Tapembol as an Innovative Pedagogical Practice of School Physical Education

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Tibúrcio, Valdir José [1]

Celia R. Bernardes C. [2]

Tibúrcio, Valdir José; Celia R. Bernardes C. The Tapembol as an Innovative Pedagogical Practice of School Physical Education. Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal. Edition 08. Year 02, Vol. 01. pp. 134-148, November 2017. ISSN:2448-0959

SUMMARY

The search for innovative activities in school has become important and of great relevance in the school context, especially in Physical Education classes. With a proposal to always innovate, to bring something different to the curricular activities, Tapembol is incorporated in this context because it is a pedagogical practice that develops the experimentation, the discovery, the development of the creativity, the imagination, the attention, and the inclusion, besides to work on the affective, cognitive, social and motor aspects that are so important in the school stage. This research is a work that aims to identify the importance of tapembol as an innovative pedagogical practice in School Physical Education classes. The methodology used in the present study was through research in scientific articles, books and Internet sites. After the studies, it was possible to perceive that Tapembol can be an innovative pedagogical practice of School Physical Education, contributing to acquire new knowledge of the students, favoring them greater autonomy in the elaboration of corporal activities, as well as in the capacity to discuss and modify sports rules, bringing together elements of various manifestations of the body culture of movement, significantly interfering in the students' integral development in addition to doing, involving the conceptual, procedural and attitudinal dimensions.

Key words: Tapembol, Innovative Pedagogical Practice, School Physical Education, School.

Introduction

According to the National Curricular Parameters (NCPs) Physical Education (EF) is an area of ​​knowledge that introduces and integrates the student into the body culture of movement, and aims to form a citizen capable of producing, reproducing and transform it, using games, sports, dances, fights and gymnastics to benefit the critical exercise of citizenship and the improvement of health and quality of life. NCPs also emphasize the importance of Cultural Plurality, where game rules, sports adaptations, as well as regional expressions, gain greater meaning when lived within a meaningful context, allowing the contextualization of these practices by students in the school space (BRAZIL, 1998).

We know that Physical Education has undergone great changes since the 1980s, with the involvement of scholars from the area proposing changes in the curriculum and encouraging continuing education for teachers in the area, through Postgraduate, Master and Doctorate courses.

Physical School Education is experiencing a kind of transition regarding its pedagogical practice. According to the authors Fensterseifer e Silva (2001), this transition is directly related to the approximation of this area of ​​knowledge with the purposes of the school. The physical education of the school is in search of new elements to construct a pedagogical practice no longer focused on the exercise, but on the acquisition of new knowledge related to the manifestations of Movement Body Culture.

The search for new methods and teaching resources rests on the teacher, by using tools that allow his classes to be more attractive, linked to the reality of the student, in a simple, joyful, relaxed and collective way.

Tapembol is a "game of all", which aims to enable the inclusion and participation of all by allowing all people, regardless of physical deprivation or age, to participate. It is important that physical education teachers, parents and society be attentive to this view of innovative pedagogical practices, as a means of integral development of human beings in all its aspects, linked to emotion, pleasure, affection in a relaxed way and cheerful, as well as providing health and well-being to its practitioners.

In this way, this research is part of a study aimed at identifying the possibilities of using innovative pedagogical practices in School Physical Education classes, using the Tapembol game as an improvement of corporal abilities important for emotional, cognitive, cultural, social and physical education of elementary school students. It has a qualitative character, because it aims to awaken in the School, in society, in the public power, and in Physical Education professionals about the importance of putting into practice innovative activities in Physical Education classes, stimulating the body culture of movement.

METHODOLOGY

The methodology used to carry out this study was the literature review based on books, articles, theses, monographs, dissertations through consultations in the internet database. The works are published in Portuguese language from the year 2000 to 20017.

THEORETICAL FOUNDATION

Tapembol

Tapembol was created in 2007 in the city of Caeté in Minas Gerais by the professional of Physical Education Marco Aurélio Cândido Rocha, the game aims to generate social inclusion precisely because it allows all people, regardless of physical deprivation or age to participate. From a simple game of "slap in the ball" as a way of expressing the students of a class, through the desire to play, to experience something different, came a new game that was being built collectively according to the need to experience the unusual , the playful one, whi[…]ch "is shown as a necessary dialogue with everyday existence, being understood here as the world of culture in action, an interaction between this universe and its subjects" (Deborot, 1997: 332). This game is basically based on touching the ball giving tapas aiming in this way to make the goal. The regulation admits up to two touches for each athlete, restricting in one or two with the ball before it is thrown to another athlete, with this model of play makes each one need the other.

Tapembol is played on the court, with six players on each side, a goalkeeper, two on defense, a center, a right support and a left support, where one uses the hands open, giving a touch or two on the ball, alternately and without holding, with the goal to make the goal. The goalkeeper is the main protector of the area and allows the connection of the plays, is practiced with his own ball of 53 cm in diameter and two weights, 130 and 160 grams for children and another for adolescents, the playing court is the same used for the futsal and measures 40m long and 20m wide (GLATER, 2013).

According to Rocha (2016), the creation of the sport was born when noticing the need to put into practice a game that could exploit the physical capacity of the people, without them having to have specific skills, as is necessary in other sports. The game involves the participation of all and enables the development of physical abilities. The rules are easy to follow and do not require very refined skills for their practice, thus developing reaction, balance, movement, orientation and rhythm capacities (GLATER, 2013). This game seeks to interact and foster also sports practice in school, entering as another option in physical education classes, and becoming a springboard for activities that require more technique, in this sense to bring more students to practice physical activity. This modality is taking shape and gaining evidence as Physical Education professionals have bought the idea of ​​practicing it (GLATER, 2013; ROCHA, 2016).

The Olympic Mines Program in 2014 also contributed to the dissemination of this modality by preparing 50 professionals and 150 trainees of Physical Education. This course of multipliers made Tapembol reach 100 municipalities in Minas Gerais. Through this event, the sport became more and more known and currently it is also present in Rio de Janeiro, Espirito Santo, São Paulo, Mato Grosso, Paraná and Bahia, within universities and colleges. Therefore, the Tapembol game can be included as an innovative pedagogical activity in Physical Education classes, as it is a pleasurable activity that allows the development of several abilities, including the physical, cognitive, affective and social aspects of its practitioners (GLATER, 2013 ROCHA, 2016).

Innovative pedagogical practices of Physical School Education and the influences of vocational training

Physical education is a discipline where more and more teachers are concerned with improving the pedagogical process in the school context. The pedagogical procedures are the most diversified and all complementary, since the school attends to society, and attending to society is dealing with diverse socio-cultural contexts, in addition to the physical and developmental characteristics that each student presents. "The basic idea is that the teacher, when introducing innovative pedagogical practices in the school, must have knowledge about the teaching procedures and choose the most appropriate ones for the reality of his school and each class that works" (SILVA & BRACHT, 2012) .

According to Fensterseifer and Silva (2001), the school EF experiences a kind of transition regarding its pedagogical practice, a special moment of approximation of this area to the purposes of the school. Physical Education would be looking for elements to build a pedagogical practice that is no longer focused on exercising, but on the acquisition of new knowledge, involving successful and innovative practices with a focus on problematization, creativity and innovation. Seeking the complementation of human values.

For the authors, there are several factors that directly interfere in the implementation of practices that are innovative and successful in the area of ​​Physical School Education. One of these factors is directly related to the conservative and reductionist practice experienced by the area since the earliest times. The adoption of new pedagogical practices requires a balance with traditional methods, there is still some inability on the part of some educators, to put into practice innovative concepts and models. This is a narrowing of ideas discharging the purpose of innovative practices (Fensterseifer & Silva, 2001).

The School Physical Education classes really aim at the personal development of the student. Through movement, multiple values ​​are taught that range from physical development, through playfulness – through games and games, and even reaching awareness of moral values, such as respect and group work. However, issues such as health, wellness, and other benefits in improving the quality of life that a sports practice brings to children and adolescents are set aside in the foreground when it comes to sports performance at school.

Another factor of great relevance is directly related to continuing education, the most obvious route and the best option, and postgraduate courses continuous knowledge has been as essential elements that enables the qualification and pedagogical application of the teacher.

The search for continuous training in traditional models has been the center of many criticisms: Nóvoa (1999), Nóvoa (1999), Nóvoa (2001), Sacristán (1999), Dallabona and Mendes (2004) among others. Strictly in the case of Physical Education school has not been achieved significant advances in the reference of approaching its pedagogical practice of the goals of the school institution, it is appropriate to discuss the alternatives in the present analyzed to face this situation.

According to Sacristán (1999) and Bracht (2005), the professional who proposes continuing education is not restricted only to undergraduate, seeking postgraduate or even extensionist courses provides the training of a critical-reflective teacher, the continuity of search for knowledge that values ​​the socio-cultural dimensions and not only the technical part of the profession, forms a teacher with experiences that are determinant in educating and teaching.

Being included in a study group is very relevant because it adds up important elements to apply the innovation. The use of the tapembol in these pedagogical practices demonstrates a growth in the formation that becomes one more option being able to be shared constituting an advance in the daily pedagogical practice. What is important is that this participation addresses the issues and the personal and cultural dimensions of teachers valuing their own creations and authentic enriching the dissemination of these practices (PONTE, 1997).

According to Nóvoa (2001), a good option to improve pedagogical practice and discuss with colleagues, stay current with new teaching methodologies and increase pedagogical practices more effective are some of the main points of the teaching profession for this new century.

THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER'S SCHOOL AND THE PARENTS IN THE ENCOURAGEMENT OF INNOVATIVE PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICES

It is in the school of life that one learns, this popular expression brings us a reflection of how much school is important in the formation of the individual, in Brazil the teaching underwent several transformations in particular the physical education evidencing its role in the social context.

As Ponte (1997) affirms, the role of the school is no longer to prepare only a small elite for higher studies and / or to provide the great mass with the minimum requirements for insertion in the labor market; on the contrary, its role has been to prepare the totality of young people to enter creatively, critically and intervene in an increasingly complex society, in which the capacity to discover opportunities, flexibility of reasoning, adaptation to new situations, persistence and the ability to interact and cooperate are fundamental qualities.

The teacher who is part of this reality is shown as a driver of knowledge, is no longer the owner of knowledge, being in a constant process of construction appropriating tools that allows him the discernment of educating the students and leading them in learning in the phase school. And also seeking to relate the pedagogical action with their professional training.

Faced with this search in his training, the teacher finds himself faced with two types of training: the traditional one, focused on and specializing in sports practice, in detriment of other educational practices, where competition and performance are valued, and another more scientific, which prioritizes the theory and scientific knowledge derived from the mother sciences.

In traditional formation there seems to be no doubt about the pedagogical practice of teachers, since both are similar in values.  The activity of the teacher is very similar to the role of the coach. He chooses and proposes the contents, the methodology and the evaluation, he is disciplinary, that is, he is "a coach who watches, directs, advises, corrects" (Château, apud Silva, 1988, p 56). The teacher seeks to maintain a common relationship with the students, with this attitude he guarantees his authority.

The scientific specialization, which is a more in-depth objective, seeks to detect failures in traditional training, and shows us that the results of the practice were not very good, since, according to Darido (1996, 56): "the knowledge derived from Mental sciences did not influence practice definitively ", that is, the knowledge acquired, for example, in disciplines (or sub-areas) such as Exercise Physiology, Motor Learning or Sociology are not used by teachers in their classes, leaving their pedagogical practice linked still to the traditional sports, the technical gesture or the uncritical posture.

In Bolan's view (2017), the role of parents is paramount in the upbringing of children, they are the first educators, from the outset they are entrusted with the material, cultural and spiritual sustenance of the children. This is an attribute of the parents, so it can not be delegated to a third party or replaced by the State. Whenever so-called totalitarian regimes attempted to neutralize this role of parents, such attempts did not succeed; This is because only parents and who must take care of the moral and moral formation of the children prepare them for life.

The school, teachers and parents form the fundamental basis of collaboration and sharing, for training, developing synergistic actions that are truly capable of improving student achievement

Tapembol as inclusion and development of physical, cognitive, social and motor skills

Much has been discussed about inclusion through the media, social networks the theme is strongly debated since society has been evolving positively in the sense of perceiving the various disabilities as being natural, in particular physical education is shown with advances for being a activity of movement and body expression, for young banal reasons still with character formation, are excluded for several reasons, shyness, obesity and sex (AZEVEDO, 2012).

In the study by Goodwin and Watkinson (2000), exclusion was experienced by students with disabilities during experiences of social isolation, when they felt different due to disability, or had limited participation in activities.

The students in these cases see the margin of the physical education activities, the process of rescue of these students to participate in the classes needs something that arouses curiosity curiosity, new practices that catch the attention of these students, the name tapembol is already a flashy which the student will want to know what the activity is, captivating that will serve as a springboard for other achievements. It is necessary that, given the deficiency of the student, it is necessary to create possibilities so that this one can fully experience the teacher's proposal.

In order to feel included it is fundamental to build positive social relations, with characteristics that support the needs of this student (Goodwin & Watkinson, 2000). This need reinforces the relationship espoused by Stainback and Stainback (1990), that inclusion is structured from a sense of belonging, acceptance and importance within its social group. According to the authors cited, the student needs to feel belonging to the group regardless of their deficiencies, be they, social or motor.

This new sporting modality comes with a special proposal for this student who needs to feel belonging to the group, the girls that in many cases in physical education only have the option to play burned or stay out, excluded, the tapembol does not have sudden moves, like futsal, football then opens up this new possibility for girls.

When the teacher perceives these difficulties of the student and adapts to obtain their participation there is an extremely positive gain for both sides as a consequence of this the importance of innovative pedagogical practices is seen in this context through a look of innovation, the teacher who educa acts multiplying. Several activities have been proposed for this student the tapembol enters in that context when the student does not have agility has difficulty of socializing and ideal for both sexes for not being violent and at the same time competitive and playful, it is not easy to work with these special individuals, but when you have new perspectives that come to form new possibilities to add values ​​essential for them.

The professional of any activity has a special gain that is priceless the knowledge, the experience, the improvement of the cognitive and the narrowing of the social relations that are lived by special beings, and took them throughout his life.

CARING AND PLAYING IN EDUCATIONAL TRAINING and the encouragement of innovative pedagogical practices

The student seeks to play in forms of transformation that are expressed in joyful relaxation, in an imaginary world which contributes to development and learning, facilitating the construction of reflection and creativity in early childhood education, innovative practices experienced in play generate changes in children as we know that practice of playing has been extinguished, we must be careful and not let the play disappear.

For this we have to elaborate the organization of time and space for the game, because if we do not the child will not do it alone, we have to put the joke in the routine of children in school (in planning), organize the environment so that the game Happiness is the process of educating the child and we must recognize the play in all its possibility and its educational potential. Child educators need to do a great deal of work to inform society that "playing" is not a waste of time, but a process for the child to move on (MOURA & AMORIM, 2013).

Caring for a child in an educational and personal context requires the integration of various fields of knowledge, as well as the involvement of parents, society and the family so that development actually takes place globally.

The National Curriculum Framework for Early Childhood Education shows us that the basis of human care is to understand how to help the other to develop as a human being. Caring means valuing and helping to build capacity. In order for integral development to occur, care must be taken in relational care, which involves the affective, social, cognitive and motor dimensions and care of the biological aspects of the body, such as food quality and health care (BRASIL, 1998b ).

To care for oneself, one must first of all be committed to the other, with his uniqueness, to be in solidarity with his needs, relying on his abilities. Toy and play are practices that make it possible to develop all these valences. Care needs to consider the needs of children, who when observed, heard and respected, can give important clues about the quality of what they are receiving, parents play a large role in this regard. Lyra (2003) affirms that parents play a fundamental role in the formal and informal education of children, where they absorb ethical and humanitarian values, and can affirm that the family will be the healthiest influence for the development of the personality and character of the children. people23.

It is becoming increasingly difficult to raise children today, it is more complex than in the time of our grandparents and parents: Several factors contributed to this. In the early 1990s, the world has changed radically, and we, children, adolescents and adults all end up living the consequences of these changes, also involving toys and games (LYRA, 2013).

Consumption, isolation and lack of spaces, among other things, have shown that play has undergone transformations and in some places even disappears. Modern society is characterized by a series of transformations; cultural diversity gives way to the process of globalization, collaboration has been replaced by competition and individualism, public space for leisure is disappearing, there is an increasing incentive to consumption, group activities have been replaced, often by the isolation and traditional games are no longer practiced due to the expansion of new technologies (LYRA, 2013).

With these changes the family ends up suffering the consequences and losing important values, even in the moments that involve play, due to lack of time and knowledge of the parents about the benefits that play brings to child development (LYRA, 2013).

In play, children develop important and fundamental abilities for the development of autonomy and identity, as well as mature abilities such as memorization, imagination, attention and socialization (LYRA, 2013).

The teacher, as the main responsible for the organization of learning situations, must know the value of the game for the development of the student. It is up to him to offer a space that combines play with everyday classes, an environment favorable to school learning and that provides joy, pleasure, movement and solidarity in the act of playing (LYRA, 2013).

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

Considering the studies carried out, innovative pedagogical practices fulfill the needs of professionals in physical education, the teacher who has this vision becomes a potentiator that contributes to the growth of these practices, relevant themes such as inclusion and innovation require differentiated postures, introduce something new as the tapembol is gratifying because it is a sport that fills in gradually the three axes of the individual's formation, being the cognitive, social and motor.

Contributing to these demands, through the playful work is caring and play using the conceptual, procedural and attitudinal dimensions propitiating an advance in the teaching-learning process improving the teacher-student relationship that emphasize dimensions such as affection, learning and not of the meaningless obligation for the student so much it is urgent to think in a differentiated perspective of teacher training that glimpses other levels of relation between histories of lives.

Academic knowledge, the production of knowledge is a feeling of work and profession, but these circles can not be closed, since the articulation and discursion of the productions of the groups with the community of parents and teachers is amplified through the dialogue that is fundamental to avoid endogenous in many cases and inhibiting creativity and self-criticism.

Finally, in the course of the studies, it was evident that the game of Tapembol as a pedagogical practice can be presented as a pedagogical practice of innovation in Physical Education classes, as it enriches and diversifies the school curriculum, enabling students to construct of new rules and adaptation of sports, as well as the valorization of regional and cultural expressions, giving meaning and meaning to students in the school context.

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[1] Graduating from the Physical Education Course of Patos de Minas College – Patos de Minas / MG

[2] Teacher at Patos de Minas College – Patos de Minas / MG 

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