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Anexos / Arquivos

The inclusion of different Social Context: the duty of all

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DIAS, Maycon Rodrigues de Oliveira Dias [1]

DIAS, Maycon Rodrigues de Oliveira Dias. The inclusion of different Social Context: the duty of all. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. 03 year, Ed. 06, vol. 01, pp. 158-171, June 2018. ISSN: 2448-0959


A world of radical transformations in the 20th century and, in the midst of so many changes the families became stronger and began to demand the right to school for their children considered sick and disabled by society. These movements called attention at exactly the moment in Jontiem, was a great Conference, and data on illiteracy were alarming. This was the first Conference to demand from countries that include regular common schools the children with educational needs. It was the beginning of inclusion. The present article conceptualizes the inclusion, presents samples of the way that this has been taking to reach your true course, demonstrates how it's supposed to be an inclusive school. There are many challenges for schools and for special families, but this right to study in a common school was purchased and is being taken forward. This article also teaches that what we want is not only in schools, but throughout society, because the differences should not be seen as a problem for the other handle. On the contrary, differences exist as an opportunity for the growth of a society.

Keywords: Challenges, special Inclusive Proposal Differences.

1. Introduction

The deficiency should be treated as a concrete theme, as is a reality throughout the world. All parents expect kids healthy and perfect, and when a child is born with some type of disability, the tendency at the beginning, is sadness or ignore the existence of the problem. However, pretending that the problem does not exist, do not send him away, because for the rest of their lives these "special" parents will have more a special job to do.

At first, parents will have to learn to deal with the situation. Learn with the child, with the doctors who attend, to live with the looks of pity from family or neighbors, with the rejection of strangers and, as if all this were not enough, parents have yet to engage in fighting for more rights for us kids, because the laws tend to be only on paper or, even, in certain cases, there are laws.

Here it comes the inclusion of these children in the first place, in the schools, but it is known that before that happens, a great battle was fought by parents. The other is now the regular education and, later, comes the job, find a company/partner, and the other difficulties of the adult world.

As this research focuses only on education, here will be a little of the history of devaluation of persons with disabilities and, also, how this came to be recognized and valued. It is known that there is a lot still to do, the obstacles to the improvement in the life of a person with very pronounced differences in your body are almost endless, because life is like a battle that rages every day. You can't always win, the losses are myriad when it is disabled, but there are also many victories, and one of them is the inclusion.

The inclusion is present in schools thanks to requirements of the World Conference on education for all in Jontiem. From there the world moved to include these people not only in schools but also within the society.

The Brazil, on the face of it, promotes your changes or try to adapt what you already own, but the fact is that the inclusion in Brazil is not yet in your moment full of accomplishments.

2. Development

The speech that we are all different and that makes this human species more complex and more beautiful in the universe is a very favorable to our life. However, some differences are very pronounced, very visible and not always pretty and, as the man across your story of domination has eyes on the most beautiful and/or stronger, these two qualities do not have favored who is born without these characteristics .

The society does not evolve at the same time everywhere, however it is known that schools existed as a result of the need to supply labor in industries.

"Analyzing the perspective of society in relation to the school, institution, until almost the end of the 20th century, which proposed to school, primarily for the general public, is that she chose in the population a certain number of individuals who could compose the frames of operating productive sector of society. " (GUIMARÃES, 2002. p. 9)

By this quotation becomes clear the real situation of the majority of the people with respect to equality of conditions for study in a regular school.

Complementing the educational trajectory, in MAZZOTA (2005), (review of the pages 26-27) to special education just won voice and time in the twentieth century, since until the 19th century little was known about this matter concerning people disabled and complements the inclusion came after the integration process depended on the need for a precise diagnosis of the disorder and, after integrating the child in a regular school.

Only the integration of a person in an ordinary school, not really, because that includes you do by filling in a registration, an opening at the school. However, if the student is not in school learning conditions, he is being segregated, not included. Is that the world of school is very restricted and then fight for inclusion, which is broad and encompasses the whole of society. In fact, inclusion would be education of the whole society to accept and view the differences as an opportunity unfolds, a new horizon of knowledge. The struggle continues, now, is the inclusion of the fact, that why we still have a maturing in society and in the training of those involved in education as a whole. Confirms that GUIMARÃES (2002 P. 11) to comment that "the fight of the century beginning is for the right to stay in school, the right not to be excluded from the educational process" idea is also advocated by the author below.

"The inclusion, like other movements caused by groups that historically have been excluded from school and full citizenship, is a complaint to what Hannah Arendt called" nude ", because it is abstract innovation is incompatible with the abstraction of the differences, to reach a universal subject. (MANTOAN, 2006 p. 17 ")

MANTOAM, in the course of the work mentioned above, makes clear, numerous times, reluctant to accept the inclusion is a sign of the maturing of society, not founding its objectives in a homogeneous mass and preaching the equality. In fact, ponders her (the author), there may be equality of rights, however the timing does not always come true and this is clearly verified in the schools where they teach the same content for the class as if all learn in the same space of time, in the same way and thus the inclusion then passes to be one of the greatest challenges of teaching.

"Why the difference is difficult to be denied, denied, undervalued. If she is denied, denied, undervalued, it is necessary to assimilate it to the essentialist and egalitarianism, if accepted and valued, it is necessary to change sides and break with the pillars on which the school has been signed so far. (MANTOAN, 2006. p. 19) "

Supported by the teachings of author mentioned above, we see that there is no equality, because we are different and that makes us be unique. Moreover, in a society in which there are losses and profits, the differences are clearly visible in the knowledge that a few are more pronounced than others allowing a great difficulty of integration in society.

The LDBEM (law of Guidelines and Bases for national education) Law No. 9394/96 prescribes that special education is "the school education mode, preferably on regular network offered education for learners with special needs", therefore, the service quality, not hurt it.

The school must be out of the House every day for all minors, however that does not mean the exclusion of adult, but yes, your free will to choose. The inclusion aims to transform society, slow steps, but not impossible.

"The inclusion translates the capacity of the school to give effective answers to students ' learning differences, considering their development as a priority. The practice of inclusion implies the recognition of differences of students and in the design of that learning is built on cooperation from the subject's activity on Middle requests, having the subject of knowledge as a subject as ". (FORBES, 2010 p. 38)

To include all learn to live with the different, professor widen your knowledge and force innovate your methodology. In the classroom there are exchanges, cooperative Fellowship. The right to education cannot be denied and is a way to help everyone to fight for your freedom.

2.1 Deletion and the idea of inclusion

GUIMARÃES (2002), in the preface of the work volume of 22 Lessons, considers that the poor did not have a place in society for centuries and that only from the middle of the 20th century is the Brazil comes looking to offer school for all children and also with the quality of the teaching process. In GLAT (2007) have observed a pedagogical guidance on working with students who exhibit mental impairment, hearing, physical, etc. This represents an improvement since not all teachers were qualified to this work.

Educational exclusion means any person who by no misfortune attends a school, but the greatest exclusion of fact is the moment you see a student in school with learning difficulties and nothing is done to this get out of that condition. You do then need a job that encompasses participation Monetary Fund (this is the part of the Government), the great desire to always redo your school pedagogic project in order to make the teaching and a proposal that enhances the disabled in society.

"School inclusion of students with special needs demand a radical change in the management of the educational system so large, and each school specifically, prioritizing actions in all levels of education, from early childhood education to programs for training of teachers. Make yourself a priority, too, adequacy of school buildings and architectural organization of technical resources and services that promote educational accessibility and communication. " (GLAT, 2007 p. 38)

Education is the basic path to a life in society. Education transmits culture and at the same time widen the horizons and makes the young dream of life which participates, have your independence, has knowledge of society and living and change that surrounds it. To GUIMARÃES (2002. p. 12) "public education must have your destination determined by the needs of the market." And speaking of market, the disabled also aware of its limitations, but for education know you can overcome many of them.

Cool (et al., 2004) is also one of the references to inform us that the special education underwent profound transformations during the 20th century. The world of education has extended your way of thinking seeing the idea that all are equal before the law. This is the basis which has enabled the social movements to go further by requiring school for all disabled people. However this requirement cannot from just "I want, we require". Education as a whole went through an intense reflection both in studying every type of disability, but also helps in analysis of how schools can help in the inclusion of these children or adults in the world and on life in society. This same author teaches us that during the first half of the 20th century, it was believed that the deficiencies were purely organic, and this brought us two consequences, one is the need for a precise diagnosis of the disorder, and the other is the certainty that such students should be in a special school.

It was believed that simply insert a student in a special school and the problem of inclusion would be taken care of. Being this a wrong thought remembering that it's called "integration" and non-inclusion.

MARCHESI (2004, p. 24) reports there are three types of integration so synthesized:

  1. Physical integration occurs when there are special education classes in ordinary school, but students are still somehow separated from school though they may share some of the same dependencies as the courtyard or the cafeteria.
  2. Social integration occurs in the same way that physical integration, however, joining the regular students to special are the games and other activities extraescolares.
  3. Functional integration occurs when special students participate in the dynamics of the school and study in common classes.

However, that's still no inclusion and this totally happens along the lines of the following concepts. The inclusion, therefore, is:

"A process by which society adapts to be able to include in its general social systems people with special needs and, at the same time, these are preparing to assume their roles in society. (…) Include is change, understanding, respecting, valuing, fight against exclusion, overcome barriers that society has created for the people. Is to offer the development of autonomy, through the collaboration of thoughts and formulation of value judgment, so that you can decide for yourself, how to act in different circumstances of life. " (SASSAKI, 1997, p. 41) "

SASSAKI (1997) see that inclusion is not just taking the child or young person at schools, but that such participation be effectively also society. It is, above all, to live with dignity. A person with special needs to education also needs to be polite society, because life depends on exchanges, understanding, respect, values etc.

Include is to teach and learn as you read below:

[…]"a philosophy that values diversity, skills and needs as natural a[do ser humano]nd desirable, bringing to each community the opportunity to respond in a way that leads to learning and growth of the community as a whole, and giving each Member This community is a value.  (FLETCHER, 2005, p. 44) "

There is a consensus among these two authors, Ferreira and Sassaki, as regards learning exchanges. The school needs to work and live the ethical principles, values, citizenship involving everyone and without discrimination, and teaching students to enforce their rights.

 2.2 the issue of disability and your history of inclusion

As already described, until the middle ages a child who was born with global, physical or sensory disability was seen by society as a punishment for the family. This idea came from changing with the drag of the centuries and with the greater contribution of people fighting against all sorts of discrimination. This whole fight obtained strengthening from the mid-twentieth century and sought to overcome the challenges that the modern world requires us being one of them.

The inclusion is a challenge involving the whole of society, dealing with your diversity and propose equal rights to study, to work to leisure and the other taking into account the specificity and the gift of each without, however, view the individual and Yes, see your essence, because no one should load the fault to be born in such a race, color or with disabilities whether they are intellectual, sensory or motor. GUIMARÃES (2002) devotes a special chapter all focused on these challenges stressing that one of them is to extend the inclusive education.

Before dealing with the inclusion, the world already knew special schools and some of those enrolled also studied in regular schools, but many did not have the protection necessary for competent teachers. Is the integration of the students in the school, however this is not inclusion as comment below.

"The school inclusion is articulated the broader social movements, requiring more equal and fairer mechanisms in the access to goods and services. Linked to democratic societies that are based on individual merit and equal opportunities, the inclusion proposes unequal treatment as a way of restoring equality that was broken by special and regular education segregadoras. (MANTOAN, 2006, p. 16) "

Therefore, the author cited indicates that the path is difficult enough in order to effect the full inclusion as should be done. Depends on the Government dropping laws that support this group of people, not just schools, it's not just present the documents that this student was enrolled and must often seek the alternative right along the teaching Departments and depends on companies for the contract to work in a world where there is so much unemployment and miss opportunities.

2.3 a story struggles

From the mid-20th century, social movements fighting intensified with the goal to minimize into extinction, the existing discrimination and models teaching not homogenisers taking into consideration the specific nature.

The inclusion strength gained from the big event, a World Conference on education for all in 1990, Jontien, in which calls attention of countries to the high rates of illiteracy and young children without schooling.

In 1994, another Conference of great importance, the World Conference on Special needs education: access and quality. From that Conference, drew up a document in which makes clear the existence of the problem, proposing and demanding changes. This document is the Declaration of Salamanca and line of action on Special needs education (DUTRA, c. p.; SANTOS, M.C.D., 2010 p. 20)

That same year, 1994, Brazil was present by publishing the document National Special Education Policy defining the modalities of special education, home care and others, noting that the student with special needs should be enrolled in a private network of common education.

"The proposed educational system inclusive, then be perceived on your historical dimension, as a process of reflection and practice, enabling effective conceptual, political and pedagogical changes, consistent with the purpose of making effective the right of everyone to education, established by the Federal Constitution of 1998 ". (DELHI, C. P.; SANTOS, M.C.D., 2010 p. 21) " 

The proposal of the inclusive school comes a date or recent-a little more than three decades-and, considering the vastness of the country and its enormous problems typical of a developing country, it is natural that there is still much to do and learn in this area There is a history of struggles continues.

The law of Guidelines and Bases for national education (LBDEN 9394/96) supports all Brazilians by establishing, in Art. 2°, that education is a right of the family in search of full development. But this was not always equal conditions for all. Special education suffers from schools with stairs to climb, (the model structure of the buildings is always the same, containing classrooms on the top floor) of teacher shortage and special equipment. Brazilian Governments know they must comply with the constitutional laws, allowing also the fulfillment of the Declaration of Salamanca, providing school units of resources that help students to develop.

The money generator factor so that the schools can fulfill your role in the inclusion is the FUNDEB (Maintenance Fund and national education Guidelines) as resolution No. 4/2009, article 8, of the CEB (National Board of education) that accounts for double the expenditure for a student with special needs.

"Will be counted twice, under the FUNDEB N°. 6,571/2008, students enrolled in regular education, common class audience that had concurrent registration in the AEE.

the plate in funding) ESA is making the registration in the general education of the public network, according to the school census record/MEC/INEP, being contemplated;
(b) common and class Registration) in the same room features multifunctional public school;
c) common class Registration and multifunctional room features another public school;
d) common and class Registration in Specialized Educational Service Center of special education institution publishes;
and common and class Registration) in Specialized Educational Service Center of special education community institution, confessional or non-profit philanthropic "(BRAZIL, [2]2009 apud BARROW, C 2010. p. 6)

This resolution makes it clear the source of monetary resources for schools to do your work, and that the particular student should be enrolled if need be, in two types of resources for learning such as common class and Service Center Educational, always common room first and then, if necessary, other special mode.

2.4 As the school grows stronger on the perspective of inclusion

The school should be the place where every child can grow with wisdom. The school, which provides a date with friends, make more friends, (fight, too, why not?); the fights help you meet and know the diversities. The school must account for all students, making everyone have desire to frequent it. The major challenges of education, according to GUIMARAES, 2002 p. 59-51, ensure appropriate schooling students, mainly those which have special needs, turning the school into a democratic space. The cool part, the challenge tends to seek coherence between discourse and practice. In schools, breaking with the dichotomy of integration, which only receives the child, however not really offering includes teachers and pedagogues. The guidance in GUIMARÃES (2002), MANTOAN (2006). GLAT (2007) among others, is that schools should develop a pedagogical project that meets every situation, to promote interaction between students, family and school.

It makes no sense, however, the serial schools, evidence, written assessments for all students, for special needs means also the blind, the hyperactive, etc. And the challenges didn't stop, and the inclusive school does not put barriers in the way of who has the right to be attending, and interacting with the middle school and, above all, learning.  On this subject, once again CITES:

"The inclusive school offers learning opportunities to all. Not only the academic learning, but those relating to the human diversity sensitivity, experience the richness of difference and the development of the spirit of collaboration, so significant aspects in the construction of a subject. (2002, p. 51). "

The United Nations Convention (2006) guides on how to inclusive schools. Theoretically, it is sufficient that the regular schools do the registration of disabled children and to subsidize with competent teachers. But that's not all. The school needs to prepare that student to face life, to qualify the order that can be inserted in society, that is to say, the schools need to take a very big step for inclusion.

Despite being clear in the guidelines and Bases for national education-LDBEN-the legal support for people with special needs of any kind, much progress is still to come.

The need to include this in the LDBEN and in the Declaration of Salamanca and conventions, are not all schools of Brazil that meet that request. Is that to comply with that law schools need teachers run.

In some regions the State Education Secretariat proposes a special service in a polo school, thus proving that not all schools equipped with everything a real inclusion needs to function with due quality we all deserve as complements FIGUEIREDO (2010. p. 34).

"It is not enough to ensure the accessibility, in other words, we must create the conditions for the school to become a true space of exchanges that promote the Act of teaching and learning. In this sense, our country still has a substantial way to go to ensure education for all young people, children, adults and adolescents in the public school system. "

Transform the school is inová it and get information, fulfill the political project, is to ensure school for all, and that's not to say that "the registrations are open", and say that the kids at school will be seen by others as a friend, and will be accepted in the class. Transforming school is also transpose to class in a cosy atmosphere. The school needs to be more democratic, teachers and administrators and policy teams should work together, share projects. (FORBES, 2010 p. 37) complements:

"In a school that organizes the learning situations considering the differences, the teaching and the teaching support integrate to orchestrate the learning, ensuring the effective participation of all students in all educational practices. They labor in the implementation of an education that takes into account the specificities of each subject and that calls for cooperation in "learning situation

A participatory planning just give good results if the entire school and teachers really engage. This type of work aims to give more effective responses in contributions that each person can present.

2.5 Some governmental attitudes that guide the Brazil of the differences:

With the goal of organizing due to the demands of the Jontien Conference and the Declaration of Salamanca, the Brazil establishes in the Federal Constitution (1988) articles 205 (right to education), article 206, Paragraph I, (equal conditions of access and stay in school) and in article 208, offer specialized service preferably on regular network.

In 1990 published the ECA (Statute of children and adolescents), which pervades among many 8069/90 law determinations, in which parents are required to enroll their children with educational needs). Whenever there is need, there are new laws and/or Resolutions guaranteeing the protection and the permanence of persons with disabilities in schools. Since it is a relatively new topic lack maturity.

In 1999 the Decree 3,298 that defines special education as a cross-cutting mode at all levels and modalities of education.

We currently have the National Education Plan (PNE), which determines the goals and policies of education for a period of ten years (2014/2024). The important thing is that this plan is also prepared at the State and municipal level, allowing everyone involved can have an opinion and, in this sense, the education of the handicapped can gain more space.

Final considerations

The inclusion, in fact, is a Brazil for a few more decades, because it is our country a choice of constant exchanges of political rulers who have not treated this theme as the scope that the problem has.

There is much work yet to be done, however, the first steps have already been taken, but many barriers still exist:

  • Public health: the majority of Brazilians depend on her, that's increasingly precarious containing few doctors and no preferential policy.
  • Social area: the resources for these areas are the smallest and the fate of the little arrives in cities tends to get stagnant, unable to solve any good program.
  • Areas of leisure, sport and culture practically no projects.
  • Special education: sometimes, in some municipalities, the special school is only a walk to students, because there is some structure to function as it should; the common schools also don't meet as they should due to lack of pedagogical structure. The reality is still a challenge and you should not expect miracles to happen, and the only way to change is to continue fighting for inclusion in all areas.


Brazil. Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil, enacted in 05/10/1988. Brasilia: Federal Senate, 1988.

________. Curricular parameters: curricular adaptations-strategies for the education of pupils with special educational needs. Brasilia: MEC/SEESP: 1988.

________. National Special education policy Brasilia: MEC/SSEESP. 1994.

SANCHEZ, Pilar Arnaiz. Inclusive education: a way to build schools for all in the 21st century. Journal of special education-Oct/2005, no 07.

_______. Law No. 10,436. Presidency of the Republic. The Brazilian sign language-POUNDS and other arrangements. Brasília, 24 April 2002.

Brazil. National guidelines for special education in basic education. MEC SEESP, 2001.

Brazil. MEC. Guidelines and Bases for national education, LDB 9394 of 20 December 1996.

COLL, Cesar, MARCHESI, Álvaro, palaces, JÉSUS, psychological development and education, volume 3, 2nd Ed, London, New Haven, 2004.

FERREIRA, Windyz b. inclusive education: am I for or against a quality school for all? Journal of special education-Oct/2005, paragraph 40. Inclusion: Journal of special education. V5. N° 2; July/December 2001

MANTOAN, M. T. Egler. School inclusion: what is why How do. São Paulo: moderna, 2003.

MAZZOTTA, Marcos Jose Silveira, special education in Brazil history and public policy. 5th Edition, São Paulo, Cortez Editora, 2005.

SASSAKI, Romeo Kazumi. Inclusion: building a society for all. 3. Ed. Rio de Janeiro: WVA, 1997.

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UNESCO. Salamanca Declaration and line of action on Special needs education. Brasilia: CORDE, 1994.

[1] Doctorate in educational sciences, master in educational sciences, degree in pedagogy.

[2] Brazil. Resolution CNE/CEB No. 04/2009. Brasilia: Federal Senate, 2009.

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