The Importance of Continuing Education and its Relation to Teaching Practice

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CRUZ, Evandro Costa [1]

COSTA, Deuzeli Brandão da [2]

CRUZ, Evandro Costa; COSTA, Deuzeli Brandão da. The Importance of Continuing Education and its Relation to Teaching Practice. Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal. Edition 08. Year 02, Vol. 03. pp. 42-58, November 2017. ISSN:2448-0959

ABSTRACT

The present work has as its theme the importance of continuing education and its relationship with teaching practice, addressing the processes that positively and negatively influence the practice of continuing education. This research was based on bibliographical references, articles and other scientific material, this research presents several points of view of theorists who studied and talked about pedagogical practice, continuing education and its importance within the educational field. The purpose of this work is to expose the importance of the professional to study more and more. When it comes to continuing education, we are referred to the professional qualification, continuing the studies and evaluating our competences. With the dynamics of the modern world the professional, in this case the teacher, who is always in search of continuous training, as well as the quest to improve their skills tends to broaden their field of work. Based on this principle and reflective thinking, this work aims to contribute with more clarification and exposition of new ideas to the new teachers and researchers who seek to improve their pedagogical practice each day, making them aware of the difficulties encountered and how to solve them. process of continuing education.

Keywords: Continuing Teacher Education, Reflective Teaching Practice, Professional Training.

1. INTRODUCTION

Since the beginning of civilization the social modes, the market demands in general have undergone many transformations, where professionals need more and more specific habilities and improved to perform the function, in the area of ​​education this process is not different, because each new challenges to be faced and the teacher must be able to solve them.

The present work was developed on the viewpoint of the teachers who work in the municipality of Cantá Roraima, the initial motivation was built in the face of the difficulties of the teachers of the mentioned municipality in taking courses of continuous formation. Because they live nearby, have friends who work and live in the place and for being feasible the research work, was proposed to research the problems situations in the area of ​​educational practice and to present possible solutions.

The theme of the importance of continuing education and its relationship with teaching practice came from the follow-up and reports of friends who live and work in Cantá, how difficult they are to take continuing education courses and how to solve certain situations that appear in the day in and day out in the classroom.

This article aims to research and describe, through theoretical analysis, the importance of continuing education in the educational field.

From this point on, the specific objectives were: Describe the importance of continuing education for primary school teachers; show that the teacher should take a reflexive and critical position on educational practices; understand that the teaching profession must be based on the curricular proposals of education.

Has the problematization occurred in knowing the conception that the teachers have about the continuous formation and the relation of the continuous improvement with the pedagogical practice?

Starting from this precept the continuous formation presents as another opportunity to solve, or at least, to soften situations that present themselves to the teacher inside and outside the school.

The authors Hengemuhle, Ferreira, Paulo Freire, Christov and Romanowski, were the main suppliers of conceptions for this research, since they have several experiences on the subject.

2. A BRIEF HISTORICAL TRAINING OF TEACHERS IN BRAZIL

The formation of teachers and education began with the arrival of the Jesuits in Brazil, located on the coast and from there they entered the indigenous villages and were founding convents and colleges. In this first moment, he began to catechize the natives and offer a differentiated education for the elite.

According to Saviani (2008, 27).

[…] the education established in the context of the colonization process, is, of course, acculturation, since the traditions and customs that are sought to inculcate are derived from an external dynamism, that is, that goes from the cultural environment of the colonizer to the situation of object of colonization.

The education in this period was directed to make the indigenous people internalize the European culture making of them an object of colonization under the elitist domain.

The training of teachers in this period was already a cause for concern, since everyone should be prepared to perform the function according to the situations that arose.

Hengemuhle (2008, page 75) apud Captain (1984) makes the following placement:

The order of the Jesuits implemented plans for the preparation of teachers, "so that their teachers received the most perfect training possible to enable them for their task." Methods of instruction should be absolute absolutes for all teachers: variation from the established standard would ruin your entire system. In order to ensure efficiency in this immutable system, teachers should be trained with the utmost precision. The order of the Jesuits should be attributed to the introduction of the practice of teacher training, and their methods of preparation can be studied for application in all teacher training institutions.

The Jesuits knew of the importance of educating teachers, so they created a model of formation that would serve all and that lasted for several years. It is worth mentioning that during this period the Jesuits possessed complete mastery over the school curriculum, emphasizing the enrichment and development of a minority, even if implicitly, on the other hand, favoring the ruling class.

According to Zotti (2004: 30), "from the Jesuits to Pombal, education was marked by the basic objective of the formation of the ruling elite of colonial society."

Since education was aimed at the elite, teacher training should be manipulated to meet such interests, so it realizes that education was directed according to the identity and social class of the student, just as the teaching had its hidden and different intentions according to social classes, the objective of the modernization of education in the mold of European education was aimed at favoring the nobility and meeting the needs of the state.

According to Zotti (2004, p. 27) apud (Xavi[…]er, 1994), "this mismatch between colonial development and metropolitan decay will be the main trigger of the so-called Pombaline reforms." The Enlightenment ideas were divergent from the proposals implanted by the teaching of the Jesuits, so Marquis of Pombal brought changes for the education of the colony.

The next change in the formation of teachers occurs with the arrival of the royal family in Brazil, at the moment Portugal was experiencing financial difficulties and overloaded its colony by charging high taxes, since the activity of mineral extraction in Brazil was on the rise.

The training of teachers was directed toward the teaching of the court and to the needs of the state, according to Zotti (2004, p.3[…]5), "the creation of higher courses, aimed at the state machine was the frame of reference of the related changes the education".

In that period, teaching was already fragmented where each discipline was taught by a teacher. According to Zotti (2004: 28[…]), "the royal classes based on encyclopaedism constituted units of teaching, with a single teacher, installed for a particular discipline, which should replace the disciplines offered in the Jesuit colleges."

Teaching goes into decadence in Brazil, because at that time did not have enough masters to meet the demand, that is, created vacancies for teachers, but was insufficient to occupy the space that was empty.

With the proclamation of the republic, a new model of government based on presidentialism emerged. The first proposal of change in education was the gratuitousness of teaching and without connection with the religion that had been proposed since the colonial period. In 1942, the Organic Law Decree-Law No. 4,073, of January 20, regulating Industrial Education was created, in articles 3, 4, and 5, express the purposes of education. "Art. 3º Industrial education should meet the interests of the worker, carrying out his professional preparation and human training. (Brazil, 1942).

In the aforementioned law, we can see the objectivity of the curriculum aimed at training the citizen for work, it is easy to see the concern of training in the human and evaluative sense of the individual, but the training of teachers is not seen as a priority nor expressed in context.

3. CONTINUED TRAINING IN BRAZIL

The continued formation of teachers proved necessary since the beginning of Portuguese colonization and was not different in other historical periods, such as, for example, soon after the independence of Brazil, that to be a teacher it was enough to dominate the content that would teach.

Nagle (1990, p.102) states that:

Schooling was treated by public men and intellectuals who were at the same time "educators" at a time when educational matters were not yet sufficiently professionalized. Only in the final decade of the first republic will the situation change, with the appearance of the "technician" in schooling, the new professional category: this is going to deal with, almost exclusively, dealing with educational matters.

Among the intellectuals approached by the author, many worked part-time and taught at night or at the opposite time, this in urban schools while in the rural school units who held them were the owners of farms and the situation of the teachers were much worse.

Romanowski (2010, pp. 29-30) points out that "primary school teachers were, for the most part, laymen with little schoo[…]ling, most teachers did not have adequate training."

This reality changed as education began to be understood as a public function until it became a national problem. From there begins the process of creating schools with the responsibility of training teachers.

According to Castro (2002, p.[…]11) "in general, the evolution of Normal Teaching was slow and for many years limited to providing the teacher with short-term training."

Normal schools were the first to train teachers in the country, these teachers taught only in elementary education, but these schools were only primitive trials and were not successful, so the trained teachers were not well prepared to fill the practical students.

But before this shipwreck education model, a new model for teacher training was already discussed. With the creation of a secular and public educational system, education became the responsibility of the state, the expansion of schools began and the increase in the level of schooling of the population improved.

In 1930 two schools were prominent in teacher training, one in São Paulo, the University of São Paulo (USP) and the other in the Federal District, in Rio de Janeiro, the then capital of the country, the University of the Federal District (UDF) , these institutions formed teachers to teach at the higher level.

In 1939 the pedagogy course was created and organized according to the first Law of Guidelines and Bases of National Education (LDBEN) – Law 4,024 / 1961. The pedagogy course was created in two modalities: baccalaureate and licenciatura. The bachelor's course formed the technicians in education and in addition for the bachelors to be licensed simply to pay for the didactic subjects.  On the other hand, the degree course formed the teachers for the teaching of normal and secondary education.

In 1970 a minimal curriculum was created that contemplated the curricular curriculum of the course of pedagogy and with that there were several discursões contrarárias related to these changes.

According to Romanowski (2010, p.33) "the reformulation of normal courses at the secondary level, the abolition of short degrees, a new organization of undergraduate courses and pedagogy."

In this sense, to teach in the initial grades, the teacher would have to have the training, that is, enabled exclusively by the course of pedagogy. With this, teachers who did not fit the new legislation should adapt by completing it.

According to Gonçalves and Pimenta (1992, p.106), "the training of teachers for teaching in the four grades of elementary education began to be carried out through a professional qualification, among the numerous others that were regulated."

In this sense, there was a need for education to become a professional and for this the qualification of teachers was of paramount importance in order to regiment the exercise of the function. It could not be anyone, much less without having the basic domains of knowledge, or content and teaching methodologies to be ahead of a class.

In view of the above, he notes that teacher training becomes very important in the current context, in addition to the fact that professionals must continue studying and investing in their professional career.

3.1 The Importance of Teacher Training

The teacher training provided by the training agencies makes hundreds of teachers available on the market, leads to an education of many uncertainties, an appreciation of production and competition in various segments of life, and education is no different.

The role of teacher has often been distorted from the true teaching function, which is to teach.  According to Romanowski (2010: 17) "[…]we all know that the teacher is the one who teaches, who educates. But other people who teach and educate and who are not teachers, like, parents and religious. "

For the teacher is a professional trained to teach and assist in the construction of knowledge, but when he arrives at school he finds situations that make him change his job, such as calming, educating and being a psychologist.

In this same understanding, Hengemuhle (2008, p.85) apud Antunes (1998) makes the following statement:

The teacher leaves aside the responsibility of being a teacher of things to become something like a mental therapist, animator of learning, stimulator of intelligence that preaches and makes the student employ multiple operative skills.

Going further, in the face of so much indiscipline on the part of the students inside and outside the room, there is also the lack of interest in not wanting to study, involvement with drugs, among other issues.  These are some situations that the teacher has to deal with every day at school.

It is important to stress that in college we do not learn to deal with all these situations, many of them arise taking into consideration the environment in which we live.

In this context it is necessary to understand that teacher training in the scope of developing the knowledge, requires qualification, professional valorization and appropriate policies for the work of the teacher.

Freire (1996: 76) points out that: "another fundamental knowledge of educational experience is what it is neces[…]sary to know the different dimensions that characterize the essence of practice."

The teacher's experience helps him make the right decision for every problem situation, even though he is not a teacher, but sometimes he only has it, so he has no choice but to try to help. The set of different situations is that it provides the teacher with teacher training added to what he has learned in the college seat.

Teacher training is strictly understood as professionalization and teacher preparation for the teaching career, taking as a precept the commitment to train the citizen according to the society in which he lives.

On the same terms, Libane (2001: 14-14) points out:

To form oneself is to take in its hands its own development and destiny in a double movement of expansion of its human and professional qualities, religious and of commitment with the formation of the society in which it lives.

Teacher training is a process of maturation of the person, carried out from the experiences of the teachers of the training institution, as well as from the subjects themselves (trainees).

According to Freire (1996, p.25[…]), "those who form form and form while forming and who are formed form and form when formed". In other words, during the formation process, the teacher acquires experience and knowledge that transforms him, that is, in his way of thinking and acting. Also in several other points of view on the same current situation.

The concept of teacher training is flexible, with multiple perspectives associated with the development of this professional who is the teacher, with practical and theoretical appropriation of the teaching function.

Training is a complex act that requires time and dedication of the professional, both by the requirement of the function, and by the competition of the market when it is selected for the job.

According to Oliveira and Tonini (2014, p.4) Apud Garcia:

Formation appears to us as a complex and diverse phenomenon on which there are only scarce conceptualizations and even less agreement on the dimensions and theories most relevant to its analysis. […] In the first place, training as a conceptual reality is neither identified nor diluted within other concepts that are also used, such as education, training, etc. Secondly, the concept of training includes a personal dimension of global human development that must be taken into account vis-à-vis other eminently technical conceptions. Thirdly, the concept of training has to do with the capacity for training, as well as with the willingness to train.

The concept of teacher training is intertwined with the importance of being a teacher, where the guiding point and the search for the professionalization is the learning of the student assisting him with dynamic classes facilitating the construction of knowledge.

According to Romanowski (2010, page 53).

The dynamics of the class are characterized by our interaction with the students, being mediated by the knowledge. Teaching and learning are processes directed towards the same object: knowledge; both involve cognition and the relationship between subjects. It is in this dynamic, contradictory and conflicting process that the knowledge of this professional practice is constructed and reconstructed.

Hence the importance of the teacher to acquire the formative knowledge, because during the pedagogical practice will encounter situations of conflicts, in which he needs is prepared to solve what happens in the exercise of the function.

Romanowski (2010: 184) goes on to say that "recognizing that training can contribute to the improvement of education means understanding the importance of teacher professionalization."

Training is a way to democratize knowledge, it is an instrument to make the teacher into a professional, in the truest sense of the word, but often this is not how it happens.

Hengumuhle (2008, p.11) goes on to say that:

The training of teachers has not been practiced pedagogical practices that enable future teachers to develop classes having as reference the above. Thus, a vicious circle is established: the deficient formation of teacher educators, which consequently leads to a deficit of future educators.

The acquired knowledge is of paramount importance as well as its dissemination, in this sense it must share the same with other professionals of education, so that it is taken as reference for new pedagogical practices.

3.2 The Importance of Continuing Education

Continuing education has become a field with a growing search for professionals not only in education, but in all areas of knowledge, because the more they learn, the greater the chances of this professional staying in the job market.

According to Ferreira (2006, pp. 19-20):

"Continuing education" is a reality in the Brazilian and world educational panorama, not only as a demand that is made due to the advances of science and technology that have taken place in the last decades, but as a new category that came to exist in the "market" "Of continuous formation and, therefore, needs to be rethought every day in order to better attend to the legitimate and dignified human formation.

Knowledge is not something static, it is always in transformation and in the last decades this process has occurred even more rapidly and everything that involves knowledge is influenced by these changes. In the area of ​​education it is not different, as you can see.

According to Hengumuhle (2008, p.11):

Society is transformed, the means of production require a new model of formation. Communication networks take information at the same time to places never before achieved. People, especially children and young people, are no longer people from a restricted location. They become people of the world. Access to information in transformation is beginning to cause people unrest, on a scale never before seen.

In other words, even people who live far from large centers or even cities, these people are not isolated from knowledge, technology has reached people wherever they are. When the place has no technological structure, many teachers turn to the nearest cities in search of this information.

In this topic, the expression "continuing education" and its importance to improve the process of teaching learning and consequently education, will always appear in this context, but then the following question arises, what is continuing education? It sought to be theoretical, that is, specialized authors in the subject that contributed with their concepts for the research.

Continuing education for Chimentão (2009, p.):

The continuous formation of teachers has been understood as a permanent process of improvement of the knowledge necessary for the professional activity, realized after the initial formation, with the objective of assuring a better education of the students.

The professionalization begins with the first graduation, from there it is necessary to deepen the knowledge that was not reached with the initial formation. Emphasizing that you also learn from practice, with your peers, because all human beings need the training to meet the demands of the market, whether in the field of education or not, everything is knowledge.

According to Christov (1996, 44): "Continuing education is necessary to update our knowledge, mainly to analyze the changes that occur in our practice, as well as to give directions expected to these changes."

In a summary, but comprehensive, Paulo Freire (1996, 44) made the following placement "permanent formation is a way that can improve the next practice".

Accompanying the idea of ​​other authors, Romanowski (2010, p.138). Conceptualized continuing education through objectivity: "The goal of continuing education is to improve teaching … the continuity of studies in courses, programs and projects ".

As it can be seen, the positions of Chimentão, Christov, Freire and Romanowski were in a different way, but none overcame the other, or opposed, on the contrary all the information added together and form a new concept. That is defined as follows:

Continuing education is a permanent mechanism for training, updating and improving the professional activity necessary to improve teaching practice in order to ensure quality education and social transformation.

The school has a very important role in these transformations, because it is the place in charge and suitable for the construction of knowledge, but not the only space in which knowledge is acquired, because knowledge is now everywhere and always available. Because the school is responsible for this continuous development, does it remain with a reproductive education and outdated methods that do not match current needs?

Hengumuhle (2008, p.11) states:

[…] that these theories can not simply be transposed from the context in which they were formed to the context in which our students live. The realities today are different. These theories need to be re-signified for the students in their reality, for otherwise they only become mechanical things to be received and repeated.

Thus, as with the teacher, the school also needs to be in line with the updates, in order to receive the clientele (the students) who attend it correspondingly with their needs. Hence the importance of awakening to the practice of continuous formation reflecting what happens daily.

According to Christov (2003: 9): "Continuing education is made necessary by the very nature of human knowledge and doing as constantly changing practices."

The teacher, as he is inserted in the school and with a fundamental responsibility, is also given the weight by the commitment of these new changes, can not be based and continue with old, outdated practices. He must understand that the reality of the fifteenth century is different from that experienced in the twenty-first century and that the methodologies used in previous years worked well for that time, today may even work, but need to be reorganized for today's students.

In the above descriptions, he realizes that the school and the teacher need updating, it is not only a part of fulfilling their role, the teacher and the school are intrinsically interconnected, one is part of the other, one complements the other, so the need for one is also the need of the other and vice versa.

Understand that the first step in the process of change is for the teacher to reflect on the questions raised and to check if their actions are within the flexible, updated or mechanized method.

For Christov (2003, p.11) apud Kemmis (1985):

Reflection is not a mechanical process, nor is it simply a creative exercise in the construction of new ideas. Rather, it is a practice that expresses our power to build social life, to participate in communication, decision-making and social action.

The practice can not be mechanized, it needs to go through the reconstruction process, so that the teacher can feel compelled to build new ideas, because in order to reach the "new" it needs training, updating, accompanied by critical evaluations on professionalization.

As Hengumuhle (2008: 84) states, "postmodernity certainly has brought to teachers unprecedented and unchallenged challenges in earlier historical moments."

It is worth mentioning that the first training is very important, because what the teacher learns during the undergraduate course is not enough for his entire career in teaching, so it is necessary to continue learning, although what is observed is not quite so.

According to Ferreira (2006: 28):

With regard to the training of education professionals, one can perceive in the set of reforms, the lack of commitment to initial training, the overvaluation of a policy of in-service training that occurs, generally occurs in a light and non-existent way policies of this professional.

Illustrating, a teacher who graduated more than ten years and does not seek to take continuing training course, how will this teacher learn new methods? Will this teacher be able to answer or solve the new challenges that will appear in everyday life?

Christov (2003: 37) states that "the training of teachers has not addressed these objectives".

Freire (1996: 32) points out that "I search to know what I do not yet know and to communicate or announce the novelty".

The research that Freire spoke about is the search for knowledge and this search is for continuing education, because not everything was achieved during graduation. When the teacher is training his skills and skills are being improved, making him a good educator with the news that are offered.

Another point to be raised for the practice of continuing education is the criticism of the teacher, but being critical is understood, it is not that teacher who only knows how to complain, who see errors in everything and nothing does to repair or improve what is wrong.

Refers to the word critic when something is wrong and bother, in this sense, if you perceive the error and why not solve the problem? Then, it exposes suggestions or seeks solutions strategies. The teaching practice can never be given as finished, one can not think that the way it is would be ideal, because it always has what to improve.

Hengumuhle (2008, p.16) says that "the history of humanity is marked by this constant coming, where the finished is seen as unsatisfactory, because the infinite desire of the person is to investigate and, with each response, already glimpses new questions. "

Many teachers know when such a methodology is not working, the student is not learning, others are no longer interested in the classes he or she teaches, but this educator turns a blind eye or places several difficulties to improve.

It is not enough to take course excessively, it is still not enough if the teacher does not make a judgment of each action. In continuous formation the teacher is the researcher and the object of research and vice versa.

Continuing education is very important, but it will not solve everything from teaching practice, it is just a working tool to help, improve and grow professionally.

3.3 The Reciprocity of Continuing Formation

Much has been said about the importance of continuing education for the teacher, but this process is reciprocal with respect to the school in which the professional works and especially the student who is or should be the main objective of the practice of continuing teacher training.

The teacher-student relationship has become one of the main and worrying themes in the school context, many researchers seek to unravel this relationship that sometimes becomes conflicted, although it could turn into a richer and meaningful work.

There are benefits for learners when a teacher is updated. In this context, Moran (2004, p.3) asks and replies "What should a classroom have for a quality education? It needs fundamentally well-prepared, motivated and well-paid teachers with up-to-date pedagogical training. This is uncontested. "

A well-prepared teacher, he knows several methods to attract the attention of the students, and with this the educator saves time, those moments that the unprepared spend to calm the students, the better trained has started the subject of the day and the students begin to like of classes.

The benefit of the school is related to continuing education, the work offered by teachers within the school, can be seen through the development of students, if the students are well the school is well, being the students the thermometer of this reciprocity teacher-continuing education -school.

Christov (2003, pp. 13-14)) points out that:

We know that a school organized by everyone who works in it has a better chance of being a school that suits the interests of its organizers … after all, cooperation and the notion that "unity is strength" are ideas against which nothing has to be said.

The organization of a school depends very much on the capacity of the professionals in which it operates. And continuing education is part of this process contributing to the development and updating of the school community. The school has the characteristics of the professionals in which it works.

That is why the higher the degree of formation of a better reputed institution it will be. The professionals are attentive to this and are looking to improve both the practice and the concept of the school.

CONCLUSION

Every professional to develop a good job needs stimuli, so that the same develops its tasks well, starting from this proposition and the conceptions given by the aforementioned theorists, the continued formation should be taken more seriously by the people coordinating the education in Brazil.

The full implementation of programs aimed at the continuing education of teachers is notorious, but the incentives for the teacher to take courses and reach those who live farther away from the capitals, is not yet a reality, since teachers who live in villages and vicinal distances are not achieved with these formations.

In this way a mobilization is urgently needed so that access to continuing education courses is for all, the schools in which these professionals act as they and the students lose in the quality of the education offered.

It is worth noting that the evaluation of students who are trained in institutions where teachers do not have continuous training results appear at the moment the student goes to more advanced series or even in the time of submitting a public contest or job selection, because the quality of teaching depends largely on teacher training and career updating.

There are a lot of challenges to be overcome, because as it was approached throughout this work, education and consequently the training and qualification of teachers were not priorities since the colonization of Brazil, something always pending, and this pendency encompasses the majority of professionals.

In the perspective of continuing education, it is necessary for the teacher to learn to see the reality, considering that it is in practice, in the exchange of knowledge between teachers and professionals of the same field, in the intrepidity of the search that gives the mutual learning. In this way, it is possible for the teacher to become an agent capable of managing his or her own formation.

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[1] Academic Postgraduate in Educational Sciences, Faculty of Pinheiros; Graduated in Pedagogy from the Roraimense University of Higher Education – FARES; Professor of the municipal public network in Boa Vista-RR.

[2] Graduated in Normal Superior by the State University of Roraima-UERR, Graduated in Geography by the State University of Roraima-UERR.

Graduated in pedagogy from the University of Higher Education - FARES; in full degree in mathematics from the State University of Roraima-UERR; post-graduate in Methodology of mathematics and physics from the International University of Curitiba-UNNTER; Master in educational sciences from the Universidad del Sol- Paraguay.

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