer, mediation and binding. For realization of the work accompanied six teachers in the classroom of two public schools in the city of Alcantil. Classes were observed and care to students. There was dry in the dynamics of the room and the approach of content of most teachers there are difficulties to intervene during school with students with intellectual disabilities. It was concluded that even with full disclosure and inclusive policy, intent on securing a formal education for all, many challenges in teacher training need to be faced and paradigms rethought in relation to this issue.

Keywords Inclusion. Psychoanalysis. Education.

Introduction

We know that when we treat of inclusion of person with intellectual disabilities in regular school, faced with questions among which we can highlight if inclusive education is a practice or a big speech? Considering that even with significant changes, a large number of teachers claims not to be able to work with people with disabilities, we believe that many questions and dilemmas surrounding the inclusive education currently, may affect or trigger insecurities, so many for how many educators to students, who in the performance of the teacher can be explicit, also with regard to acceptance of the learner was inserted in a regular school.

It is necessary to attempt to understand what benefits the relationship of educator with the learner, in particular what presents intellectual disabilities, can contribute to the learning process. Among the many concepts of psychoanalysis and education, some show the relevance to relate the experiences that have occurred in the context of school teachers and students with intellectual disabilities, the first concept is that these transfer transfer the negative or positive impulses creating links between people, which was mentioned by Freud for the first time in the interpretation of dreams referring the relationship of analyst and analyzing , which later by others, was used to portray the teacher-student relationship, the student and faculty established among is what establishes the conditions for learning. In this sense Kupfer (2007 p. 87) says: "so we can say that, from the perspective, focus not psychoanalytic contents, but the field establishes the conditions for learning, whatever the content. ''

In psychoanalysis, the this field the name of transfer. It is in this case of situations in which the student, whereas we mean teacher-student relationships, transfers to other, related images to former experiences. Even though this concept has not been designated by Freud to the educational context, we can see how contribute so that we can understand the relationships that exist in school.

Join positively or negatively to someone, is determined by a few factors, such as the representation of care created in this relationship. The new experiences in the case be inserted in a context outside the home, provides the person with disabilities seek opportunities to link with classmates and adults who once didn't know. Transfer to the other their emotions and be responded positively, guarantee that the learner to feel secure and welcome.

The second concept is the term mediation mediation in the area of education, takes us to understand it as a reciprocal relationship between the individual and that increases the chances of the meet, learn.  So we realize that a pedagogical elaborate action encourages the development of the students. The sense of the learning process for this is determined by what incites the subjectivity, "development of the functions of the human being, is composed in the mediation between the subjects they teach and learning, educational relations" (FACCI; MEIRA; TULESK, 2011, p. 262)

The third concept is to link. There are many contributions to the understanding of facts related to this concept. Psychoanalysis gives the constituent paper on the other in the formation of the individual, in the aspects related to think, feel, among others. In education we see that the other also has a very important role in those aspects, on this we can see that whatever the science, relationships are inherent part of this training.

Link is the connection between people, which is established by the relation, and according to some theorists such relationships affect significantly the learning. To Klein (apud Chamat .1997 1962, p. 17), "the level and the type of binding the child establishes with people that surround it will determine the level and type of binding established with the knowledge, thus reflecting on your learning. ''

The integration goes beyond what we experience in our lives, sometimes students need help to integrate, that's where the experience and attitudes teachers help children or young people with intellectual disabilities to act in an integrated way, as these according to Vigotsky (1996) apud Facci (2011), there are less developed than the others, its development is different , and this guarantees the opportunity to learn. For Winnicott (1979, p. 217)

The school is a support, but not an alternative to the home of the

Child, can provide opportunity for a deep personal relationship with other persons than the parents. These opportunities present themselves in the person of the teacher and other kids.

From the expertise of researchers in the field of Psychology we saw that the concerns of teachers to serve students with disabilities were constant, and that the teacher can allow or not in its performance the creation or re-creation of a healthy relationship. This led us to have as main issue being researched: how the teacher can facilitate the inclusion of person with intellectual disabilities in regular school through the relationship between these guys?

The option for the choice of the site to be developed the survey took place from some dissatisfactions presented during the teaching and planning meetings in bimonthly that educators showed concerns about the work that should be developed with people with disabilities, considering also a significant number of people with disabilities treated in this work.

The overall objective is to analyze the reality in the field with regard to school performance of the teacher with the person with intellectual disabilities considering mediation and the link established in search of strategies to ensure the learning rights of those students with intellectual disabilities, and be able to identify the existence of transfer in this relationship between educator and learner.

As specific goals you have: Analyze the practice developed by the educator who works with students with intellectual disabilities in regular room; identify the difficulties of involvement of educators in subsidizing the students in the activities proposed in the room; check the existing relations between the educator and the learner that favor the development of learning.

Methodology

Starting from the need to analyse how the teacher can facilitate the inclusion of person with intellectual disabilities in regular school through the relationship between these guys, we will develop the research, qualitative character in the municipality of Alcantil, aimed at deepening existing social issues in the relationship between teacher and student, which will be analyzed to know what the relevance of psychoanalysis in particular the concepts of transfer and link to that establish a healthy relationship in school, as well as the importance of mediation to facilitate the understanding of the students.

The type of research was qualitative and descriptive analysis procedure method analytical, through observation in loco and through the reports of experiences lived by them.

Search steps

Initially we used the note as a basis for identifying the existing problems and attempts to address them, seeking to understand how the learning process in regular room with students with intellectual disabilities through the teachers ' relationship with these students. According to Trivinos (1987, p. 153):

' Observe ', of course, is not simply look. Note is to highlight a set (objects, people, animals etc.) something specifically, providing, for example, look at their features (color, size etc.). Observe a "fenômenosocial" means, firstly, that particular social event, simple or complex, has been abstractly separated from its context so that its natural dimension, be studied in their actions, activities, relationships, etc. Creating individual or group if the phenomena within a reality that is indivisible.

06 teachers were observed during 08 classes, all graduates in education, and a degree in biology, some have graduate degrees in education.

The note listed the following points: the practice used to developed by educator who works with students with intellectual disabilities in regular room, as the content developed in class, the resources used by teachers to facilitate the understanding what is proposed in the living room, the difficulties of involvement of educators in subsidize them in the proposed activities in class and the existing relationships between the educator and the learner that favor the development of learning.

In addition to the note, the methodology used in the research presented was a semi-structured interview as another source of data collection, which covers the formation of each teacher observed, and the analysis of reports made by them, with this checked the existence or not of the aforementioned concepts: the transfer, mediation and binding. With the report, was given to educators the opportunity to make their views and difficulties faced in everyday life.

Of ownership of the data collected, we proceed to the analysis of these, based on the theoretical body of research, and this is an attempt, to reflect, in the light of a didactic-scientific path to a social and pedagogical issue, understood the process of inclusion of children with intellectual disabilities as a contemporary challenge to public schools and to social and cultural policies, and the vinculares relations between teacher and student , as a point of great importance for the social development of disabled person from the formal education.

We describe below the observation points, which have served as guidelines to be able to interpret, infer and analyze the various realities of the school context that try to strengthen the policy of inclusion or not. Each practice (P) was identified from P1 to P6, in the case of six educators in different schools in the municipality where the research was carried out, and the student will be identified by: Student G1 and G2, Student D, Student K, R1 and R2, Student B.

The tables below deal with cutouts of the observations and reports from teachers in which we highlight within the set of practices during the search in that there was mediation or not, bond and transfer.

Table 1: Mediation of teachers

Practices Difficulty Points which refers to mediation
P1, P3, P4, P5, P6  Did not present difficulties The teachers choose activities in groups or pairs, while it helps the student with disabilities to develop their activities.

However the cooperation between students is what also helps teachers to be able to develop their work.

Students with intellectual disabilities are placed in different groups.

P5 Presented no difficulty They (the students) are in a round table discussion with the teacher to perform the proposed activities and demonstrate satisfaction in being in that environment, because the room is very attractive, is an excellent teacher, environment panels exposed, and there is a climate of greater rapprochement between the students and the teacher
P2 Presented difficulty Teachers in some situations they propose activities in groups or pairs, so she tries to help students with disabilities to develop their activities (what was brought by it).

Note: there is no in routine school activities in groups every day, in this case she can't help students with intellectual disabilities often, students with intellectual disabilities are not inserted in the groups.

 

Table 2: linking teachers with students

Practices Points which refers to bond
P1, P3, P4, P5 and P6 Always asks for her help, which always runs the student's wallet, and in a few moments playing with this. There are also moments in which the closest colleagues help him, but he makes a point of showing to the teacher, and she offers her attention, the praises and gives it new directions.
P2 On designated assessments for verification of learning, named quarter assessment, the two students were in the class, went to school reading room.

The teacher often speak aloud that these two students need a differentiated follow-up, i.e. a room with the alfabetizem.

The student D, is restless and doesn't focus fact that takes the teacher talking to answer that this must put in activity.

The C student, leaves constantly, often asked to develop the activity in the Office or in the living room.

 

P5 They sit at a round table with the teacher to perform the proposed activities and demonstrate satisfaction in being in that environment, because the room is very attractive, is an excellent teacher, environment panels exposed, and there is a climate of greater rapprochement between the students and the teacher.

Note: this is the same section identified the mediation in this practice.


Table 3: transfer of teachers to students

Practices Points which refers to transfer
P1, P3, P4, P5 and P6 The relationship established between these educators and student with intellectual disabilities in the living room, shows us that there was a positive link established, affection, trust that are part of these relations shows that the transfer in this case turns out satisfactorily in that learning can be built so enjoyable and effective.
P2  

The restlessness of the student, and the student exits constants K of the classroom, shows us that the moment one tries to draw the attention of the teacher, which demonstrates explicitly nervousness to act with such students, brings us an attractive and comfortable environment for both.

The fact that one of the students seek other staff to develop the activity, shows us that there was no transfer required for this student integrates and would attend the activities proposed by the teacher.

'' I have a lot of difficulty in teaching special students, due to the overcrowded room, cannot appropriate games and activities for them. In addition to caring for them during school. ''

(P2)

P5  

The relationship presented in this practice, we can say that the transfer was the most present, this why the students attributed the teacher, actions that usually has with the parents, or people closer together, the confidence to solve issues even outside the school context, shows us how there is a healthy relationship between these.

'' It's very gratifying and priceless view that every step of the way, an achievement, exchanging hugs and affection and feel able amid so much discrimination even though the slow steps, realize a smile and a twinkle in the eyes of these students. ''

(P5)


Final considerations

Psychoanalysis can be linked to education to treat existing relations in the school context, we know that such relationships do not always contribute to effective learning.

Not just technique, methods, planning, and transmit the contents as if the learner were empty, is required much more than the content, we must consider the subjectivity of all involved, which pressures of his desires, and seek to understand the attitudes, the desires of their students and their own desires, and often the reasons that determine the type of relationship that each educator will have with your students , are not understood, by the lack of a real rapprochement of these.

Knowledge is always linked to the desire, not just the intellectual aspects are relevant for acquisition of learning, emotional baggage is crucial in this process, and that both educator, as educating are influenced by these factors.

Psychoanalysis brings as a contribution to education the importance of knowing the other, humanized form, in order to develop good relations, which consequently provides a friendly and stimulating for all learners.

Without realizing each professor and student deal with feelings of admiration and respect, which are transferred to the teacher, so important to realize that a good relationship is to a relationship of understanding, of mediation, so that the linkages are developed in a positive way, this happens naturally in the relationship educator-learner, as well as in other human relationships.

Considering the complexity of human relationships, the study links is necessary, because from it you guys are, so as to realize the relevance of vinculares relations to the learning process.

References

CHAMAT, Leila Sara Jafari. Vinculares relations and learning: an approach based on educational psychology. São Paulo. Vector, 1997.

FACCI, Marilda Gonçalves. MEIRA, Marisa Eugenia Melino. TULESK, Silvana Calvo. The exclusion of '' included '': a critique of educational psychology and pathologizing and medicalization of educational processes. Parana, Eduem, 2011

KUPFER, Maria Cristina. Freud and education: master of the impossible. 3 Ed. São Paulo, Editora Scipione, 2007

TRIVIÑOS, Augusto N.S. Introduction to Social Science research-the qualitative research in education. São Paulo: Ed. Atlas, 1987.

WINNICOTT, D. W. The child and his world. 5 Ed. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar Editor, 1979

[1] Educator and expert on Educational supervision and guidance (FURNE-UNIPÊ), master of educational sciences (Instituto Superior de Ciências Sociales-PY). He is currently the educational supervisor Prefeitura Municipal de Alcantil, teacher and educational coordinator of the education unit Prof. PNAIC. Nely and Melo in Campina Grande.

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