OLIVEIRA, Rosane Machado de 
OLIVEIRA, Rosane Machado de. Supervised Internship Report – Special Education and Inclusive Education. Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal. Edition 08. Year 02, Vol. 03. pp. 115-138, November 2017. ISSN:2448-0959
The activity of curricular internships in special and inclusive education is an activity that consists of a critical analysis of the educational reality, the actions developed in the environment, the procedures and pedagogical resources used and adapted to the educational needs of students with special educational needs, establishing a broad and sensitive to those included in the daily routine of special and inclusive education. The stage in special and inclusive education is a milestone in the construction of the professional identity of both the educator who has been working in the area of special education for years and the educator who is starting his professional career. The stage conceptualizes the reality of the facts in the internalized context, as well as the reflection and the critical analysis of the special and inclusive educational scope, confronting the school reality with the social reality. The curricular internship allows to evaluate the different educational contexts, since they allow numerous reflections on the aspects didactic-pedagogical, administrative, political, psychological, philosophical, curricular, among others that make up the school institution.
The internship in the Specialization course in Special Education and Inclusive Education was carried out by me from the Rosane Machado de Oliveira Postgraduate course, started on September 5, 2016, and ended on November 20, 2016, at the school of basic education Adriana Bonordt EI – EF / initial years – EJA phase I and special and inclusive education modality, founded on October 29, 2005. The stage in special and inclusive education aimed at the analysis and didactic-pedagogical implications, regarding curricular planning, contents, objectives, methods, evaluations and pedagogical relationships in the process of inclusion of students with educational needs, making it possible to identify procedures and resources adapted to the needs of the students, establishing a critical analysis of the current school reality, reflecting on the teacher's question in relation to the new demands in regular education in the process of social inclusion, and the possibilities of the new technologies for special and inclusive education. The internship positively guides teachers, students, researchers, curious and interested in research activities of the pedagogical practice in the inclusive educational context. It is believed that research is one of the most significant scientific principles for the construction of knowledge, and it is indispensable for teacher training, because to train is to feel instigated by curiosity, the desire to seek and overcome, is to know how to work with the indicators that emerges during the data collection, since the whole process is important, not only the result achieved, in short, the internship in educational contexts privileges the learning process of the future teacher, leading him to inquire about proposals adopted by the school towards the students with special educational needs. The curricular internship in special and inclusive education is an indispensable and extremely important instrument for future training in the area of specialization in special education and inclusive education, because the internship examines the essential aspects for pedagogical practice in school and social inclusion through a curriculum adapted to the construction of identities and the recognition of human diversity. The internship in practice provided relevant learning by enabling real and direct contact with the school, teachers, staff and especially with learners.
Through observations and inquiries, it was analyzed that the methodological proposal elaborated by the educators of the school is based on a significant and beneficial teaching-learning for all people with limitations, including in the teaching process the respect to the different rhythms of learning. In the curriculum internship report, many methodological procedures were used, such as live lectures, via satellite (tele-lectures), with interaction via 0800, development of reflection activities and discussions between student / teacher via virtual learning environment (forum) , conducting debates and explanations via web radio with clarification of doubts with the teacher of the discipline, studies in the learning route. It was also used a bibliographical research carried out at a municipal and university library of the Capanema-PR polo as well as field research at the Adriana Bonordt school.
The items that will be worked on in this report include: Identification and characterization of the trainee school, characterization of the class and professionals, registration of the profile of the class observed, registration of descriptive meetings held at the school, reports of educators, description and reflective analysis of curricular trainee activities, special education and inclusive education, participation and observation in the school, preparation of the lesson plan and application of the plan and intervention plan in the school.
2. IDENTIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF THE ESTAGED INSTITUTION
The curricular internship work in special and inclusive education was carried out at the basic education school Adriana Bonordt EI – EF / initial years – EJA phase I and special and inclusive education modality. The institution was founded on October 29, 2005, located in a rural area in the Coxilha Bonita line community, main street s / nº, located in the city of Bela Vista da Caroba in the Southwest region of Paraná, CEP: 85.745-000, the contact with the school Adriana Bonordt can be realized through the telephone (46) 3557-1275 or of the e-mail [email protected], enrolled in the CNPJ under nº 07.703.016 / 0001-00.
The characterization of the building of the school is well structured, the spaces are large and clear, it has some architectural structures according to the needs of locomotion of some students with specific limitations. The lighting and ventilation are of excellent quality in all classrooms, including in the building in general, cleaning is efficient in the (rooms, cafeteria, corridors, drinkers, tables, desks, bathrooms, court and kitchen), there is a lot of hygiene and dedication, not only from the janitors, but also from the teachers, direction and students, where they watch over the school, thus avoiding contaminations and having a light and healthy air for all. The classrooms of the institution have the walls decorated with a lot of creativity, such as paintings, illustrative images, colored mobile alphabet, posters with phrases, didactic clothesline and rubber alphabet, among other decorations.
There are resources made available by the school in the promotion of teaching and learning of students in the process of inclusion, such as assistive technology resources, technology of virtual environments, these environments are already inserted in the daily life of students with special educational needs, however, access television, DVD, and computers at school, is usually limited to computer classes and games, with specific rules of use, such as the limitation of the time of access through the Internet, where, with the help of the mediator teacher, the students are embedded in digital knowledge and knowledge of the world, access museums, paintings, alphabetical games online, among others. The furniture in general is in perfect conservation and the disposition of the student public and the school community. In the school the teachers room is large and decorative with access to the library and computers, the administrative services space has an excellent size and availability of collaborative material, the pedagogical space and the support for students and educators is broad and has resources adapted to the special needs of learners, as well as didactic materials and diversified teaching-learning tools. The classrooms are spacious, well-organized, sanitized, clear with great ventilation, the desks and tables in the classroom are arranged in rows and in circles. Food is offered by the school, it is observed that the school lunch is of quality, the hour of exit for the recreation in the afternoon period is 15:15, being allowing 15 minutes for the recreation, the school cafeteria has qualitative facilities that meets the legislation space, food and ease of access to students with special needs.
The preparation of food at school follows a menu prepared by a nutritionist who meets the requirements of nutrition, health and food safety. The school also has non-formal space, where teachers perform many outdoor activities with their students with special educational needs, such as physical expression activities, basketball, paintings, culture and leisure, including green areas.
The profile of the professionals in the trainee space is exemplary, they are organized and participative with all, they transmit security and solidarity to the students that arrive to the school. Teachers have continued training, such as specialization in the area of special and inclusive education, including courses offered by SEED, seminars, class council, school council, congresses, pedagogical team, political pedagogical project, technological qualification, education and TV media school, and some of these trainings take place in the school itself, in the workplace of those professionals who have years of service and have experience in the special educational area. Those responsible for lunch and student safety at school have courses and training in serving the "special" public. The school operates in the morning from 07:15 to 11:15 and in the afternoon period from 1:00 pm to 5:00 p.m., the same offer attendance there are various modalities of education, from the initial years of elementary education, youth and adult education EJA and special and inclusive education . The school has a public legal regime, it has 6 classrooms and attends a number of 48 students enrolled, ranging from 5 to 10 students per class. The school has its pedagogical proposal based on educational / social inclusion, where it adopts attitudes of respect, values, ethics and procedures adapted to the needs of attending its educational public. The school has a diverse and qualitative teaching-learning methodology of its students with special educational needs, as well as adapted resources, such as the multifunctional resource room.
2.1 CHARACTERIZATION OF THE CLASS
At the institution I attended, I attended and observed the class of the second year B of Elementary School – Special Mode, in the afternoon period, the class was composed of 9 students, including 7 girls and 2 boys. In the classroom during the pedagogical activities, I analyzed that there was 1 girl and 1 boy with ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), who were at the whole second inattention to the class and the teacher's explanations, class 2 girls with Higher Gifting Skills, which showed an intense creativity and motor skill in the activities. The interaction of the students with special educational needs with their educator occurred constantly and actively, being very significant for the teaching-learning process of the same, where the communication between teacher and students was very friendly. The educator integrated with his students with special educational needs efficiently in the search of knowledge, organization management, values and norms of conduct based on a pedagogy focused on the student in its difficulties, needs / peculiarities and not only in the curricular contents approached.
The teacher created situations that promoted the inclusion and integration of his students, promoting challenging problems for them, where the learners developed step by step their learning based on creativity and external and internal stimuli. The educator offered the students opportunities to be autonomous, to develop their abilities / potential, because there are no barriers that with the support of a team a student with special educational needs (SEN) can not overcome. The school, together with its educators and the school community, must always keep in mind and truly believe in the capacity of regeneration of the "special" person, since every human being is modifiable, regardless of his initial limitations, as well as the intelligence of any person can be "expanded".
Feuerstein (2002) is based on the belief that every human being is able to modify, regardless of its origin, ethnicity, age or genetic condition, it defines:
Modifiability (cognitive) is the propensity (potential) of an individual to modify through both direct and mediated learning experiences directed toward structural and behavioral needs. In response to the presentation of mediation interventions that are systematic, planned and repetitive over a period of time and through 16 variations in the exposure of stimuli, the subject becomes plastic and modifiable, increasingly favorable to exposure to direct stimuli. The propensity for modifiability can be assessed through dynamic procedures, and can be influenced by the EAM offered in structured situational contexts. (FEUERSTEIN; FALIK; FEUERSTEIN, 2006, p.16).
The pedagogical relationship was mediator, integrated and intentional on the part of the educator who had knowledge, that is, the teacher was mediator between the students, the knowledge and the activities developed, activities that "combined" with the learners' learning needs , both with common goals, meaning meaningful learning. In the National Policy on Special Education, integration is conceptualized as:
A dynamic process of people's participation in a relational context, legitimizing their interaction in social groups. Integration implies reciprocity. And under the school focus is a gradual and dynamic process that can take different forms according to the needs and abilities of the students (BRAZIL, 1994, p.18).
During the participatory observations at the school, we analyzed the intentionality with which each element of the inclusive pedagogical practice was planned by the teacher, where he used a variety of methodologies and teaching-learning methods. The hour-activity in the school is well elaborated by the educator, who uses the pedagogical knowledge with contents proposed legally obeying the legislation for the special and inclusive education, for the year / cycle / and age range of the students and their specific limitations of learning . The intention of the teacher was to create teaching alternatives that seek to arouse students' interest in what we call a "different class", working with paintings, crafts, collages, dances and songs.
The educator developed many works with the students with special educational needs, where, through this organization, the teacher managed to achieve the merit that was intended in the classroom, the concrete planning of the teacher was effective so that the students' learning happened in a pleasant and profitable The educator used playful procedures to work with the students in the regular network of education, which made all the difference in the cognitive development of the students with special educational needs, because to work with playfulness is to expand the creativity, being the ludic a stimulus complex and enriching pedagogical work, which should be used and appreciated by teachers, both in formal and non-formal environments. In this respect Santos says:
The ludic formation is based on assumptions that value creativity, the cultivation of sensitivity, the pursuit of affection, the nourishment of the soul, providing future educators with playful experiences, corporal experiences that use action, thought and language, taking in the game its energizing source. (SANTOS, CRUZ, 1999, p.13-14)
It is analyzed that many of the positive acquisitions in the life of such students were given through play activities, that is, to play. The influence of the toy is highlighted by Vygotsky (1989).
[…] the influence of the toy in the development of a child is enormous, it is in the toy that the child learns to act in a cognitive sphere, rather than in an external visual sphere, depending on the internal motivations and tendencies, and not on the incentives provided by external objects. (Vygotsky, 1989, p.109)
At school, the daily life of students with special educational needs should be developed daily based on environmental stimuli, as well as the application of recreational and diversified activities in the search for the development of motor, sensorial, intellectual coordination, attention, rhythmic movement, knowledge about the position of the body and the cognitive development of the students.
2.2 REGISTRATION OF THE PROFILE OF THE CLASS
It is observed that the class in general is intertwined and dynamic, the students with special educational needs are sympathetic with each other, enjoy play activities, dances, paintings, handicrafts, montage of words with the mobile alphabet, works with collages of images and letters on posters. The students' sensitivity in the development of educational activities, both in the formal environment and in the non-formal environment, was verified in the internalized context.
The class is active and the students are challenged to learn, to do the tasks, and to understand the activities proposed.
2.3 DESCRIPTIVE REGISTRATION OF ENCOUNTERS DONE IN THE EDUCATIONAL CONTEXT
To complement and develop supervised work, I personally held several meetings at the Adriana Bonordt School of Special Education in Bela Vista da Caroba – PR, where I participated in the activities together with the teacher and his students with special educational needs. Below in table one, I detail in a schedule the days I attended at school, I observed, participated, helped the teachers in the activities and applied the lesson plan in the class of the 2nd year B – Special Mode.
Table 1. Schedule – Observation and Participation in the School of Special Education
|Date / Month / Year||Schedule||Classes observed / participated during the internship|
|9/16/2016||1:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.||Activities carried out with image, based on the theme – environment, then clipped and pasted in the students' notebook, for the formation of small sentences about the images.|
|9/20/2016||1:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.||Developed several fun activities in the non formal space, such as assembly games, dominoes, gold material, basketball and catch.|
|09/27/2016||1:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.||Activity developed through short reading and interpretation of the text (The Luanda Flute), performed by the teacher / mediator. Subsequently proposed for the students, a questionnaire with small questions to answer about the text presented and commented by the educator.|
|10/5/2016||1:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.||Material Production – Handicrafts and paintings.|
|10/25/2016||1:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.||Activities with dances, songs and rehearsal for the presentation of a theater about (A Gaúcha Culture Rio-grandense).|
|10/31/2016||1:00 a.m. to 5:00 p.m.||Activities performed in a circle in the formal environment with tales of poems and development of small sentences, as well as simple mathematical calculations.|
|10/11/2016||1:00 a.m. to 3:00 a.m.||Application of the Classroom Plan (Literacy)|
Source: Rosane Machado de Oliveira
The visits to the school were essential not only for the development of the postgraduate work in Special Education and Inclusive Education, but it was relevant and significant the knowledge that was obtained through the practice and observation throughout the educational context.
The recess at school is fifteen minutes for students and teachers. Since then, it has been observed in the playground that the class is educated and queuing to be served. The food is prepared by the cooks of the school and served by an auxiliary who delivers the food to the students. In the recess the group enjoys snacking, and at the same time they talk, sit together at the cafeteria tables and help colleagues with more severe needs or limitations than theirs.
The observation in the classroom was rewarding, I analyzed that the curriculum is composed of methodologies appropriate to the needs of learners, where the burden of fragmented content outside the student reality is no longer the main task in the school curriculum, and it prevails to the quality in the teaching offered to students. In the classes, the works are carried out with total dedication of the students with special educational needs, among the works, they are, crafts, paintings, collages, written with mobile alphabet, dominoes, golden material and works developed with ludic activities among others. The methodological procedures that the teacher adopted during his classes facilitated the learning of the class, I observed that the materials when they are diversified have the purpose of transforming ideas into concrete situations, causing the students to understand new knowledge. It is noted that the interaction between students with special educational needs and the teacher in the classroom was excellent, the group was very participative and communicative. The dialogue remained during the lessons, in the jokes, in the exchanges of ideas, questions, answers, debates, reading, knowledge of the words and continuous evaluation of the activities. Thus, it was verified that dialogue is fundamental in the dialectical educational process, both in the methodological orientation and in the teacher-student relationship, in which the educator and the students are active subjects in the teaching-learning process, produce and construct their own knowledge .
The educational process of the special education and inclusive education modality is a democratic and inclusive process on the part of the educators and the school, being an ethical process, of value the human diversity. Some educators report that the school is ethically inclusive, and has its curriculum proposal aimed at serving its target audience, where people with special educational needs are included with democracy in the school environment, and that the school together with teachers, parents, general, is able to gradually develop the cognitive functions, motor skills and potential of their learners.
With emphasis they defend the so-called movement, including the right to diversity, based on the guiding document called (Inclusive Education: Right to Diversity), the same elaborated by the Ministry of Education, the MEC. The educators clarify that the concepts of special education and inclusive education are complementary, and refers to a movement that includes education as a human right, fundamental for life in society and the basis for a fairer country with its population, especially with those with specific limitations, caring about serving all people regardless of their characteristics, disadvantages or difficulties, and enabling all schools for care in their community, focusing on those who have been most excluded from educational opportunities.
The institution's educational legislation seeks to meet in an ethical, concrete and efficient manner the educational needs of its students. Based on this, the specific legislative documents for special education are verified. The Salamanca Declaration (1994, 43) emphasizes that the fundamental principle of an inclusive school is that everyone must learn together. It is the responsibility of the school to "recognize and respond to the diverse needs of its students by accommodating both learning styles and rhythms and ensuring quality education for all through an appropriate curriculum."
Inclusive education welcomes all people, without exception, students with physical disabilities, those with mental disabilities, the gifted, and for all children who are discriminated against for any other reason. In the special education school, the special and inclusive education aims to include all people with special educational needs in regular education, based on the Federal Constitution of 1988, which guarantees to all the direct there is equality (art. 5.).
In article 205, the Constitution deals with the right of everyone to education, aiming at "the full development of the person, his preparation for the exercise of citizenship and his qualification for work" (BRASIL 2004). In article 206, item I, it places as one of the principles for teaching the "equality of conditions, of access and permanence in school" (BRASIL 2004). In accordance with this Constitution, the National Congress, through Legislative Decree No. 198 of June 13, 2001, approved the law based on the provisions of the Guatemala Convention, which deals with the elimination of all forms of discrimination against persons disabled and makes clear the unequal treatment of disabled people.
Brazil, in agreeing to the World Declaration of Education for All, proclaimed in 1990 in Jontien, Thailand, and with the postulates of the World Conference on Special Educational Needs (access and quality) held in 1994 in Salamanca, Spain by building an inclusive educational system. Declaration of Salamanca (1994), The statement further adds:
All children have a fundamental right to education and should be given the opportunity to obtain and maintain an adequate level of knowledge. Each child has their own characteristics, interests, abilities and learning needs. Education systems must be designed and programs applied in a way that takes into account the full range of these different characteristics and needs. People with special educational needs should have access to the regular school that should integrate them into a child-centered pedagogy that can meet those needs. Regular schools, with this integrative orientation, represent the most effective means of combating discriminatory attitudes, creating welcoming communities, building an inclusive society and achieving education for all, as well as providing effective education for the majority of children and improving both efficiency and the cost-benefit ratio of the entire education system. (UNESCO, 1994)
Cultural diversity must be preserved, and it must be used as an enriching element in the educational, social and personal development of people with special needs. Schools together with their education professionals should promote a collective, meaningful, modifiable and beneficial teaching-learning for all people with limitations, including in their teaching process respect for the different rhythms of learning.
a) Trainee: Rosane Machado de Oliveira
b) School: Adriana Bonordt EI – EF / initial years – EJA phase I and special education modality
c) Discipline: Portuguese
d) Classroom hours: 1:00 p.m. to 3:00 p.m.
e) Class: 2nd Year B
f) Room: No. 02
g) Prof Registrant: Jana Deonézio Schardosin
PORTUGUESE LANGUAGE: Interpretation, pronunciation and writing in social inclusion.
General Purpose: To explore the mobile alphabet and the wordboard in word formation so that students with special educational needs learn to use their letters and sound appropriately in the production of short sentences and short texts.
- Develop reading and writing motor skills
- Develop the cognitive skills of students with special educational needs through interpretation.
- Reflect with the learners about resources adapted to teaching and learning, as well as the alphabetical reality in social inclusion, formulating questions and solving problems.
4. SUMMARY OF THE SUBJECT
Using the mobile alphabet and the plank with letters to work sentences and texts with learners with specific learning needs, where the alphabet along with reading / writing are activities that can be developed on posters fixed on the school mural or pasted in the notebook of the students, therefore, each letter has a different sound and meaning, which makes all the difference at the time of teaching to read and to write. The literacy process is more than just the mechanical mastery of writing and reading techniques. It is the mastery of these techniques in conscious terms. It is to understand what one reads and write what one understands.
According to Emília Ferreiro, the school deficit appears to be directly related to the fact that the students' previous knowledge is not taken into account when they enter elementary school, and also because the school uses a mistaken conception of writing as a hermetic and static object, "taught" in an instrumental and technical way, as it happened in the formation of the old scribes, the students "learn" to write in an automated way without understanding what it reads. Thus, this written language "taught" by the school does not correspond truly to the written language as a social and dynamic object, but only as "drawing of letters and sonorization of words". When the knowledge that students already have about writing is discarded, the school contradictorily insists on developing "literacy practices" that discourage and make learning little or no meaning.
5. CLASSROOM DEVELOPMENT
At school, I was already known to the class of students in the special modality of 2nd year B, due to the stage of observation and participation I had in previous days at school, I re-introduced the class and this time as the person responsible for Portuguese . Then I talked to the students about the importance of the mobile alphabet, assistive technology resources, and the board of letters. I sought to reflect with the students on the importance of each letter, where we often do not notice the meaning, but it is the letters that make all the difference in writing a sentence, a text, a letter, a letter among others. Then I presented the alphabet written on the high box template, for the students to pass on a sheet of sulphite, and on another sheet of sulphite I delivered some questions already elaborated digitally by me. Then I asked the class to wait for good answers.
What is the mobile alphabet? The board with letters? What is the importance of resources adapted to special needs? How many letters does the alphabet have? What are the sounds of letters? What are vowels? What are the consonants?
After the questionings proposed to the students with special educational needs, the prior knowledge of the class was verified. Then I organized the group in circles, proposed an activity with the mobile alphabet and the board, where the students formed small sentences, through words written by me on the board. Since then I have given another sheet of sulphite to each student again, and with mediation I have helped them glue the sheet with the following questions to read and respond with my help.
– Write your full name
– Full name of parents
– Your teacher's full name
– Your school name and location
– The location of your residence (urban, rural)
– Your friend's name
– The name of your hometown
I followed the performance of each student, where their development was significant, answered the questions asked above and at the end of the class I gave an oral presentation in which each student presented positive comments about the class adapted to them in the discipline of Portuguese Language .
Mobile alphabet, glue, plank, rubber, sulphite sheet, notebooks, chalkboard, pencils and thickened pens. (Assistive Technology).
At the end of the special and inclusive education class, I evaluated the students in a positive way, because everyone interacted and participated in the class in a creative and critical way, where they knew how to explore their knowledge and deepen their ideas with me and the other colleagues, there was respect and silence listening to my explanations about the importance of the alphabet and the words, knowing the characteristics of each sound produced in the process of literacy / literacy, were disciplined and interested, contributed effectively to the development of activities, as well as cognitive development itself.
BUDEL, GISLAIINE COIMBRA. Mediation of Learning in special education / Gislaine Coimbra Budel, Marcos Meier. – Curitiba: InterSaberes, 2012. – (Social Inclusion Series).
FERREIRO, EMÍLIA. Literacy in process. São Paulo: Cortez, 2004.
Freire, Paul. Education as a practice of freedom. Rio de Janeiro: Peace and Earth, 1967.
The supervised curriculum internship in special education and inclusive education was developed based on the observation of the teaching practice, active participation, the aid to the teacher in the activities and the production of material. The method of social inclusion, the teacher-student relationship, the stimuli of the environment and the toy in the achievement of the Cognitive Modifiability of students with special educational needs were analyzed.
At school I have experienced many positive / meaningful actions, through investigative actions, interviews, knowledge, dialogue, respect, democracy, diverse relationships and cultures, methodological referrals, contents and specific knowledge in the teaching – learning process. The role of the school, society and the family is very important in the struggle to reverse this picture of prejudice and discrimination that people with special needs have because of the specific limitations they have.
The pedagogical adaptations must be constant in order to enrich the knowledge, practice and skills of teachers and learners, so that they can carry out their actions after a tactical and coherent organization, being able to know the objectives, knowing the processes of education, and investing in their continuing education to increase the teaching-learning of learners, should always respect the cognitive development of students, planning and directing activities involving the student as an active agent of the teaching-learning process, as well as analyzing everything the student does: discovering what he dominates, using his hypotheses to understand his way of thinking, that is, to value what the student with special educational need already possesses knowledge.
Regarding the contradictions, the work and performance of the teacher / educator is often considered an isolated action, not important in society, because it is a capitalist society that often values too much the school structures, its media, believing that this is fundamental and necessary for the comfort of their children, devaluing in some moments the effort and performance of the teacher, the work of the teacher that should be more valued, not say that is not being, but is greater recognition of the training, greater salary remuneration for this professional, being that they often have schools with great educational resources, but do not have the most essential to the education that is the teacher, because it happens that, often happens that teachers are often lacking to act in schools, and this needs to be more debated, seen and reflected by our society in general.
The internship in special and inclusive education has provided me with a great learning and a solid formation due to the real participation in the "special" educational context, because the reflection of the reality there is exposed, where the processes of inclusion and exclusion and of the capacity are analyzed of conquering human cognitive modifiability, regardless of the specific limitations of each person. As a conclusion of the work of curricular internship, it can be affirmed that the contributions brought by the work were gradually significant to my future teacher training. It has been found that social inclusion is possible, and through it one obtains greater opportunities and capacity to establish bonds and to develop physically and cognitively all people with special needs.
However, the stimuli of the family, the school, and society towards these people, contribute to their active and autonomous membership in the construction of knowledge. In conclusion, the moments of observations and active participation in the stage space were moments in which the description of the subjects was observed including the culture, social position, behaviors, difficulties encountered, the way of speaking and other specificities. The reconstruction of the dialogue was analyzed, and I used the words of the subjects making the document more accurate and reliable, where the internship was detailed in the best way possible.
We should be seeking knowledge about what special and inclusive education is, since it is an innovative practice that is being emphasized and needs to be of a quality in teaching-learning of all students, we must demand that the school be updated daily, and that we teachers are perfected in our pedagogical practices. It is a new paradigm that challenges Brazilian daily life. They are barriers to be overcome by all: education professionals, community, parents and students. We need to learn more about human diversity in order to understand the differentiated ways that each human being observes the world and the society in which he lives.
BRAZIL. Ministry of Education and Sport. National Policy on Special Education. Brasília, DF: Special Education Secretariat, 1994.
Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, 1988 Brasília, DF, Executive Branch, October 5, 1988
____________. Federal Prosecutor Foundation Attorney Pedro Jorge de Melo e Silva organizers. The access of students with disabilities to schools and common classes of the regular network. Brasília: Federal Attorney for Citizens' Rights, 2004.
BUDEL, Gislaine Coimbra. Mediation of Learning in special education / Gislaine Coimbra Budel, Marcos Meier. – Curitiba: InterSaberes, 2012. – (Social Inclusion Series)
Salamanca DECLARATION and line of action on special educational needs. (1994, Salamanca). Brasília: CORDE, 1997.
FERREIRO, EMÍLIA. Literacy in process. São Paulo: Cortez, 2004.
FEUERSTEIN, Reuven. The dynamic evaluation of cognitive modifiability: the device propensity for learning: theory, instruments and techniques. Jerusalem, Israel: ICELP Press, 2002.
FEUERSTEIN, Reuven. FALIK, Louis H. FEUERSTEIN, Rafi. The definitions of essential concepts and terms: A glossary of work. Jerusalem, Israel: ICELP Printshop of 2006. FEUERSTEIN
Freire, Paul. Education as a practice of freedom. Rio de Janeiro: Peace and Earth, 1967.
UNESCO. Declaration of Salamanca and the line of action on special educational needs. Brasília, CORDE, 1994.
SANTOS, S.M.P .; CRUZ, D.R.M. The ludic in the formation of the educator. In. SANTOS, Santa Marli Pires (Org.). The ludic in the formation of the educator. 3.ed. Petrópolis: Vozes, 1999. p.11-17.
VYGOTSKY, LEVI. The social formation of mind. São Paulo: Martins Fontes, 1989.
PROPOSAL FOR PEDAGOGICAL INTERVENTION – SPECIAL EDUCATION AND INCLUSIVE EDUCATION: THE LÚDICO AS A TOOL IN THE RESCUE OF STRUCTURAL COGNITIVE MODIFICABILITY
1. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE SITUATION:
A tranquil, stimulus-based environment makes all the difference in building and redeeming the cognitive modifiability of any human mental structure. Since then, two gifted female students and a girl and a boy with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) have been observed in the institution. With this situation, it is possible to emphasize the importance of performing during the week in the school, diverse ludic activities in the formal and non formal space, and thus to make the most of the potential of the class in general. For the teaching-learning based on walls, is not properly based on the cultural diversity present in the school context. Teaching should be based on different forms of learning, in diverse contexts and formal and non-formal environments, and the playful as an instrument, qualitatively favors teaching-learning in special education.
2. JUSTIFICATION FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF THE PROJECT IN THE INSTITUTION:
The proposal of intervention based on playfulness is of paramount importance in the area of special and inclusive education, and its main objective is to recover the structural cognitive modifiability of learners, as well as the Reuven Feuestein Theory on the importance of playfulness, of stimuli and the environment in teaching-learning in special education. It is necessary to propose a differentiated pedagogical intervention in the inclusive / special educational context, where the characterization of the pedagogical situation is often fragmented due to lack of stimulus in the teaching-learning of the students, the teacher-student relationship can be more active in the formal and non-formal environments. Environments should be better reused with a variety of play activities in achieving the structural cognitive modifiability of learners with special educational needs. The formal and non-formal environment offer stimuli that should be used competently by the mediator in rescuing cognitive modifiability, in building knowledge, autonomy, mediation and student awareness, where "normal" children exchange ideas, feelings, and games with children considered "special".
With the application of play activities, it is expected that learners with special educational needs, develop motor coordination, attention, rhythmic movement, knowledge about the position of the body and their cognitive development.
3.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVE: To propose, describe and apply an alternative methodology of teaching – learning work with play activities in formal and non – formal environments.
3.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES:
- To deepen the knowledge and the concept of the stimuli that make all the difference in the teaching-learning, in the psychomotor, cognitive, emotional, social and cultural of the students.
- Introduce the school, educators and learners to Reuven Feuerstein's Theory, which relies on stimuli in the environment and manages the rehabilitation of the most severe cases of specific limitations in learners with special educational needs.
- Provide students with diverse experiences in non-formal environments so they can explore the environment, make attempts, and develop cognitively.
- Concretely identify the need to develop a playful methodology both in the formal environment and in the non-formal environment.
In the search to elaborate a proposal of pedagogical intervention in the area of special education and inclusive education, it was based on bibliographical research and field research, realized in libraries and public school of the municipality of Bela Vista of Caroba-Pr, (books of playful methodology , literary works, notebooks, journals, scientific articles, newspapers and a special education institution).
4.1 EVALUATION OF ACTIVITIES:
The activities should be developed once a week in the school during 4 consecutive months, being carried out 8 activities, with a total of 2 hours for each applied activity. Below are details of the activities developed.
- GROUP MYSTICS
The group should be divided into groups, each group composed of 2 students, through gestures and actions represented by the educator in the ludic activities, the group is challenged to correct which are the ludic activities presented by the teacher through the mime, who hit the most activities through gestures and actions will be the group that will propose together with the educator new mimics with play activities.
- CONSTRUCTED TOYS
Through mediation to students with special educational needs (SEN), build toys that go through a process and develop the students' motor skills, such as paper boat, wind tasting and petti bottle boat, in which, after being built will be reflected with the group about the numerous utilities of the recyclable materials in the construction of diverse materials for ludic activities in the formal and non formal environment.
- DRAWINGS AND PAINTINGS
To make the reading of the text the Flute of Luanda, and in a sheet of white sulphite, ask each student to draw what he got from understanding the reading, after being drawn according to the understanding, the imagination and the creativity of each one, the painting can be carried out diversified according to the taste of the students, with gouache paint, crayons or crayons, colored pencil, among others.
- MASSIVE PLAYING: MODELING CHARACTERS
To read and reflect on the story of Snow White with the students, then add that they are free to develop and choose which characters in the story they most identified and then draw / model with colored clay the chosen characters and the nature. Where each student has his book illustrative with the story.
- SYMBOLIC GAME MAKES ACCOUNT
Use jokes such as "make-believe" to let learners perform the role they want at the moment of play. Such activities in non-formal environments seek to competently develop the skills of learners such as psychomotor, cognitive, emotional, social, cultural, imitation, imagination, fantasy and the assimilation of reality.
To develop several popular parliaments in teaching-learning as "One, two, beans with rice", "Serra, serra, serrador" "Tomorrow is Sunday, pipe", accompanied by songs, wheel games and circles.
- FOLKLORE DANCES AND SONGS
To work folk dances, in this sense to use songs, movements in circles, in groups and in pairs. The folk dances have a didactic that allows to deepen and obtain better results and understanding about the other cultures, in which the teaching of the letter, the melody, the sound, the body movements, the gestures, the actions, inclusion, and cultural diversity of each Brazilian region.
- MUDO THEATER
In a group of 3 students, distribute to each group three differentiated formed words, in which with the mediation of the educator each group prepares a small theatrical scene from the 3 words received, then the group presents through the mime the organized play.
White and colored glue, notebooks, paper boat, scrap boat, wind tasting, handmade and illustrative drawings, formal environment and non formal environment, glitter, petti bottle, sulphite paper, speech bubbles, black pencil, crayons, pencil wax, colored modeling clay, music, gouache paint, texts, scissors, literary and informative books, illustrations and chalkboard.
 Supervised Internship Report presented as a partial requirement to obtain the Specialization Degree in the Postgraduate Course in Special Education and Inclusive Education, from the Uninter International University Center.
 Graduated in Pedagogy (FACINTER), Undergraduate Full Degree in History 2nd Semester (FACINTER), Specialization in Special and Inclusive Education (FACINTER), Specialization Teaching in Higher Education (Faculdade São Luís).