Curriculum and Assessment: concepts and adaptations

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TEIXEIRA JUNIOR, Dinarte [1]

TEIXEIRA JUNIOR, Dinarte. Curriculum and assessment: concepts and adaptations. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. Year 1, vol. 8. pp. 72-82, September 2016. ISSN. 2448-0959

SUMMARY

Overlooking curriculum concepts in elementary and evaluative processes, relationship with needs of adaptation and updating, maintaining the idea of contextualization as a way to qualify the educational processes. Understanding that each school falls into a community with culture, habits and needs. Contextualization of valorization of the local cultural elements, valuing the acquis of previous knowledge of students, the evaluative processes so that the traditional formats acquire adjustments and value skills and qualities of the students. Thus, curriculum and evaluation should get closer to traditional elements, necessary educational base, to local cultural elements.

Keywords: Curriculum; evaluation; context; adaptation; students

1. INTRODUCTION

This work keeps his focus for an analysis and evaluation of two important concepts in the field of contemporary education. This essay discusses the current forms of implementation of the current curriculum, as well as the format used for the evaluation and measures of content developed in the classrooms of elementary schools. Questions about the relevance of formal evaluations at the expense of promoting personal development of each student.

It is understood that there is a gap between the curriculum applied in Brazilian schools, especially in the elementary schools and the realities and real needs of students.

In this line of thought note that although there are prerogatives for the insertion of elements of local cultures in schools the curriculum is implemented formally and without taking into account the various contexts where the schools are located. Their cultures, habits, peculiarities and the identity of the students. Believing that the existence of a quality education must always approach the curriculum to the context of the students sought theoretical basis in the literature of AGUERRONDO (2006, p. 4) and in his redefinition of student and learning process, where the author claims that all the cases studied and has made clear that this is a central theme. Consider the student in charge of their own learning and as someone able to stand out in the community. The prospect of learning is defined as collaborative and independent process, both in academic as the ability to generate alternatives. Promote experiential learning, based on experience, favorecedora of personal autonomy and, at the same time, the collaborative work. A relevant learning for themselves and for the community, Integrator of visions, knowledge and skills, transforming the reality-oriented and problem-solving.

This statement means that the student is the main subject of the teaching/learning process, a collection of previous knowledge, from a local context. Such acquis, should always be elevated to the role of the formal school curriculum content as inexhaustible and renewable alternatives to the enrichment of the construction process and internalization of knowledge disseminated in schools.

Following this line of reasoning, however coming back now the attention to the processes of evaluation and assimilation of knowledge transmitted in elementary schools, in this study find alternatives to an existing model of evaluation that maintains its focus on measurement of transmitted knowledge. Assigning degrees of qualification or numerical scales, disregarding the particularities of each student. The shortcomings, qualities and, in particular, the personal evolution are neglected in these evaluative models, explaining how a format that, once again, does not take into account local contexts, cultural factors or characteristics of each student, school and location where these fall.

In synthetic form it can be said that, in General, the evaluations are made through tasks and procedures that include only a review mostly individual content worked in classrooms. Do not consider the interdisciplinary factors and even favor the research or the construction of knowledge in small or large groups. So little, stimulate real and specific problem-solving or creativity of these students.

In this way it is possible to say that such a model of assessment measures the ability of each student has in store information in short time. In any way is no guarantee that the content or information provided were stored and, much less if there is a condition of interpretation of such information.

Such questions about the traditional way of evaluating reflect a concern with regard to the effectiveness of the method used. So, when it comes to contextualization of education, the central idea would not be to abolish existing evaluation practices by total, but rather propose alternatives that can contemplate the intellectual growth of every student of contextualized way.

The professional evaluation can approach the educational reality from different perspectives of quest, as well as use various derivative models of themselves, and collect the information through a wide variety of techniques.

This diversity follows the different conceptions and modes of interpreting social reality, based on the different responses that can take the questions raised since the ontological and epistemological dimensions and different conceptions of human nature. The resulting methodological diversity derives from the different responses in each context (Mateo Andrés, 2000, p. 134).

Finally, so that this study maintains its focus on the need for innovation of two concepts of great importance to the quality of education. Especially in the elementary school, which is where this research keeps your look.

The pursuit of real and practical context of the curriculum, and not only in the theoretical field, together with the innovation of student assessment methods, where constantly seek out cognitive and intellectual developments of these, knowing which are the main subject of all educational processes and their reason for existence, keeping the interest in your previous knowledge and social reality retratarão an idea that only so if you promote quality education and dedicated to the integral formation citizens with specific troubleshooting capabilities autonomously and creative and able to perform critical analysis on issues of their daily lives, as well as with regard to their integration and role in a globalized world where information and concepts are extremely dynamic and changeable.

2. RESUME: REFLECTIONS AND CONCEPT

So, following this line of thought, is defined as the set of curriculum elements and/or content to be developed within a program or educational follow-up. Where these contents are grouped in different disciplines.

Is proper to the current curriculum in elementary schools in Brazil, the adoption of fixed content from studies and proposals coming from higher instances and, traveling a long way to reach its main subject, reason larger of its existence: the student. This road traveled by resume part of educational plans prepared by national Ministry, past Secretaries of State and municipal education departments, in an elementary optical, seem to be in opposite direction the needs of students, as well as the most basic educational policies.

When primordial factors such as culture, social environment and economic factors are left on the sidelines in the construction of educational proposals such proposals will be contrary to an idea of education that gives priority to students ' knowledge base. A curriculum built from base of students and for students.

It is important to point out that, in theory, the curriculum used in the elementary school provides for the insertion of these Brazilian factors, as well as the appreciation of the particularities and peculiarities of each school or group of students. However, in this study, we seek to evaluate the need to incorporate practical and extensive such elements as key factors for the construction of knowledge from a previous collection brought by the students themselves.

As regards this approach asks if, for example, whether it would be correct to apply to students who live in rural communities the same curriculum and the same way of teaching it to students at a high school. Is that your needs will be the same? Will these students will keep the interest required for a good GPA in content that often didn't concern them?

Probably the answers are negative to both questions, but in this way, most of the time that the curriculum based educational brazilian arrives. Can be defined only as a wide range of content divided into specific areas of knowledge and to be transmitted in a given time limit for that later can be measured the progress of each student within these areas of expertise and specific periods.

However, the need for a change both in form and in content is made explicit in the affirmation of MORIN (1999, p. 14).

Knowledge of information or isolated elements is insufficient. It is necessary to locate the information and elements in his context for which acquire sense. To have felt the word needs the text that is its own context and the text needs the context where it announces. For example, the word love changes of direction in a religious context and in a profane; and a declaration of love has no real direction is set out by a seductive or seduced.

In this same study MORIN (1999, p. 26) still stresses the paramount importance of valorization of human culture.

Culture is the set of knowledge, know-how, rules, norms, interdictions, strategies, beliefs, ideas, values, myths that spreads from generation to generation are reproduced on each individual, control the existence of society and holds the psychological and social complexity. There is no ancient or modern human society that does not have culture, but each culture is unique. So, there's always the culture in cultures, but culture does not exist otherwise across cultures.
The techniques may migrate from one culture to another, as was the case of the wheel, the yoke, the compass, press; or of certain religious beliefs, secular ideas soon having born a singular culture were able to universalize. But there are in every culture a specific capital of beliefs, ideas, values, myths, and particularly the bind a unique community to their ancestors, their traditions, their dead.

And so, we have a clear reading of the latent need of approximation of the local curriculum, running away from the concept that students need only follow a specific listing of contents previously established by extraneous agents the most diverse realities where the processes of knowledge construction.

Finally, based on the literature cited above, one can envision a resume as a great Web, where must incorporate the role of the basic knowledge required for any individual, as reading and interpretation, logical/mathematical operations and all other existing disciplines currently together with the appreciation of local cultures and their values, realities and particularities. Understanding that a curriculum focused on the significant knowledge learning by the student must have clear understanding that this doesn't build rectilinear form, but transitions by winding paths, where the teaching of mathematics is always permeated by knowledge of the written language or even the notion of space and time, which easily can be demonstrated in the physical education classes and so on.

So the search will always be for a way to teach content that promote student growth as a human being able to act autonomously and criticism, with methods and practices that meet the most varied realities where every school is valorizing the prior collection of knowledge brought by the students and making them also perpetuating their multipliers and local cultures , habits, beliefs and myths.

Minimizing also the questioning that spreads often among students about the usefulness of what one learns in schools and, consequently, being an agent for the permanence of children in educational establishments.

3. RATING: X DEVELOPMENT NOTES

In another focus of this study, it becomes imperative to a relational approach between the curriculum and the assessment of elementary school, because both relate closely in educational practices, and are inter-dependent. There will be no as if measuring the effectiveness of a curriculum through an evaluation process of the students.

However, what if questions are the ways in which these students are evaluated. Traditionally the evaluation methods used in the elementary school only perform content revisions, where the student is subjected to a load of content in given discipline and, subsequently, it is applied a questionnaire individually and out of context.

Every two or three months, depending on the assessment format adopted, are assigned grades through numerical scales to students and those at the end of the school year will tell if the same or not they are conditions to the next class. So, describes himself as just a mere implementation of evaluation questionnaires, tests in a way that disregards for total all other implicit factors in this process, as psychological conditions, strains or quality of private tuition.

Would not, on the other hand, the total exclusion of this evaluation a model solution for the improvement of the evaluation process, since all human beings must learn to live with adverse psychological situations, overcome its tensions and seek alternatives and solutions to the lack of information. But yes, a form that enhances the individual development of each student, which are multiple intelligences as well, are multiple knowledge. A student may not be able to obtain a good performance when subjected to a test or test, however this same student can give excellent answers when encountering collective works, especially with regard to a psychological profile of leadership or Integrator. Follows the need to consider as a factor of profound significance and reflection the creative and innovative capacity that will always be disregarded in a formal evaluation process.

In this way, there is that if you measure what each student store of knowledge in all disciplines of determined curriculum, but not where this process has end in itself. That is, you have to combine the most varied forms of valuation in accordance with the public which applies this assessment in their contexts and responses to various stimuli.

Statement is portrayed in CAMILLONI (1998, p. 133), lecturing about the importance of evaluation systems and the ways of promotion of students, as well as and need to adapt these to the realities and needs of different contexts.

Qualification systems used in the evaluation of learning and students ' promotion schemes constitute an essential component of the evaluation systems they use in formal education. Though both are products of a set of practical decisions adopted by reason of accession to one or another among the various theoretical currents of didactics, always engaged, in fact, a strong regulatory effect on the teaching and learning actions since, rather than appear as a consequence of the theoretical foundations that support in the matter, has an effect so powerful that generally operate very effectively in reverse, as determinants of all pedagogical practices. Thus, if the qualifying systems and promotion remain fundamental arrangements in static and do not accompany the transformations of teaching practices, only serve as obstacle to these transformations, forcing teachers to a permanent adaptation to the teaching templates that the renewal or reform processes seeking to replace.

So, about the evaluation procedures applied in elementary school it is suggested, not a total exclusion of methods currently used for a membership to a completely innovative or revolutionary format, but careful study on what really deserves to be evaluated in the practices used and which factors intrinsic to reality of each student deserve a more in-depth look and so that add value in evaluation mechanisms used in the construction of knowledge. Since the intellectual training of a child must not only the amount of information that it is able to store during their school life, but rather on the importance of such information for your life, its context and its insertion in the social environment, and especially the ability that this child will have to put into practice these transmitted information. In other words, the measurement of knowledge through notes on numerical scales will never assess the intellectual growth of a student, or even as an evaluation process that just admire the evolution of student in contextualized, relational level issues or even the ability to offer practical solutions to practical problems also will not be able to measure this growth.

Anyway, the more consistent output for this impasse might be the use of both evaluation models, with emphasis on the second, for dealing with issues that pervade the daily lives of students and, through evaluative formats adapt and approach of the realities and particularities of each locality and his students there inserted instead of walking in an opposite direction which forces an adaptation and fitness of diverse realities , from different schools, the more natural cultures, habits and social contexts of students the mere knowledge measurement formats, often of little or no relevance to meet the real needs of conviviality in society or even the ability to become active beings and critics regard the issuance of opinions or formulation of concepts and values important for their future lives.

4. CONCLUSION

At the end of this study about the current concepts of curriculum and assessment, listing its probable shortcomings, as well as, your application needs for the improvement of educational quality in middle school, it becomes possible to conclude that these two concepts will always be closely linked. There is an interdependence between them, because where there is a curriculum model that contemplates the contexts of each location and in particular the needs and the acquis of previous knowledge of students there invariably will be entered the need for a method of evaluation that can enhance these qualities.

On this trail, it is believed that through an education contextualized, which rely on the appreciation and active participation of students and other members that make up the school communities in the process of construction of knowledge, including the above concepts of curriculum and assessment, be able to deploy an educational model with the focus for significant learning content and values.

AROSTEGUI (2013, p. 187), reports on his study in elementary schools, the importance of the participation of these agents of the school community, including students, in the improvement of systems of assessment and inclusion of elements of local culture in the curricula.

In the current society of information and knowledge, the school has the need to provide the best means to ensure the learning of all students, ensuring the overcoming of inequalities and improved academic results. In this sense, there are scientific evidence to demonstrate the importance of the participation of families and other community members as a strategy for success in schools. One of the fundamental references that stand out in this article is the project "Includ-ed", which underlines different types of participation of the community and its influence on learning and school performance.

In this sense, the studies conducted to date lead to the idea that, in elementary school, there can be a single model or a standard static and inflexible, so for about the curriculum or even for the processes of evaluating students. One should, however, consider first the particularities and peculiarities in various educational contexts, for only after complete this procedure if seek and establish the format best suited to assess students in their needs and perspectives.

Following the same line of thought, but with the look back to an analytical approach on the curriculum, if will seek a curricular basis common to all learners, providing the knowledge and basics of formal education at this level of education, as the domain of the written language and its interpretation, mathematical knowledge and other elements pertinent to such educational level in the field of science. In this same curricular base would be of great importance for students learning about historical and geographical contexts, forming a solid general education based on local needs and peculiarities. Making it too, from there work in the disciplines that seek to develop and own the capabilities valences each individual and region as the arts deeply dependent of a look and individual interpretation and, consequently, contextualized on their forms and manifestations. It would be the same case for the teaching of physical education, the main objective of the evolution in the various body segments through sporting activities, gymnastics and dances, playful, and may in this line of thought would be crafted purely in local contexts, whether through the exploitation of local folklore in dances, in games that pass from generation to generation and that serve for the improvement of the physical capacities as to the maintenance of the local crops and for favouring the conviviality in society or even through sports preferences of each locale or region that may vary according to factors such as climate, colonization, habits and other factors that interfere in the construction of the uniqueness of the most varied cultures. The study of foreign languages in the elementary school could also be treated in context, prioritizing the degree of importance and relevance to these teachings may have in the future of students. For example, what would be the most important language to be learned by a Brazilian student of elementary school, who lives near the border with Uruguay or Argentina? Probably the answer English due to its geographic context, as well as your daily living reality with Spanish-speaking people in open borders.

So, assuming the idea that students have a solid base of knowledge about broader issues, and to seek out later insertion practice and real relevant elements in the context of each school and its students, the cultural factors of each locality, brought in from outside to inside of schools, inserted and recovered in the curricula in addition to formal educational practices will serve as agents for bringing the various segments of the school community with educational institutions. In particular, passing the place under discussion in the classroom topics really in the interests of the students and their related local situations and, consequently, causing increase interest and identification of these youngsters with the schools where they study. And may even become an important mechanism to combat truancy, this factor that very problem in elementary school, contributing to mainly to a significant number of semianalfabetos or distortion children between age and grade/year.

Finally, it is concluded that the contextualizações of both evaluation processes as of the curriculum used in the elementary school, will be of great importance to a significant improvement in methods and means for teaching and learning, especially with regard to maintenance of students in schools through the significance of content developed in the classroom and the maintenance and appreciation of the uniqueness and peculiarities of each culture in the construction of knowledge.

5. REFERENCES

AGUERRONDO, Inés. La escuela del futuro. As las escuelas piensan that innovan. 2002.

AGUERRONDO, Inés. Why la innovación y qué hace survives that works. 2006.

ADAM r. conversations with those who like to teach. São Paulo: Ars Poética; 1995.

AROSTEGUI, Igone; DARRETXE, Leire; BELOKI, Nekane. La participación de las familias y de otros miembros de la comunidad as success strategy in las escuelas. Revista Iberoamericana de Evaluación Educativa, Madrid, vol. 6, no. 2, Noviembre/2013. Available at:<http: www.rinace.net/riee/numeros/vol6-num2/riee_6,2.pdf=""> accessed: 05 April 2015.</http:>

CAMILLONI, A.; CELMAN, S.; LITWIN, E.; PALOU MATÉ, María del Carmen. La evaluación de los aprendizajes in el debate contemporary teaching. Buenos Aires: Paidós .1998.

H.S, Adhemar. Text: a roadmap for Scientific structure, citations and references of monographic projects. 5ED. revised and expanded. Curitiba: KAPOK, 2012.

MATEO ANDRÉS, Joan. Barcelona: La evaluación educativa, su práctica y otras metaphors. Barcelona: I.C.E. Horsori; 2000.

MORIN, Edgar. Los siete knowledge necessary for education del futuro. Paris: UNESCO; 1999.

[1] Graduate in physical education from the Universidade da Região da Campanha-URCAMP, post-graduated SOGIPA of physical education and master's degree in education from the Universidad de la Empresa-UDE. Contact: [email protected]

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