SANTOS, José Ribeiro dos 
SANTOS, José Ribeiro dos. The new challenges which the Didactics must propose and Implement in Brazilian classroom. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. Year 01, Ed. 01, vol. 11, pp. 159-174 December 2016. ISSN: 2448-0959
New challenges the old paradigms, a widespread complaints from schools and College is that students can't hold more than the way the teacher of the class, complains of boredom and the distance from the content of the classes with the daily reality. From the methodological point of view the educator must learn to balance organizational processes and other activities included in this context, expertise to deal with the use of technology to monitor accurately the development of student in large ways, using virtual and its tools. The objective of this study is to verify the current changes proposed in the national literature in the period of 2000 to 2014 for the continuous improvement of teaching and learning in the classroom brazilian. Search method literature review. The results indicate that the professional competence of a teacher lies in mainly in the preparation of a synthesis, increasingly, between the clarity of the scientific goals to be achieved and sensitivity for the situation of students. With that concluded that the teaching is the primary tool to acquire and expand their scientific expertise, and that your form of applicability will depend on the degree of knowledge and managerial competence not only of the professor, but of management processes common to all.
Keywords: Professor, challenges and teaching classroom.
New challenges the old paradigms, a widespread complaints from schools and College is that students can't hold more than the way the teacher of the class, complains of boredom and the distance from the content of the classes with the daily reality. The computer has brought a number of new features, making quicker and easier. Expected many changes in education, but the media has always been incorporated marginally. And the school continued predominantly oral and written. If process changes quickly through the disbelief in
School as a major factor in the formation and cultural preservation of individuals and groups. Today with the evolution of technology and the internet, we can learn in many ways and in different places in a different way from conventional. But it's still school the certifier in the teaching and learning process. According to Moran, he says today teaching and learning being a challenge like never before.
To meet the teaching in the classroom is necessary to stimulate the pedagogical practice and the positive aspects, emphasizing the importance of the achievements, by actually Instrumenting and empowering the educator professional development continued.
The German pedagogue Schimied Kowarzik calls the pedagogy of science, being of theory and practice of education. Investigate theoretically the educational phenomenon, formulates guidelines for practice from the own action, proposing principles and norms related to the purposes and the means of education. According to (Libâneo, 2006), the blur between the terms "teaching activity and administrative organizational activity '' (correlatadas management). In this way is not only pedagogical activity mischaracterized, but also the organizational activity.
There are many ways to discuss these issues, especially among the organizational forms of the capitalist process of production and forms of work organisation in each institution, there is another way to better understand this issue, investments and changes in educational policies of the country, that encourage and facilitate the processes of school management. The internet decreased distance and allowed the transport of information one way. According to (AHMAD, 2001), the current conceptions of education indicate the urgency of seeking not only theoretical methodological bases, but the construction of educational thinking more in tune with the demands of the new times.
Leaving traditional school model and through the new school model and palas Libertarias and Liberating the pedagogies Libâneo author will showing the basics of education the light of different didactic-pedagogic proposals, allowing the reader Discover the educator learning, education of a student and teacher of the interactions that supports. "The professional identity of teachers is thus seen as a social construct marked by multiple factors that integrate with each other, resulting in a series of representations that the
Teachers make of themselves and of their functions, establishing conscious and unconscious, negotiations of which certainly are part their life stories, their concrete working conditions the imaginary applicant about this profession. (AGRAWAL, 2005; VARGAS, 2007).
In the process of continuing education, the studies presented by some authors show that the professional training of education are necessary and contribute to the formation of researchers and educators with best conditions of theory and practice, aiming the production of new research in education that incorporate this theme.
Traditionally the formation of school educators come covering three dimensions of teaching practice to know, sabre and know-how favouring other according to the philosophical conception of the educational process that adopt (SOUZA, 2010).
For a long time emphasized the know-how in mind, i.e. the positive personal characteristics of the educator have taken the neutrality of teaching practice that values a missing professor, now a personal political or religious commitment, so engaging that dissolves the specificity of school education-knowledge and know-how.
Studies pointed to by Libâneo (2007), says that inaccuracies and conceptual ambiguities pointed out in the resolution of the CNE bring serious consequences for professional training, the limitation of the development of pedagogical theories arising from the distortion of the theoretical field investigative pedagogy and the professional experience of the expert pedagogue disappearance of studies of pedagogy in the course of pedagogy, leading to the abandonment of pedagogical fundamentals necessary for teacher reflection about your practice. The first consequence is that the distortion of the theoretical field of pedagogy and professional activity of educationalist limits and weakens the investigation within the framework of pedagogic science.
The pedagogy of competences has been presented by its proponents as able to establish new educational practices committed to raising the knowledge level of workers, with the development of human potential and with the need to overcome the duality between work and education, the force that takes this notion currently serving as reference element for forms in educational policies and for the management of personnel in companies. (Milk, 2005).
Teaching and learning concepts are rethought from this new reality and the idea of developing skills, as this idea would be requiring the breakup with the type of training geared towards the work prescribed in tayloristas. The speeches and political mobilization around the free public school tend to become harmless if they are not followed.
We must meet the provisions of the student in sociocultural and psychological terms, in order that they be conquered your interests, your collaboration and training, contributing to the changes in the brazilian education, seeking to do the social educator. The changes occur constantly through the interaction of each other. The society has a proper motion, a regularity, a pace of change that is stronger than the will or plans of individual policies.
The reality is that today you can't teach and not learn as before, because the concepts of competencies require training of ability to be in a position to respond by not prescribed, the ability to anticipate the problem facing requiring to that the mobilization of large dimensions of subjectivity of society in General. Studies by (MARQUES, 2010), indicate some aspects in need of improvement, confrontation and commitment on the part of teachers, a time when the capitalist society aims to the treatment and care of the production system. In its conclusions the importance of continuing education as a means to offer the teacher upgrading and social education needed in order to provide quality training for educators, mainly the elderly, following that does not receive Special attention during the initial training programmes (graduation) in pedagogy.
Management of Daily Practices
Second (SILVA, 2009), questions about what do educators feel satisfied in everyday practice, these educators point to the fact that their speeches provide an improvement in quality of life for them. Thereby makes use of vocational training and still acquire learnings in the relationship established in the performance of your function. There are maybe the sense of continuity of magnification of that experience. In relation to dissatisfaction with the practice, the salary earned in demonstrations highlights of social Educators, generally are low usually blamed for not allowing the teacher enjoy a satisfactory standard of living, still considered as obstacle to investment in educational and professional training (GERHARDT, 2006).
In spite of the evident necessity large parts of educators was limited to basic training, not investing in skills development for educational work. Fit the social educator responsibility for a choice that shows the place where you put on the situations of adversity. The complaint, lack leads to sameness.
Requiring the search for processes of changes that in a sense the notion of identity, as guide of metamorphosis. According to (Gerhardt, 2006), a socio-cognitive perspective the concept of frame of recognition that all construction is onslaught a prescription and so should always be in negotiation between the interlocutors to achieve your goal of transmitting information. The proposal to break the monolithic speaker relationship-listener to cart a redefinition of the status of peculiar to the school environment, interactions between students, teachers, and between teachers and direction. As well as the forms of content review.
School management, a modern classroom.
In the distant past, religious children and common sense were the only sources of legitimate knowledge to interpret the world. The observation of nature brought an understanding you need about the universe and subjective interpretations, were valid until proved otherwise. For which a knowledge is valid in the modern world need to be scientifically proven.
The teacher and the student in the modern industrialized world, undergo educational paradigm rational or tecno systemic. The learner undergoes the educator's policies and expectations. According to (SOUZA, 2007), the construction of scientific knowledge required the separation of body and subject and object, theory and practice, exact sciences and human sciences.
Monarchies have had your heyday in the 20th century. The student in this context, is one that follows the order of the authority of the teacher who knows everything. Today the requirement of industrial technological development paradigm and the numerous ways and sources to acquire knowledge leading to the restructuring of society models who fitted the requirement of present-day modernity.
Studies by (VILLAGE, 2001) shows that it is not enough to just the selection of a set of information and theories to be deposited in the learner, such as in education. The selection of content aimed at the organisation of knowledge to be built during the discipline in order to guide the student in the pursuit of your learning, meeting the objectives proposed for each unit.
According to the law n° 9394/96 guidelines and national education Base of 20 December 1996 (give 23.12.96), which establishes the guidelines and education based on clause 1 says that education encompasses the formative processes that develop in family life , on human coexistence, at work, in educational institutions and research, social movements and civil society organizations and in the cultural manifestations. Already the article 3 establishes the principles and purposes of education are they.
|I-equal conditions for access and permanence in school; |
II-freedom to learn, teach, research and promote the culture, thought, and art;
III-pluralism of ideas and pedagogical conceptions;
IV-freedom and appreciation the tolerance;
V-coexistence of public and private educational institutions;
VI-free public education in official establishments;
VII-professional enhancement of school education;
VIII-democratic management of public education, in the form of this law and the legislation of the education systems;
IX-ensuring quality standards;
X-value of extracurricular existence;
XI-binding between school education, work and social practices.
(MINISTRY OF EDUCATION)
As the technique of teaching-learning (SILVA, 2009), places that an alternative to the promotion of learning would be the variation techniques; another would be the introduction of innovations in existing or known techniques in order to better serve the teaching in schools and universities today. Another important concept would be the merge between the interlocutors that characterizes all human action, namely, the pursuit of the intentions of each other based on their observations. From a teaching perspective, throughout the history of education, is visible to the perception that the teaching-learning process consists in inseparable theories and practices. The aim of this study is to verify the current changes proposed in the national literature in the period of 2000 to 2014 for the continuous improvement and effective teaching and learning in the classroom brazilian.
2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
This is a literature review research, integrative. With the theoretical basis the data survey conducted on sources like: Lilacs, Scielo, Bireme, and textbooks. For this study were used the descriptors: teacher, challenges & didactic and classroom. When using the described cited were found 30 articles that were available in Portuguese language, of those articles being one of doctoral thesis. Initially check was made of the titles, authors and abstracts, in order to separate the repeated publications, then were teased all publications found and selected the articles inherent to the subject. Twelve articles were discarded, for not meeting the goals of the study and the other articles were used after the lifting of the citations and subsequent fingerprinting whose description answered the objectives of the proposed study.
3. Results and discussions
The professional competence of a teacher lies in mainly in the preparation of a synthesis, increasingly, between the clarity of the scientific goals to be achieved and sensitivity for the situation of students (your degree, your knowledge and its effective possibilities of evolution. Reduced the time that the teacher has to draw up a synthesis between their perceptions and their goals.
With this teaching reveals an intent to produce learning know that after Piaget, can't understand teaching as simple appropriation of content, information or a knowledge attitude, the assimilator Act in essence of learning legitimate matches intelligence mobilization that would result in progress in cognitive capacity increased to meet or learn. Should be a critical mode of developing an educational practice of a historic project that will not only by the Educator, but along with educating and other members of the various sectors of society (Smith, 2009).
The educational research that emerge from joint planning, between professor and researcher of educational strategic or technological tools that can be used in
Classrooms, promoting learning, has been emphasized by those who propose or who cares about the need for theory and practice in the formation of the educator. (LUCKESI, 1989), States that the didactic to assume a significant role in the formation of the educator, must change their directions. Should be a key link between the philosophical and political options of education, the vocational content and the exercise of a shift of education.
There is today some dispute the educational research with regard to your application, the training of teachers in universities researchers constitutes itself as a mediator between the research process and the practices applied. Studies by (OLIVEIRA, 2009), noted that the exploitation of teaching language used by teachers in the classroom includes various knowledge, the theoretical assumption that the scientific language develops scientific thinking and with the complexity of this development, it becomes a valuable tool for development of cognitive processes and guides the construction of knowledge itself.
The action of reflection comprises an inseparable whole, unless it's for a logical understanding and teaching the process. This disintegrate between theory and practice are interesting to holders of power, because that can make decisions, leaving the performers just like making decisions without never permit interference on what to do.
Although the constants have been positive changes in the area of education, there are still many challenges to be overcome in favor of brazilian education, there should be multiple integralidades of educational and social policies, with the collective interest of population. One of the ways or challenges would provide resources and investments for the continuing education of the educator. The educator because of the role he takes towards society and the responsibility he attributed should be better remunerated. Is it the responsibility of raising the interest of educating, formulate strategic goals proposed according to the educational plan in effect to each educational institution
Studies conducted by (milk, 2005) indicate that the teacher's reflection in looking at your practice and analyzes it with an external observer interlocutor contributes to learning and especially because of the difficulty of learning identified in the behavior of students, to carry out the proposed activities. The understanding of the complexity of the educational process, leading to realize that there is no cause isolated to your failure or success, but a number of factors that can bring it, and the professor conducting strategic managing way needs, the possible causes.
Since the first literacy movements in Brazil, the majority of these professionals had no training in teaching, being called the lay teachers. It is noted that in 1824, with the Constitution under strong European influence has formalized the warranty of a primary instrument and free for every citizen, but little or nothing case was conducted in terms of education during the Empire period.
The Constitution of 1834 and the regulatory function of higher education under the responsibility of the Crown, and the elementary and secondary education under the responsibility of the provinces. And in 1867, only 10% of elementary-age population was enrolled. From the middle of 1910, the managers began to indicate the need to invest in the construction of spaces reserved for the operation of schools that meet the requirements of lighting, ventilation, adequate location and on aesthetics (LUCHESE, 2012).
The question of access to higher education in Brazil, assumes short foray into the history of higher education, in order to identify and delimit some trajectory directly or indirectly, setting of universities had a model of the University, Central countries, and is found in public and private INSTITUTIONS of HIGHER EDUCATION. Since your advent, higher education in the country was focused on the children of the families in the social and economic elite. In Brazil Colony, young people were sent to study in European universities, especially in Coimbra and Portugal. With rare exceptions, few young people coming from disadvantaged families could attend courses via the entrance into religious life and arrival of the Portuguese court.
According to the census, Brazil has 6.5 million undergraduate, being 6.3 million in undergraduate and graduate school 173,000. The growth of enrollments in 2010 was 7.1% compared to the year 2009, according to data from the Census of higher education disclosed. These students are enrolled in undergraduate Presential courses 29,507 and distance, distributed in 2,377 higher education institutions both public and private. In 2002, joined in undergraduate courses at universities and students in 148,800 Federal 2010, that number reached 302,300.
The census also showed that face-to-face and distance education serves people with different profiles. The average age of the students enrolled in
Courses, for example, is 26 years old and in distance education, 33 years. The distance education grows and reaches another audience that otherwise might not have access to higher education.
Enrollment in the federal institutions of higher education on the night shift went positively in the last ten years. Were above 20% and reached, in 2010, 28.4% on classroom courses, the offer of enrolment in courses on the night shift increased from 56.1% in 2000 to 63.5% in 2010, according to data from the Census of higher education published by the National Institute of Educational Studies and research (Inep).
Census shows that the average profile of professor of public institution is male, average age of 44 years, Brazilian, with a doctorate and a full-time job. Private institutions also dominated by men, an average of 34 years, Brazilians, with a master's degree and working regime horista — get paid according to the workload and unique teaching function. It is necessary to point out that in addition to the changes in the educational, political and social processes there must be favorable conditions and experience of your application by the person who elaborates the planning, applies and evaluates the results.
In the last 20 years, Brazil has seen a remarkable growth process of your higher education. In the early 90 's, were joined by 1,540,080 students enrolled in higher education in Brazil. That number jumped to 2,694,245 students in 2000 and to 6,379,299 in 2011. According to data from the Ministry of education.
Therefore, it is a paradox. The obvious and remarkable growth of higher education in Brazil, in absolute terms it is inadequate when confronted, in relative terms, the size and the expectations of the brazilian population. Despite the enormous increase in public and private investment in this level of education, there has been a reduction in the rate of growth of enrolment and the permanence of challenges and problems.
Another issue raised by the author Libâneo is that there are several types of teachers in elementary school. The most traditional content in broadcast material that is in the textbook. His classes are always the same, the method of teaching is almost the same for all subjects, regardless of age and individual and social characteristics of the students.
Since the structure of the course of pedagogy, in 1939, there was always the concern with the legal and administrative aspects of the school, usually seen in the discipline of school administration.
It is concluded that the teaching is the primary tool to acquire and expand their scientific expertise, and that your form of applicability will depend on the degree of knowledge and managerial competence not only of the professor, but of management processes common to all.
The amount of scientific information available is large and growing. The guidelines based on systematic reviews, are means which allows information to be transformed into knowledge, i.e. assembled and critically evaluated organized. Are the resources that have already been published on the topic with a vision of many authors, being extremely useful for decision making and your use in the field of didactics.
Although the constants have been positive changes in the area of education, there are still many challenges to be overcome in favor of brazilian education, there should be multiple integralidades of educational and social policies, with the collective interest of population.
The light of the uncertainties of the educational policy takes place in continuous improvement, expansion and extension of social and educational projects that enable the interaction between teacher and learner, giving you freedom of choice when performing the tasks imposed by the educator. Although the short term expect greater knowledge of the teacher your content area and the area of their transmission, in order to guarantee technical competence and contribution of learning.
It is important to note that communication is another important factor in the process of learning, the teacher needs to know to understand what students say or do. And students need to understand what the teacher seeks to tell them. To do so, you need to know and analyze how to interrelate the educational policies, the organisation and management of schools and pedagogical practices in the classroom.
The teacher can't be content just to develop knowledge and skills to have a good performance in the classroom, you need to be aware of the school system and see beyond. There was thus a democratic Transformation of a generic approach to education of a school and practical education, however, question whether the change occurred only in the approach/understanding of the object; If the object of study of discipline continued to be the school and the organisation of teaching and even where the laws and the documents constitute the basic axis of the seizure of the school and vocational education.
Educational and organizational policies we see today are directly related to economic, political, cultural transformations and qualifying the geographical world today. With this it turns out that without investment in education means nothing to have a teacher with revolutionary ideas if you don't involve the whole of society, parents and students in the process of implementation of improvements.
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 Master of science in education from the Universidad Politécnica y Artística Del Paraguay. Professor of the post-graduate faculty associated with Brazil. High school teaching specialist, technical and higher. Nurse emergency specialist, urgent and emergency specialist with an emphasis on APH. The Faculty of medical sciences of Santa Casa de São Paulo