FERNANDES, Devanir Ramos. MACHADO, Alexsandro dos Santos. ICT'S and early childhood education: play, digital inclusion and learning. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. 04 year, Ed. 06, Vol. 03, pp. 69-81. June 2019. ISSN: 2448-0959
This article addresses ICT's in Early Childhood Education as a technological learning resource where play plays a decisive role. A brief history of the use of technologies in Early Childhood Education is presented from the point of view of educational public policies, both pedagogical and digital inclusion. It then presents the pedagogical guidelines necessary for the choice of Learning Objects in Early Childhood Education. Finally, it presents a field study that shows the reality of the use of educational software in the public school of the city of Clementina, Municipality of the State of São Paulo.
Keywords: TIC'S, early childhood education, playful, digital inclusion, learning objects.
ICT'S (Information and Communication Technologies) have been the object of reflection at the educational level from, above all, from the 1990s (ALMEIDA; PRADO, 1999); however, with regard to Early Childhood Education, there are still few reflexive contributions of its pedagogical use in the learning process for children, more precisely, children in public schools.
This production shortage is surpassed from the second half of the 2000s, perhaps explained by the beginning of the process of universalization of Early Childhood Education with Law No. 12,796, 2013 that reformulates Basic Education in Brazil by changing Article 4 of LDB 96 :
Art. 4º The duty of the State with public school education shall be effected by ensuring:
I – Compulsory and free basic education from 4 (four) to 17 (seventeen) years of age, organized as follows;
b) elementary school;
c) high school;
II – Free early childhood education for children up to 5 (five) years of age. (BRASIL, 2013)
With this change, a significant amount of studies on ICT's in action in preschools can be observed, reflections that seek the precepts of playful as a learning instrument, on the one hand; on the other hand, reflections that promote the digital inclusion of these children in the face of the great socioeconomic inequalities experienced historically in Brazil.
In this context, this article is articulated when trying to recover a brief history of ICT's in Early Childhood Education.
With regard to pedagogical practices, we seek to present the necessary correlation between ICT's and playful for the acquisition of new knowledge pertinent to preschool, discussing, for this, the RCNEI (National Curriculum Framework of Education children' students), learning objects and the active participation of the teacher in the choice and evaluation of these resources.
Finally, a field research is presented that observes the pedagogical practice developed in the preschool of the Municipal School of Early Childhood Education Councilman Sabino Soares in the municipality of Clementina, in the State of São Paulo.
Thus, it is intended to ratify the need to expand and consolidate the use of ICT's in Early Childhood Education as a playful instrument of learning and as a mechanism for democratization for access to new information and communication technologies.
1. ICT'S BRIEF HISTORY IN EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION
In order to establish a brief history on the technology applied to Early Childhood Education in Brazil, it is necessary to make a delimitation of this theme, it is worth saying, a technology applied to education as a public policy of the State. This is important to the extent that in Brazil the reality of public schools is immensely different in view of private schools, where the former suffer from financial resources and political wills for their full democratic functioning and Participatory.
Therefore, the cutout aims to analyze, in a brief way, public policies to promote the use of technology in the school routine of Early Childhood Education with a view to learning than for Lopes (2005, p.02) the school is the space where "the most prepared individuals are preparing " the most individuals creative stoores that will be acquiring new knowledge and integrating with a new way of learning and interacting with society."
It is observed that the 80s and 90s of the twentieth century had in the academic and governmental sphere stemming from technology in education, especially informatics, however, its focus was 1st and 2nd Degree Education, now Elementary and High School, and Technical Courses, with Early Childhood Education being displaced from these initiatives.
This is perhaps explained by the limited dimension in which Early Childhood Education was in the late 1980s and early 1990s.
In fact, the recognition of Early Childhood Education takes place in the 1988 Constitution and the rights of children guaranteed in the Statute of children and adolescents of 1990:
In the perspective that the State guarantees these rights, the Federal Constitution of 1988 (BRAZIL, 1988) brings for the first time the expression early childhood education to designate care in day care and preschool, and brings the constitutional guarantee of the state's duty with this not only as a policy of favoring or benefit of mothers, but rather a right of children (Article 208, item IV). The law recognizes the educational character of day care centers, formerly belonging to the area of social assistance, becoming incorporated into the area of education. In the early 1990s, the Statute of Children and Adolescents , cons[…]idered one of the most advanced laws in the world with regard to the protection of children, points out rights that must be guaranteed and respected throughout society, reinforcing precepts with regard to early childhood education marked in the Federal Constitution (BRASIL-SECAD, 2006, p.36).
With the Education Base Guidelines Act of 1996, Early Childhood Education is assumed as an educational policy.
With regard to Information and Communication Technologies, ICT's, in this stage of teaching, one can consider, even if not explicit or detailed, the connection learning/society/technology, through CEB Opinion 022/98 that deals with the National Curriculum Guidelines for Early Childhood Education, as Gallo points out (2002) to Menezes; Francisco (2012, s/p.) in CEB Opinion 022/98:
By recognizing children as righteous beings, who learn to be and live with themselves, with others and the environment in an articulateand gradual way, the Pedagogical Proposals of Early Childhood Education Institutions should seek interaction between the various areas of knowledge and aspects of citizen life, such as basic contents for the constitution of knowledge and values. Thus, knowledge about space, time, communication, expression, nature and people must be articulated with care and education for health, sexuality, family and social life, the environment, culture, languages, work, leisure, science and technology (BRAZIL. OPINION CEB022/98, 1998)
The ten years that followed the publication of that opinion were not embodied in concrete practices of public initiatives for the effective insertion of Information and Communication Technologies in Early Childhood Education.
It is in 2009, Resolution No 5 of 17 December 2009 setting out the National Curriculum Guidelines for Early Childhood Education, it repeats the wording of CNE/CEB Opinion No. 20/2009, determining in article 3:
The curriculum of Early Childhood Education is conceived as a set of practices that seek to articulate the experiences and knowledge of children with the knowledge that are part of the cultural, artistic, environmental, scientific and technological heritage, in order to promote the integral development of children from 0 to 5 years of age. (BRASIL.MEC.RESOLUÇÃO N° 5, 2009)
With regard to the National Quality Parameters for Early Childhood Education (2006), the Indicators of Quality of Early Childhood Education (2009) and the National Curriculum Guidelines for Early Childhood Education (2010) there is nothing in which the Technologies of Information and Communication for Early Childhood Education.
In view of this brief incursion, it can be affirmed that the public policies associated with ICT's have not been taken as priorities and that discussions on the subject are restricted to academic research and teacher training in what links to pedagogical practices , learning strategies and play in the daily life of Early Childhood Education.
2. PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICES FOR THE USE OF ICT'S AND LEARNING OBJECTS
It can be affirmed that Early Childhood Education in Brazil is the initial moment of schooling whose objective is the integral development of the child and this is established by guiding axes, according to the National Curriculum Framework for Early Childhood Education, RCNEI (1998), thus, established: "movement, music, visual arts, oral and written language, nature and society and mathematics" and has playful its main learning strategy:
Playful education, in essence, besides contributing and influencing the formation of children and adolescents, enabling healthy growth, a permanent enrichment, integrates with the highest spirit of a democratic practice while investing in a serious production of knowledge. Its practice requires frank, creative, free, critical participation, promoting social interaction and in view of the strong commitment to transformation and modification of the environment (ALMEIDA apud BATISTA et all. s/d p.2).
In this sense, the significant process of learning the child is in a permanent state of social interaction, inside and outside school, their learning takes place in the most diverse moments of their daily life where the presence of Information Technologies is emphasized and Communication, ICT's, which are more or less integrated into the life of the children's population.
With regard to public schools with their socioeconomic context, experience with these technologies is limited in stark contrast to private schools, children in public schools cannot be designated by Prensky terminology (2001) as "digital natives".
Given this unequal perspective, the pedagogical practices that bind to ICT's must have a dual mission: playful learning and the effective digital inclusion of their children, respecting, of course, the previous knowledge of each student.
It is an indisputable fact that the insertion of ICT's in teaching, when well planned and executed by the critical mediation of the teacher, promotes moments of intense satisfaction of students:
Today there is consensus that new information and communication technologies can enhance the change of the teaching and learning process and that promising results in terms of educational advances are directly related to the idea of using technology to be human emancipation, the development of creativity, self-criticism, autonomy and responsible freedom. (ALMEIDA; PRADO, 1999, p.1)
Thus, the objects of learning are cut out by the proposal of this article.
It is considered the subject of learning according to Beck, apud Wiley (2002, p.2)
Any digital resource that can be reused to support teaching. The main idea of Learning Objects is to break educational content into small pieces that can be reused in different learning environments, in an object-oriented programming spirit.
With regard to Early Childhood Education, Matias; Vasconcelos; Fagam (2009, s/p) explain:
The object of Learning must have a playful character, can be seen and revised as a game that allows exploration and consequently an exploration and consequently a learning. Because in the act of playing, children have a rich interaction with colleagues, thus progressively expand their vocabulary and socialize, so when they sit in pairs to explore the Object make their connections to its reality.
In view of this perspective, it is observed that The Object of Learning is the pedagogical resource attested and considered legitimate in the educational practices of contemporary society, but it is seen that it is also called into question as to its place in planning, in conducting the activity and evaluating the mediator teacher, because this object is beyond the seductive graphic resources for children, it has to express a reflective content that provides a significant weight for the process of acquiring knowledge, according to Braga (2015 p. 51):
the selection of an OA should be made based on the technical and pedagogical context in which it will be used and the teacher's work plan and[…] application of the OA is part of a process in which the different information is integrated, and the planning is decisive for its succession Sso.
From an institutional point of view, the Department of Distance Education of the Ministry of Education develops the RIVED Program, the International Virtual Education Network, in partnership with Latin American countries for the production of Learning Objects to be consumed and free access:
RIVED is a program of the Secretariat of Distance Education – SEED, which aims to produce digital pedagogical content, in the form of learning objects. Such contents excel in stimulating the students' reasoning and critical thinking, associating the potential of computer science with new pedagogical approaches. The goal that is intended to be achieved by providing these digital content is to improve the learning of the disciplines of basic education and the citizen training of the student. In addition to promoting production and publishing digital content on the web for free access, RIVED conducts training on the methodology to produce and use learning objects in higher education institutions and in the public school system. (MEC-SEED-RIVED, 2017).
However, the platform does not include activities aimed at Early Childhood Education, but can be adapted, according to Nascimento (2005,) apud Mathias; Vasconcelos; Fagan (2009, s/p.), "is understood by Learning Object, any resource that can be reused to support learning." The authors present two practical examples of fundamental education content I that can be inserted in Early Childhood Education:
We understand by a reusable OA, one that can be used in different contexts, that here in this case would be Elementary School and Early Childhood Education. Both OAs provide the child to carry out the proposed activities, and in the end make an evaluation, in carrying out feedback of the content so that it can do an analysis of the results themselves, having as the possibility of returning and redoing the activities. (MATHIAS; VASCONCELOS; FAGAN 2009, s/p.).
Given this perspective in which you have the possibility of rescuing OA's to be reused in Early Childhood Education and that are relevant to the moment of learning, it is necessary that the teacher make an even more rigorous assessment of this content, that they are significant for their children.
In this sense, pedagogical practices that are inscribed to the use of Learning Objects must undergo three major criteria of use: (a) ludicity; (b) content linked to the guiding axes of Early Childhood Education and (c) take into account the students' previous knowledge to propose new meanings.
In addition to these criteria, the Teacher of Early Childhood Education should be aware that by adopting Learning Objects more closely linked to new Information and Communication Technologies, NTIC'S, he is also establishing for many of his students the digital inclusion, without which the student will be on the margins of contemporary society.
3. FIELD SEARCH
As an element of analysis of this article, a small field research with a view to on-site observation of computer room activities for early childhood education is described.
3.1 DESCRIPTION OF THE SCHOOL CONTEXT
The research was carried out at the Municipal School of Early Childhood Education Councilman Sabino Soares in the municipality of Clementina, in the State of São Paulo. Public school on the outskirts of the city.
The School has had a computer lab for two years with twenty-two computers.
3.2 INTERVIEW WITH THE PEDAGOGICAL TEAM
To reach observation with children in activity with the computer, a preparatory meeting was held with pedagogical management, which, in agreeing with the research, fixed with the researcher the room in which children would be observed: preschool children of the Early childhood education, 18 students, between 5 and 6 years of age.
After the meeting, an interview was made with the teacher of the room chosen by pedagogical management.
She initially reported that of the 18 students in the room, 8 have a computer at home. From the group of 8 students chosen by her for observation, 2 have a computer in the room.
As for pedagogical practice in the use of educational objects, the teacher has at her disposal educational software, of private origin, a partnership with the school.
The following is the questionnaire applied to the teacher:
|Who chose the educational software?||"It was an achievement of the school for education in a partnership with a company producing private educational software."|
|Why did you choose?||"Because they are programs prepared by professional specialists with the help and tips of teachers working in the classroom and computer science of schools."|
|What are the advantages?||"What worked out we can improve and what has not worked out and are not well accepted by children, are reevaluated by the company, reviewed by experts."|
|How do you analyze the presence of technology in the context of early childhood education?||"All kinds of help in the classroom is welcome. We work for quality education and through this partnership we were able to further improve our classes and the daily lives of our children and lead them a way to interact within school and use the software. The same has even improved the relationship between them; we now perceive ethical, moral elements more pronounced among them. Not everything we need today is in books. Experiences lead us to seek other means closer to children in order to facilitate learning. The choices we make today lead us to be better in the future."|
3.3 INTERVENTIONS WITH CHILDREN
For the research, in question, the teacher defined two groups: group A with 4 boys and group B with 4 girls previously chosen before the universe of 18 students participating in the activity.
The School prepared a welcoming environment for the meeting with the researcher, who determined three moments of observation: first, prior to the activity; second, activity itself; and, third, after the activity.
At the first moment, questions were asked of the two groups, who separately answered oral questions:
|How often do you go to the lab to work with the pedagogical software?||"Once a week, 8:00 a.m. to 9:00."|
|You like to go to the lab.||"Yes, we like it."|
|What do you like to do most in the lab?||"From painting, reading, learning numbers" …|
|How are you guys in the lab?||"There's a computer for each of us." The girls' group added that "the teacher caters to everyone."|
In the second moment, already in the Laboratory the teacher asked, in what was attended, for children to enter the activity of educational software, which demonstrates the children's ability with the computer. The initial activity requested was numerical sequence. It consisted of putting the missing numbers in a hopscotch. Another activity was proposed with the same theme, there were two hands open and moving, and at each fingertip, children should put the numbers from one to ten. And the last, the image of seven sheep and underneath each, a space to be filled by numbers. In addition to the movement of the images, all activities were colorful, the children expressed great attention. The second activity was the letters of the alphabet. A house, with the letter C next door and with space below to write inside it. The child should paint the house, the letter C and write House in the spacing left. The same was with the letters A, bee; B, cake; F, fruits; H, hippo; I, Indian; And, elephant; G, cat; N, ship; P, pear; O, egg and M, monkey. What stood out was the color, which led the children to fix their eyes on the computer screen, a full action of attention and the mastery of keyboard use.
At the third moment, after the activity, an evaluation was made with the two groups of children separately, from the oral questionnaire:
|What caught your attention in the lab the most?||"The fact that we have to paint each letter, home and write the number within the comics."|
|Did you like going to the lab?||"We like it very much."|
|What activities did you work in the lab today?||"We work the activity of the hopscotch, putting numbers. Of the sheep, also putting numbers, of the hands, in which we put numbers from one to ten", added the boys, in time. "We also saw activities of the alphabet, with various letters and images to paint."|
|What did you learn today?||"We learned to count to ten and a few letters of the alphabet."|
|You didn't know how to count until ten?||"Just as not today, for today we learn to put the numbers in order."||Teams A and B then counted the numerals up to ten.|
|And the alphabet, didn't you know a few letters? What have you learned today?||"We knew some, some didn't. We learned many today. We learned O, H, M, I, B, E, G, N, P."|
|What words are written with these letters and that you wrote there in the software on the free board that was underneath each image?||"Hippopotamus, egg, monkey, Indian, elephant, cat, pear, ship and cake."||Group A did not follow the same sequence as group B in the responses, but said about all.|
Classes A and B made a point of saying that they also learned colors such as blue, red, dark blue, pink, dark red, purple, green, that is, they were attentive to the visual modeling of the software.
3.4 DATA ANALYSIS
With regard to the school context, it can be affirmed that the corpus is composed of public school children with little access to the computer in their daily lives. By the performance of the children observed, it can be affirmed that the school has fulfilled its social role in offering the domain of computer use, promoting its real digital inclusion.
From the point of view of pedagogical practice in the use of educational software, the research shows that the teacher trusts the material used, because, according to her, it is made by specialists and also considers that the partnership established with the company promotes dialogue for the improvement of the material. This is a very interesting given to the extent that the teacher can be one of the protagonists for the elaboration, from his observations, of the material to be used.
In addition, pedagogical evaluation demonstrates the need to seek alternative educational resources, but does not emphasize the playful condition of the use of educational software.
Finally, it analyzes the positive behavioral change of its students in their interactions, evaluated with the practice of using the Laboratory.
As for the students, the pleasure in performing the tasks of the educational software, the attention to the screen and the perfect performance in the use of the computer was observed. Each student had his own computer; however, the interaction between them was observed, all were involved in their individual activities, but also interacted with each other and with the teacher; in this respect, the element of cooperation between children occurred, salutary since despite being in individual activities, they were able to establish relations of dialogue between themselves.
In view of the above, it can be concluded that public educational policies for this level of education is still a process under construction perceived by the absence of material available in the RIVED environment of the Ministry of Education for this level of education, forcing the teacher to make adaptations from the material available only at the higher levels.
It can also be inferred that the use of ICT in the pedagogical environment of Early Childhood Education more than a reality of connection with the contemporary world, reflects the clear intention of adding learning to the assumptions of deceiving that this level of education and the critical awareness of the teacher for the choice and evaluation of learning objects.
Finally, regarding field research, it is observed that school management and the pedagogical team establish in their daily lives the systematic use of ICT's, in partnership with a private educational software development company; both management and pedagogical team analyze their receptivity by listening to children, which promotes excellent feedback for specialists. As for the children observed, the maximum degree of involvement, joy and satisfaction was seen, thus ratifying the playful spirit that these activities contain.
In this sense, field research reaffirms the deceitof present in ICT's, the role of the teacher in the evaluation of the learning object and the digital inclusion necessary.
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3. For the registration in this article, the answers of the children who expressed the consensus of the room were selected.
4. Same procedure of the previous record.
Master's degree in education from the UDE – University of La Emprensa; graduated in philosophy from USC- University of the Sacred Heart; bachelor's degree in theology from the Faculty of Theology Of Our Lady of the Assumption.
Psychologist (ULBRA), Master of Education (UFSM), PhD in Education (UFRGS) and Post-Doctoral doctor in Public Health (Fiocruz). He is adjunct Professor at the Federal University of Pernambuco.
Posted: March, 2019.
Approved: June, 2019.