Pedagogical practices in remote education and teacher training at Covid-19

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE

BRAZIL, Paulo Henrique de Assis [1], BRAZIL, Danielle Farias Vitorino [2], BARBOSA, Claudio Sales [3], MACIEL, Maria da Conceição Carvalho [4]

BRAZIL, Paulo Henrique de Assis. Et al. Pedagogical practices in remote education and teacher training at Covid-19. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year. 06, Ed. 09, Vol. 06, pp. 130-140. September 2021. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/teacher-training

SUMMARY

This essay had as its theme to discuss pedagogical practices in remote education and teacher training at COVID-19, demonstrating a strategy so that teaching and learning would not be harmed due to the pandemic. The problem of the research is given by the following question: what is the possible solution found to overcome the challenges that arose, in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil, in teaching pedagogical practices so that academic calendars do not undergo changes? To solve the problem, the study had, through the qualitative approach carried out through bibliographic research, as a general objective, to present the importance in the use of ICTs in teaching pedagogical practices for the development of teaching and learning during Covid-19. The paper also discusses the importance of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), in the new model of emergency remote classes. As a result, it was found that the solution found, so that classes continued without interruptions and the academic calendar did not undergo harmful changes, was the introduction of a new teaching format, in which it replaced the classroom classes with the model of remote classes through ICTs. Therefore, training in teaching teacher training in this current process of remote classes is fundamental for success in education in the country, because teachers updated and aware of these technological innovations are the link and mediators of knowledge between students and technologies.

Keywords: Teaching, Training, COVID-19, Technology, Knowledge.

1. INTRODUCTION

In 2020 the world faced a crisis in world public health, caused by the pandemic of COVID-19, the United Nations Organizations (UN) decreed social distancing to control this virus. For, it was a virus of little knowledge and study, but very volatile, with this the UN believed at that time that little social interaction would prevent the spread of the virus.

In Brazil the first cases occurred at the end of February 2020 and isolation was declared in March of the same year. Several sectors of the economy were affected and had to change due to the virus.

Education was one of the sectors of the Brazilian economy that had to adapt to a new reality, since the interaction between teacher and student could no longer occur in person due to the spread of the COVID-19 virus. Thus, the emergency remote teaching mediated by Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), bringing new challenges to be faced by teachers in their pedagogical practices. COVID-19 lasts until the present time and is defined by the Ministry of Health as follows:

A COVID-19 é uma doença causada pelo coronavírus, denominado SARS-CoV-2, que apresenta um espectro clínico variando de infecções assintomáticas a quadros graves. De acordo com a Organização Mundial de Saúde, a maioria (cerca de 80%) dos pacientes com COVID-19 podem ser assintomáticos ou oligossintomáticos (poucos sintomas), e aproximadamente 20% dos casos detectados requer atendimento hospitalar por apresentarem dificuldade respiratória, dos quais aproximadamente 5% podem necessitar de suporte ventilatório. (BRASIL, 2021)

COVID-19 is a pandemic that has a great power of contamination among humans on the planet. Thus, realizing the need for prevention of contagions to be taken. Even social isolation, as it is being applied in educational institutions to ensure pedagogical practices and life itself.

There was a need to reorganize pedagogical practices in Brazilian basic education in the country’s educational institutions caused by a pandemic that arrived unexpectedly. This reorganization aimed to improve the teaching-learning process in the institutions, because some readaptation measures had to be taken so that classes could be continued in schools and a solution was to introduce an emergency remote modality format with the help of ICTs.

Emphasizing that the purpose of remote teaching was not to replace existing pedagogical practices, but rather to provide access to information from non-face-to-face classes in order to preserve the health of both students and teachers who are in home isolation.

Today, teacher training has provided a positive result in teaching-learning in relation to students studying in educational institutions throughout the country. Thus, it is noted the relevance of always the professional in education is constantly recycling itself with the objective of walking side by side with the possible changes that may arise in the academic environment. In order to always provide a quality education to the students who teach.

In this context, we are faced with the following problem: what is the possible solution found to overcome the challenges that arose, in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil, in teaching pedagogical practices so that academic calendars would not undergo changes?

The essay is a bibliographic study in education, with a qualitative approach, aiming to expose and discuss thoughts of authors related to the proposed theme.

2. CONTEXTUALIZING PEDAGOGICAL PRACTICES IN REMOTE TEACHING IN COVID-19 TIME

The pedagogical practices in Brazilian teaching in schools, due to the emergence of COVID-19, had to be re-adequate so that the safety of life was ensured to all who make up the core of an educational institution: outsourced, security, maintenance, cleaning, administrative staff, students and teachers. The solution applied to ensure this security for all was to introduce classes in remote mode in an emergency way and with the help of ICTs. Remembering that the goal of remote teaching was not to exchange the pedagogical practices that already existed, but to provide a new format of distance instruction that would protect everyone.

There was this strategy of conducting a new non-face-to-face class format so that education would continue to take place and in schools in the country. The aid of ICT as teaching-learning tools is being paramount for remote classes to take, because without these technologies, academic calendars in the country would not be possible today.

Arruda (2020, p.10) sets out its thinking about taking remote classes in the midst of the pandemic as follows:

A singularidade da pandemia deve levar também à uma compreensão de que a educação remota não se restringe à existência ou não de acesso tecnológico, mas precisa envolver a complexidade representada por docentes confinados, que possuem famílias e que também se encontram em condições de fragilidades em suas atividades. O ineditismo leva a ações que precisam envolver toda a complexidade da qual faz parte.

For the author, remote education applies not only to the issue of having technology or not in schools, but rather something more enigmatic that involves the health of teachers and their families who could be affected by COVID-19 if there were face-to-face classes and not remote classes.

In this format of teaching, teachers throughout the country are able to carry out their pedagogical practices adapted with new technologies and perform their classes with quality and safety.

For Imbérnom (2010, p. 36):

Para que o uso das TIC signifique uma transformação educativa que se transforme em melhora, muitas coisas terão que mudar. Muitas estão nas mãos dos próprios professores, que terão que redesenhar seu papel e sua responsabilidade na escola atual. Mas outras tantas escapam de seu controle e se inscrevem na esfera da direção da escola, da administração e da própria sociedade.

ICT is an important ally for a positive transformation in education, including pedagogical practices. However, they cannot be pointed out as protagonists of this transformation because they are only technologies. The responsibility has to come together from the school and the teacher. And if this connection the problems that may arise will be solved in a quiet and shared way.

The pedagogical practices in remote education that are used today in the midst of the pandemic need to follow the transformations that ICTs have been causing in contemporary society of this century, such as: economy, social and politics.

There is no point in implementing remote classes without the education professional understanding the current context of the transformations that have been taking place in contemporary society. In this way, they will be able to make adaptations to their pedagogical practices of teaching-learning within the primary schools where they teach and be able to help in the best way the functioning of remote classes.

3. DISCUSSIONS ON TEACHER EDUCATION AND KNOWLEDGE MEDIATION

We note the relevance of discussing some definitions of some authors about “teacher training” in order to deepen the theme in question, and then discuss the “mediation of knowledge”.

According to García (1999, p. 26), he defines:

a área de conhecimentos, investigação e de propostas teóricas e práticas que, no âmbito da Didática e da Organização Escolar, estuda os processos através dos quais os professores – em formação ou em exercício – se implicam individualmente ou em equipe, em experiências de aprendizagem através das quais adquirem ou melhoram os seus conhecimentos, competências e disposições, e que lhes permitem intervir profissionalmente no desenvolvimento do seu ensino, do currículo e da escola, com o objetivo de melhorar a qualidade da educação que os alunos recebem.

Garcia advocates that teacher education develop in the area of knowledge. It can be carried out individually or as a team in order to have learning experiences and can leverage their knowledge and skills, thus improving their way of teaching and opportunistic a quality education for students that these education professionals teach.

While Nóvoa (2010, p. 186) makes the reflection on teacher education, when he says that: “to train is not to teach people certain contents, but to work collectively around problem solving. Training is done in production, not in the consumption of knowledge.” The teacher needs to have the discernment that knowledge must be shared in teaching at all times and abandon the vision that only he teaches and the student learns, therefore, the use of these methods by educational institutions is already obsolete and doomed to the end.

Nowadays, the teaching-learning model used involves the collective participation of both teachers and students, where the exchange of knowledge is necessary to train critical citizens who can solve problems that may occur, whether in the educational environment or in their own lives, forming citizens ready to contribute to the society in which they live.

In fact, the objective of the contemporary school of the 21st century is to train students who have the discernment of identifying problems, thinking and being able to outline strategies for problem resolution, emphasizing that the teacher has to be the mediator between student and knowledge, even when there are the technologies involved. For Antunes (2002, p. 137): “Similarly, computers also have numerous features that, if well used, facilitate any discipline. The essential thing, however, is that the use of these technologies is always preceded by a study and experiment by the teacher.”

The author advocates the use of technologies as an aid in teaching-learning by teachers, but whenever these technologies are tested and supervised by him and placing himself as a mediator of teaching-learning.

According to Kenski (2007, p. 44): “he points out that the presence of a particular technology can induce profound changes in the way teaching is organized.” The author also states that the use of technologies helps in teaching-learning, because when a technology is socialized and applied to teaching its speed leverages the positive possibilities of teaching-learning. In relation to remote classes, this format of teaching has the power to bring educator closer to the student, not only because they are virtually connected in real time, but also because they can help exchange knowledge between them.

Second Penteado (2000, p. 23):

afirma que: Quanto à escola, é necessário ajustar e/ou eliminar práticas e regras já existentes e concentrar esforços na criação de situações novas. Estão em jogo as normas institucionais, o currículo, a relação com os alunos, com pais e professores. Quanto ao professor, as mudanças envolvem desde questões operacionais – a organização do espaço físico e a integração do velho com o novo – até questões epistemológicas, como a produção de novos significados para o conteúdo a ser ensinado.

For the author, it is necessary that educational institutions plan new actions so that educators can be mediators in the teaching-learning process, where changes will happen from operational issues to epistemological issues. Therefore, the importance of the teacher being the mediator between student and knowledge and be conducting this process of building their own knowledge and the studentsas well.

However, in order for teachers to be a good mediator of knowledge, they will have to understand the transformations of multicultural society in order to be able to approach the cultural reality of their students. For this to happen, it is necessary to implement in the curricula of basic education institutions a proposal for cultural education directed to teacher training.

For Moreira (2001, p. 43):

Que professores estão sendo formados, por meio dos currículos atuais, tanto na formação inicial como na formação continuada? Que professores deveriam ser formados? Professores sintonizados com os padrões dominantes ou professores abertos tanto à pluralidade cultural da sociedade mais ampla como à pluralidade de identidades presente no contexto específico em que se desenvolve a prática pedagógica? Professores comprometidos com o arranjo social existente ou professores questionadores e críticos? Professores que aceitam o neoliberalismo como a única saída ou que se dispõem tanto a criticá-lo como a oferecer alternativas a ele? Professores capazes de uma ação pedagógica multiculturalmente orientada?

The author’s questions demonstrate his concern about the challenges teachers have been facing in order to be able to train themselves in a multicultural society that presents changes at every moment. In order to have a teacher training, the professional in education needs to adapt to this new reality and conduct in the most up-to-date way and appropriate to its teaching practices so that teaching-learning flows satisfactorily, bringing teachers and students closer.

The insertion of a curriculum that achieves this new model of multicultural society is necessary so that the country’s teaching is not swallowed up by the changes, policies, economic and cultural that has been happening in today’s multicultural world.

The incorporation of these contents in the curricula of basic education institutions can always be updated according to the transformations that may happen in the world in order to bring them closer to current cultural realities and the realities of students.

Thus, providing students to be able to be qualified as individuals with abilities to be critical and able to ask the right questions for the evolution of their knowledge.

According to Moreira (2001, p. 68), he reports that:

[…] capaz de promover a crítica do existente e o questionamento do que parece inscrito na natureza das coisas; capaz, então, de formar indivíduos não conformistas, rebeldes, transgressores, comprometidos com a luta contra toda e qualquer opressão. Decorre de considerá-la, em síntese, espaço público em que, em meio a práticas, relações sociais e embates, se produzem significados e identidades. Nesse espaço, novos tempos podem ser anunciados.

The author explains that the curriculum is capable of training teachersand who have the ability to be critical and reflective and not train rebellious individuals, but committed citizens to the school and the environment in which they live.

In addition to educators calling for themselves the responsibility of being the mediator between knowledge and their students, they had to respect the reality of their students. Since the multicultural world presents a variety of diversity of men and women, cultural, religious, among others.

Thus, the basic education professional needs to have some tolerance behaviors so that there is a good conviviality between students and teachers. Making the professional in education can best apply their pedagogical practices.

4. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

The arrival of COVID-19 had the power to alter the entire daily life of world society, including teaching in educational institutions in Brazil. The pedagogical practices had to be modified almost instantaneously, because if the changes of the educational institutions of the country were not made, they would collapse and the calendars would be suspended for indeterminate times.

As results we realized that the solution found for classes to continue without interruptions and the academic calendar did not undergo harmful changes was made to the introduction of a new teaching format, in which it replaced the classroom classes with the model of remote emergency classes, through the adaptation of pedagogical practices into a new teaching model so that the practicality of this new action to be applied to this teaching prototype was successful. In this way, classes could be taught in real time and would ensure safety to life.

Today, ICTs are being instrumental in this migration of new teaching format, as it is a tool that can bring people together virtually in real time, due to the wide range of innovations it offers its users.

We conclude that teaching training in this current process of remote classes is fundamental for teaching to be successful in the country, because teachers updated and aware of these technological innovations are the link and mediators of knowledge between students and technologies. Technology is something that has been making a difference in teaching, but without a driver it is just something without any use. Therefore, there must be constant teacher training in the subjects relevant to their disciplines, but also to be focused on the new technological innovations that are updated almost daily.

REFERENCES

ANTUNES, Celso. Novas maneiras de ensinar, novas formas de aprender. Porto Alegre: ARTMED, 2002.

ARRUDA, E. P. (2020). Educação remota emergencial: elementos para políticas públicas na educação brasileira em tempos de Covid-19. Em Rede-Revista de Educação a Distância, 7(1), 257-275.

BRASIL, Ministério da Saúde. O que é COVID-19? 2021. Disponível em: https://www.gov.br/saude/pt-br/vacinacao/#o-que-e-covid. Acesso: 05 jul. 2021.

GARCIA, Carlos. Formação de Professores: para uma mudança educativa. Portugal: Porto, 1999. MCLAREN, P. Multiculturalismo crítico. São Paulo: Cortez, 1997.

IMBERNÓN, Francisco. Formação docente e profissional: formar-se para a mudança e a incerteza. 7. Ed. São Paulo: Cortez, 2010.

KENSKI, V. M.  Educando e Tecnologias: O novo ritmo da informação. São Paulo: Papirusp, 44. 2007.

MOREIRA, A. F. B. (2001). Currículo, cultura e formação de professores. Revista Educar, Curitiba, Editora da UFPR, n. 17, p. 5.

MOREIRA, A. F. B. (2001). A recente produção científica sobre currículo e multiculturalismo no Brasil (1995- 2000): avanços, desafi os e tensões. Revista Brasileira de Educação. 18, 65-81.

NÓVOA, António. Os Professores e a sua Formação num Tempo de Metamorfose da Escola. Educação & Realidade, Porto Alegre, v. 44, n. 3, p. 1-15, 2019. Disponível em: https://www.scielo.br/pdf/edreal/v44n3/2175-6236-edreal-44-03-e84910.pdf. Acesso em: 09 jul. 2021.

PENTEADO, Mirian. A informática em ação formação de professores, pesquisa e extensão – Miriam Penteado e Marcelo C. Borba (orgs.), Heloísa da Silva, Telma Gracias. São Paulo: Olho d’Agua 2000.

[1] Master in Economics from UFPB, Post Graduated in Public Accounting from Gama Filho University – UGF /RJ. Graduated in Accounting From UFRN. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6890-4669.

[2] Postgraduate in Public Accounting from Gama Filho University – UGF /RJ; Graduated in Accounting Sciences from UFRN. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6510-9440.

[3] MBA in Public Management from Fluminense Federal University – UFF/RJ; Graduation in EXECUTIVE SECRETARIAT from UNIFACEX. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8341-7826.

[4] Master in Collective Health and Hospital Management; Specialist in Public Health; Graduation in SOCIAL SERVICE from the Catholic University of Pernambuco. ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5391-9366.

Submitted: August, 2021.

Approved: September, 2021.

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