Didactic: A Dialectic in the formation of the educator in the Teaching of higher education

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SILVA, Daniela Santos Landim [1]

SILVA, Daniela Santos Landim. Didactic: A Dialectic in the formation of the educator in the Teaching of higher education. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. 03 year, Ed. 06, vol. 03, pp. 158-165, June 2018. ISSN:2448-0959

Summary

This article arises based on analysis of bibliographical references, authors of reference within the Didactic study, with the objective of recognizing the role of the discipline of Teaching in higher education; analyze the prospects of didactics in teacher training; identify the characteristics of teaching; question the dialectic within the didactic and deduce the different critical thinking educators. Teaching requires a good professional practice with specific expertise to increase them, according to the acquisition of knowledge to improve the quality of teaching. The word didactics includes a technique to direct and guide the learning process. And as object of study the teaching-learning process. Are through the teaching which develops the educational processes. After all every educator is primarily a human able to your historical practice and transform an educational context. In addition, the educator must have commitment to education, because the role of didactics is first and foremost to facilitate teaching and learning. The didactics is the spring capable of delivering the excitement of teaching, so that the teacher will make a difference, opening paths to desire to learn of the learner. The teaching before everything is a science whose objective is to address the teaching strategies, methodology of teaching and learning, working as transforming element of theory and practice. On the other hand the professor form a professional educator for future generations in the country capable of forming a more just and egalitarian society.

Keywords: teaching, Educator, higher education, Didactics.

Introduction

The word originates from Greek Didactic techné didaktiké which translates to teach art. In which the first ideas have emerged in Central Europe. From the two studies Ratíquio and Comênio the educators with a didactic based ethical-religious ideas. "The Didactics studies the objectives, contents, means and conditions of the teaching process in vista educational purposes, which are always social, she is based in Pedagogy; This is how a pedagogical discipline "(LIBÂNEO, 2013, p. 13-14). That often is not yet valued by other fields of knowledge. What emerges are points of criticism by many educators.

According to Rays (2009, p. 51) "the didactic teaching can be critical in many ways. One of them is represented in highly mechanistic character that this discipline comes taking in recent years, in the name of objectivity and scientific theories of teaching ". Fits open new studies for the emergence of new vision and educational design.

The teacher is a professional who support all the other professions of a developing country. Whatever the level of professional activity of the faculty, will acquire peculiar characteristic to the school level (children, elementary, middle and upper) that the same act without losing your identity.

With this, the dialectic of University teaching is still relevant in the world, Brazil is the responsibility of top-level institutions, prepare teachers trained to pursue teaching. According to Rays (2009)

Didactic teaching will become possible only if you have as background the brazilian educational reality that is nothing more than a reflection of the brazilian social reality which is nothing more than a reflection of social reality the immediate, where your contractions are every increasingly complex (RAYS, 2009, p. 44).

So it's worth knowing the role of Didactics in the formation of the educator and take into account the reality and overcome the questioning that arises within the educational process. "Its specificity is guaranteed by the concern with understanding of the teaching-learning process and the search for forms of intervention in pedagogical practice" (BARBOSA, 2011. p. 12). Is through a critical design builds cognitive knowledge within psychology perspective.

This article aims to: recognize the role of the discipline of Teaching in higher education; analyze the prospects of Didactics in teacher training; identify the characteristics of teaching; question the dialectic within the Didactics; deduce the different critical thinking educators. Within this context the study emerged based on analysis of bibliographical references, authors of reference within the topic treated. This is divided into two sections. At first this featured teaching of higher education and on Monday proposed a dialectical conception of the role of didactics in teacher training in higher education.

Characteristic of the teaching of higher education

In the default direction of the word teaching is the work of teachers. Is the Act that goes beyond teaching class. "In the etymological sense, teaching has its roots in Latin, docere, meaning teach, instruct, show, indicate, imply" (VEIGA, 2006. p. 85).

But teaching is assigned a more complex teaching for professional practice with three characteristics necessary for teaching: teaching (teaching), research, administration of various sectors of the institution (ZABALZA, apud 2004 VEIGA, 2006). And Veiga (2006) adds still more an academic orientation: monographs, theses, dissertations etc.

However the LDB-Law of national education Bases and Guidelines give the following tasks art. 13 teachers.

I – participate in the drafting of the proposal's pedagogical educational establishment;

II-develop and fulfill work plan, according to the proposal the pedagogical educational establishment;

III – to ensure the students ' learning;

IV-establish recovery strategies for students of lower income;

V-teaching the school days and teaching hours laid down, in addition to participate fully of the periods devoted to planning, evaluation and professional development;

Vi – collaborate with the activities of the school with families and the community.

However the teaching requires a good professional practice with specific expertise to increase them, according to the acquisition of knowledge to improve the quality of education. Graduate College educators aims, achieve the importance of teaching, providing the importance of teaching with scientific-pedagogic knowledge to address fundamental issues of the University.

Dialectical conception of the role of didactics in teacher training in higher education

The word didactics includes a technique to direct and guide the learning process. And as object of study the teaching-learning process. It is through teaching that develops the educational processes. The role of didactics in teacher training is much discussed within the pedagogical point of view, the methodology that the teacher uses, must follow a plan in order to achieve the goals of education. The teaching is an important structuring element of your method.

In addition, Teaching has an important role when it comes to curricular components. As for the technical dimension of education that the teacher takes to improve and organize the teaching-learning process. Based on instrumental objectives as the selection of the content, methodology and evaluation etc. form a set of concerns of the educator. According to Candau (2009)

However, when this dimension is decoupled from other technique, has been the technicality. The technical dimension is privileged, parsed so dissociated from their socio-political and ideological roots, and seen as something "neutral" and merely instrumental. The question of "do" the pedagogical practice and dissociated from the questions about the "why" and the "why" and analyzed so often abstract and not contextualized (CANDAU, 2009, p. 15, emphasis added by the author).

In this way the professor goes to the classroom if finding the authority, with the role of trainer, which is superior to the form. The fact that he's an expert, master doctor, who owns the knowledge and thinking that the student for adulthood has a mindset formed and is able to assimilate all the information provided. It does not parse the your students, is not worried about being "neutral" and "instrumental". The same has to know the why, what and how to improve the education of students.

However "the challenge of the moment: the overcoming of an exclusively instrumental teaching and the construction of a fundamental teaching" (CANDAU, 2009, p. 24). Capable of a social transformation based on pedagogical practices that form a quality education to population. Within political and human dimensions in relation to thematic content, seeking methods of forming the educational praxis.

However the educational practice is merely no pleasure from what you do, because it was a lack of options accordingly will not be well developed, and not reach the goals pursued by the teaching process. Many educators make the tiring, repetitive instruction, not absorbed by alunados. At the top level the school avoidance are great educational institutions. Due to various reasons, one of them is the great retention of disciplines in the course, because the inevitable disapproval by some teachers who even think nice disapprove the your student.  There are those who simply doesn't make it your practice to others are completely neutral with respect to Didactics of teacher-student relationship, others who spend years and years and using the same method, others take the teaching in the form of a joke, others are authoritarian regimes that are still in the process traditionalist in which the teacher talks and the student only listen. Based on this I wonder if the problem is the Didactic? Second Luckesi (2009, p. 28),

is that educational practice may not be, in any way, a bureaucratic practice (or Pro-bureaucrat). She has to be an action committed ideologically and effectively. Can't do without education "passion". Act on education, as a bureaucrat is to make the game of decisions of others; often, decisions that not even the agent would accept it was conscious. In this case, would be working for an outdoor project, that was forged in dialectical practice of everyday life (LUCKESI, 2009, p. 28, emphasis added).

However, the hierarchical pyramid should not be present within the teaching and learning, because the teacher never ready, your preparation is formed through this dialectic of everyday life and through the analysis of their practices. At the same time teach is taught, updating with respect to the new school. It is through this new school that the teacher is the Advisor of knowledge.

As features Luckesi (2009, p. 26) that "the role of didactics – is intended to an end – the formation of the educator". After all every educator is primarily a human able to your historical practice turn a educational context. In addition, the educator must have commitment to education, because the role of didactics is first and foremost to facilitate teaching and learning. The teaching agent acts didactically when guides and accompanies its students, and not just push content and more content without giving the student space, assimilate and build their own knowledge.  Luckesi (2009, p. 27) says: "as a subject of the story, including the educator, the real educator, as a human being who builds, stone unturned, the historic project of development of the people".

Therefore, the didactics is the spring capable of delivering the excitement of teaching, so that the teacher will make a difference, opening paths to desire to learn of the learner. The Teaching before everything is a science whose objective is to address the teaching strategies, teaching and learning methodology, functioning as transforming element of theory and practice.

Thus in higher education Didactics becomes a mechanism of preparation of the educator. By transmitting moral and cognitive content, but that can be perceived within the teaching and a deficit in the latter, since many are only interested in scientific content transmission moralizantes. Luckesi (2009) says:

I think the didactics, to assume a significant role in the formation of the educator, must change their directions. Cannot be reduced and devote himself solely to teaching means and mechanisms by which they can develop a teaching-learning process, but is expected to be a key link between philosophical-political options of education, the contents training and seniority exercise of education. Cannot continue being an appendix of mechanical and technological guidelines (LUCKESI, 2009, p. 33).

But it is up to each teacher educator use of Didactic way involving the teach and learn together with the pedagogical conditions, educational practices with the education proposal. "The Teaching is an applied technology that builds and develops as a result of" science studies, such as Psychology, biology and sociology, among others, present on the problems of teaching and learning "(SANTOS, 2009, p. 41). The challenge is to overcome the individuality of every science studied, the more notes of professional experts, is the only valuation of scientific contents of the courses and the devaluation of the pedagogical disciplines. Fit get overcome this problem because you're not a teacher without teaching. Search for pick up between the sciences multidisciplinarity. In the opinion of Rays (2009);

Didactic developed discipline currently in teacher training courses features a striking feature for your content to emphasize a strictly practical concerns. Your current approach rarely exceeds the technical dimension of education (RAYS, 2009, p. 44).

These contents can be summarized in planning, implementation and evaluation of teaching. As concerns psicopedagógicas of isolated form the goal of didactic teaching.  The didactics discusses and challenges the social and educational, through rules and regulations, in order to extract the theoretical subsidies for the birth of instructional media with linking the development of didactical situations real. With your origin in the dialectic between the teach Act and the Act of learning that appears within a society. "I'm guessing, a didactic ACTION PHILOSOPHY DIALECTICS" (RAYS, 2009, p. 52, emphasis added).

However listed the goals and tasks of teaching within the society. The Teaching is based on a humanist and social design, with social, political and educational purposes within the school education in the light of the reality of the Brazilian State.

Final considerations

The Didactic plays an important role within the top-level education, although still not as valued in other areas of study such as human, however it is through the study of this "Science" or "technique" that can meet strategies to be used by the teacher in order to facilitate the process of teaching-learning and using the methodologies and teaching passed by her that the teacher can provide an environment that stimulates and encourages the formation of critical thinking and cognitive student. In addition, the teacher within the reality of today's knowledge Advisor within the process of social change and throughout your life.

The application of teaching of multidisciplinary form within the perspectives of education, she cannot be studied individually, not to call it neutral. As today is still treated by many teachers. She is characterized as a mediator between the scientific-theoretical bases of school education and the teaching practice.

On the other hand the professor form a professional educator for future generations of the country. Capable of forming a more just and egalitarian society. Some teachers may have the gift of being teachers, but the art of teaching and methodological techniques that shape teaching are found only with the study of didactics. On vocational training for the teaching profession requires a solid theoretical and practical training through a conception of man and society based within the brazilian reality. Didactic's commitment is to seek the quality thinking and cognitive learning. In addition, should provide inspiration and creativity for the teaching and understanding the psycho-pedagogical dimension.

Bibliographical references

BARBOSA, Jane Rangel Alves. Teaching in higher education. In: _ _ _ _ _. Didactics of higher education. 2. Ed. Curitiba: Brazil IESDF. S. a. 2011. 11-15. Available in: <https: books.google.com.br/books?id="iYFQRUZy1FoC&printsec=frontcover&dq=dID%C3%81TICA+do+ensino+superior&hl=pt-BR&sa=X&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAWoVChMIjYzmve2NxgIV07KACh14CwBU#v=onepage&q=dID%C3%81TICA%20do%20ensino%20superior&f=false">.</https:> Access in: 13 jun. 2015 at 21:52.

CANDAU, Vera Maria. (Org.) The teaching and training of educators-the exaltation to denial: the pursuit of relevance. In: _ _ _ _ _. The Didactics in question. 29. Ed. Rio de Janeiro: Voices, 2009. p. 13-24.

LDB-Law of Guidelines and Bases for national educatio[recurso eletrônico]n: Law No. 9,394 of December 20, 1996, which establishes the guidelines and bases for national education. -9. Ed.-London: the House of representatives, House, 2014. Available at: <http: bibliodigital.unijui.edu.br:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/2335/ldb%209.ed..pdf?sequence="1">accessed on october 7 of 2014 at 16:13.</http:>

LIBÂNEO, José Carlos. Didactics. 2. Ed. São Paulo: Cortez, 2013. 288 p.

Cipriano LUCKESI, Carlos. The role of didactics in the formation of the educator. In: CANDAU, Vera Maria. (Org.) The Didactics in question. 29. Ed. Rio de Janeiro: Voices, 2009. p. 25-34.

Rays, Osvaldo Alonso. Theoretical assumptions for the teaching of didactics. In: CANDAU, Vera Maria. (Org.) The Didactics in question. 29. Ed.  Rio de Janeiro: Voices, 2009. p. 43-52.

Carlos Alberto dos Santos. Theoretical assumptions of didactics. In: CANDAU, Vera Maria. (Org.) The Didactics in question. 29. Ed. Rio de Janeiro: Voices, 2009. p. 37-42.

VEIGA, Ilma Alencastro Steps. University teaching in higher education. In: RISTOFF, Pragyan (Org.); SEVEGNANI, Palmira (Org.). Teaching in higher education: education in debate. 5 v. Brasília; INEP, 2006. p. 85-96. Available in: <http: www.unifra.br/utilitarios/arquivos/arquivos_prograd/doc%c3%aancia%20da%20edu%20superior.pdf="">.</http:> Access in: 01 jun. 2015 at 16:47.

[1] Degree in Biological Sciences – UESPI; Biochemistry-FLATED; Master in education-Anne Sullivan University.

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