School physical education in health promotion

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SANTANA, Dayane Pereira de [1], COSTA, Célia Regina Bernardes [2]

SANTANA, Dayane Pereira de; COSTA, Célia Regina Bernardes. School physical education in health promotion. Multidisciplinary Core Scientific Journal Of Knowledge. Year 01, Issue 01, vol. 10, pp. 171-185, November 2016. ISSN: 2448-0959

SUMMARY

The promotion of health is a subject much discussed in recent years. There is a promising strategy for the many health problems that affect modern humans. The promotion of health is featured in educational process discipline, being based on building healthier lifestyles, as well as in the creation of environments conducive to health. The professional of physical education and the educational institution are fundamental in this process, because they enable an education based on the promotion of health, motivating students to practice physical activities regularly. Thus, harmonize body and mind, working directly to prevent and combat the various pathologies. The present research tries to understand the importance of school physical education on students ' health promotion, using practices that involve the body culture movement. The methodology used was bibliographical revision, carried out through research in scientific articles, books and Internet sites. After the studies, it was possible to realize that by integrating games, sports, dance and games in physical education classes extend the possibilities of school movement. Guide them to the importance of the practice of regular physical exercises, coupled with balanced diet and healthy, it is essential to have conditions to perform adequately, critical choices, reflective and sensitive to their lives.

Keywords: physical education, school health promotion.

INTRODUCTION

The promotion of health and well-being in childhood and adolescence represents great challenge, whereas the actions and practices that prioritize the population involve aspects such as: health, education, labor and social development. The contribution of physical education and the school is essential in this process, being able to provide an education based on the promotion of health, raising awareness and motivating the students about the importance of the practice of regular physical activity as main form of prevention, thereby ensuring a better balance.

The modern world has brought numerous benefits to humanity, but led in a profound social and economic transformation. The individual who previously remained active, according to the needs and characteristics of each time, today presents inert, accommodated and sedentary. The reduction of physical and leisure practices associated with the continuous use of computers, cell phones, electronic devices, automobiles, including dietary changes, food with little nutritional quality and full of fat comes Seducing children and young, modifying their bodies and interfering directly in the quality of life. All these practices have modified the habits of the population, showing high rates of disease and obesity in the country.

Schools and teachers of physical education can contribute a lot to change this picture, being the school one of the main places of residence of children and young people. Therefore, it is possible to promote the modification of the traditional paradigms for integral health approaches in the school environment, educating and sensitizing students to the importance of body care, through the practice of physical activities, combined with a balanced diet.

Thus, this research is as a study that aims to understand the importance of school physical education on students ' health promotion, using practices that involve the body culture movement, through sport, dance, games, games, gymnastics and wrestling.  The methodology used was bibliographical revision, carried out through research in scientific articles, books and internet sites. The research has a qualitative character, because it aims to awaken in students, the parents and society, the importance of school physical education as a practice of health promotion to improve the quality of life of schoolchildren.

1. THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

1.1 health Concept

The World Health Organization defines health as a State of complete physical, mental and social well-being of the individual, and not merely as the absence of disease as was seen in the old days. Therefore, health is a fundamental right of the human person, without distinction of religion, political ideology or socioeconomic condition. She becomes a collective value, a right of all and should each make it individually and of solidarity, without prejudice of others.

In the past, health was the morphological perfection, accompanied by functional harmony, integrity of organs and apparatus, the good performance of the vital functions; was the physical stamina and mental balance, only considered in terms of the individual and at the level of the human person. Today, she came to be considered under another plane or dimension. Exceeded the individual vineyard to be parsed so comparison with work and with the community.

Understanding the overall health is, above all, give the individual conditions to keep your balance physical, social, mental and economical, safe and harmonious. Currently, the world offers people an immensity of offers. The "have" happened to be priority over the "be", the restlessness, the rush, the anxiety, the uncertainties, the purchasing power, the food changes, food with little nutritional quality and full of fat, come seducing children and young people. The reduction of spaces of leisure, the insecurity, the advantages of mobility aids and technological advances are influencing physical inactivity and sedentary lifestyle, bringing disastrous consequences to the health of the population and contributing to obesity in the world.

Given this panorama, the idea of health promotion has been debated all over the planet, from the perspective of improvement of the health conditions of the population, including schoolchildren, where school health programmes become the concern of bodies such as the organisation World Health Organization (who), the International Fund Emergency United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and the Scientific and Cultural Organization of the United Nations for education (UNESCO). All programs of these institutions have as their goal the health of the child in school.

The term is essential for working with the theme health. Children and young people in schools live moments in which habits and attitudes are being created, so it's important to work with preventive actions. The school, in addition to your educational role, exerts a great social and political power capable of transforming the society, causing impact and generating changes.

1.2 School Health promoter

Health is a universal right, something that people should build throughout their lives in their social and cultural relations; It is inside the school that issues about health are room for different approaches. The Ministry of education and Sport (1998) created the National Curricular Reference to Fundamental education, in which health is considered as a cross-cutting issue to be worked on and assumed with responsibility for school projects, involving the participation of students, teachers, parents and school community.

In the 20th century, the schools in their pedagogical practices worked with a reductionist vision of health. Disciplines such as hygiene, child care, nutrition and dietetics emphasized the biological aspects, knowledge of the mechanisms by which individuals adoeciam. In 1977, the Federal Council of Education reaffirmed the position that the health programs should not be developed as a discipline or specific matter, but rather with the general concern of the formative processes, by means of a correlation between the components courses, such as science, social studies and physical education.

Currently, health care is still centered basically in the transmission of information, about how people get sick and the disease cycles, to the detriment of prevention. We need to rethink the practice of health in the school environment, invest in education and training of teachers, in addition to developing health actions within the classroom as it is in everyday life and at school happen relations with knowledge, with the groups of students, parents, teachers and community.

According to the World Health Organization, schools that contribute to the promotion of health of school children are those that can have a broad view of all aspects of the school, involving a healthy environment, giving importance to the aesthetic surroundings of the school, effective participation of students in different curricular areas, enhancement of self-esteem, personal confidence. All these aspects are fundamental to promote health, generating changes in attitudes and healthy lifestyle habits.

Health should be included in the proposed pedagogical school policy, involving the school structure and partnerships in the development of integrated actions with various subjects including education, health, the environment, work, culture, music, Physical education, healthy eating, housing, among other issues related to health, based on respect for the individual and having as a goal the construction of thoughts relating to the theme.

In this approach, the educators and the health team can develop a school work on education and health, collaborating in the formation of students, so that they can put into practice the promotion, maintenance and restoration of health and Community of which they are part. The professionals of physical education can also collaborate in this process, working directly with the practices of body culture, may underscore the importance and the benefits of physical activity for health.

1.3 healthy eating and balanced for health

The human organism consumes energy in all the activities it carries out. Even at rest or sleep the body is consuming energy, so energy is what keeps the body functioning.

A good diet is one that provides food intake varied and in adequate amount, guaranteed that the body receives all the nutrients needed for the performance of daily activities. To keep the body functioning it is essential that there is the important food intake containing nutrients such as carbohydrates (starches and sugars), fats (lipids), proteins, water, minerals and fiber. Balanced consumption of nutrients will provide better health and quality of life.

By darido still stands out about the importance of using the food pyramid as reference to a healthy and balanced diet. The food pyramid divides food into energy, regulators, builders and extra energy. The food should be consumed in descending order: energy foods, located at the base of the pyramid, are complex carbohydrates, such as flours, breads, pasta, cereals and wheat, should be eaten in 6 to 11 servings a day; following are the food regulators, which are the vegetables, fruits and vegetables, which must be consumed of 3 to 5 servings of vegetables and 2 to 4 servings of fruits a day; the food manufacturers, located in the third level of the pyramid, are rich in protein, such as milk and its derivatives, the meats, eggs and legumes, and should be eaten in 2 to 3 servings a day; at the top of the pyramid are the extra energy, which are sugars and sweets, which should be consumed in moderation.

It is important to stress that to maintain a beautiful and healthy body you can eat everything, however it is necessary to maintain a balanced diet in adequate amounts.

The theme that involves healthy eating is undoubtedly of great importance in society today, especially when you consider the increasing tendency towards obesity in the world and your direct relationship with the bad eating habits and lifestyles of the population.

Food, nutrition and the regular practice of physical activity are referred to as components of a healthy way of life, focusing solely on today between the determinants and health restrictions, occupying a prominent position on the agenda of the World Health all, especially in health promotion policies.

However, at present, the food and nutritional situation of physical activity of the population, nationally or globally, is characterized by an unhealthy food because it has demonstrated the excessive consumption of foods with high fat content and simple carbohydrates and low amount of fiber, which is associated with the lack or insufficient physical activity is largely responsible for the overweight, increasing the risk factors that coexist and interact to chronic diseases non-communicable diseases.

1.4 health and Aesthetics

Adami, Fernandes and Oliveira Frainer point out that:

Body image is a complex human phenomenon that involves cognitive, affective, and social/cultural engines. Is intrinsically associated with the concept of itself and is influenced by the dynamic interactions between the being and the environment in which he lives. It is understandable that, in a culture that values, too, the thinness, a genuine culture of thin notably Western culture, attempt to reach this ideal of beauty.

When body image is not satisfactory, enters in situation of body dissatisfaction. According to Warren is "a subjective evaluation of negative physical appearance, which will inevitably psychological repercussions. "

With a view to achieving an effective satisfaction with body image, that is, match the aesthetic ideals of culture of belonging, diets, exercise, use of diuretics, laxatives, among others. According to Morgan, Vecchiatti and Negrão such behaviors result in ever-greater numbers, in the development of eating disorders, like anorexia and bulimia, the real disease in industrialized countries and, increasingly, countries in development, given the contemporary phenomenon of globalization and urbanization and the central role of the media. Indeed, the same authors state that "the urbanization would lead to a greater exposure to the ideal of thinness through the media", in addition to provide changes of eating habits (e.g., fast food), physical inactivity and a larger number of people with overweight and obesity.

Labre investigated the ideal of beauty in men and concluded that there is a tendency for the cultural standard muscular with high degree of hypertrophy and very low levels of fat, what today is called muscle definition.

According to Novaes, the new cultural paradigm of contemporaneity is the moral duty to be beautiful/beautiful as an additional aesthetic standards of beauty that always existed throughout history. However, the desired standards of beauty are modified every time. In the past, for a long time, beautiful women had rounded shapes. In contrast, at present and in particular in Western culture, the concept of beauty is associated with youth, skinny body and attractive to women; and bulky and muscular body to men.

In order to achieve the ideals of beauty that cannot be achieved only by reducing weight, women have resorted increasingly to extreme forms of body modification, including cosmetic surgery. In times of dictatorship of beauty, the body is massacred by the industry and by trade who live of insecurity, helplessness and distress.

1.5 benefits of school physical education and physical activity for health

Physical education aims to promote the psychomotor development of children, helping them acquire an awareness that will help in your daily life and your practice should essentially be part within school, since the school is the Middle more efficient education for the realization of this practice.

The school physical education the responsibility to deal specifically with certain aspects relating to procedural, conceptual knowledge and attitudinal, characteristic of the movement body culture.

The school community made aware that physical activity and good eating habits are important for the maintenance of health, as well as protective factors for a number of ailments such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, depression, among others. She also acts on reduction of overweight and obesity, raising self-esteem, increasing a sense of well-being and mood to walk, run, play and move around.

Physical activity is essential to the maintenance and improvement of health and prevention of diseases, for everyone at any age. Physical activity contributes to the longevity and improves your quality of life, through the physiological, psychological and social benefits.

Sedentariness is currently one of the major problems of modernity. Among children and adolescents perceive the emergence of new recreational options, replacing traditional activities that involve some physical exertion. To reverse this situation it is up to the school, especially to physical education and the competent organs, creating health prevention programs that could contribute in order to inhibit the emergence of risk factors that are increasingly early.

The lifestyle of the urban population has undergone constant changes in behavior with respect to diet and physical activity, these factors are related directly to the profile of the current society. In this way, the practice of regular physical activity is seen as an important ally for a healthy lifestyle and active physically, as well as being instrumental in the control and treatment of Overweight/obesity.

1.6 role of physical education and teacher's school health

Physical education plays a major role in the health and quality of life of school children to educate through physical activity. Teacher's role is to raise the school community that physical fitness, the practice of physical activity and good eating habits are important to all individuals at all ages. It is also the school physical education the responsibility to deal specifically with certain aspects relating to knowledge, characteristic of the culture of body movement, such as gymnastics, dance, sport, the fights involving the body in the most various forms of movement.

Lovisolo highlights about the position of professor of physical education and discusses the importance of this role within the school project. That way, the discipline should have as its objective the intellectual, emotional and body of people, involving the conscience, autonomy and critical opinion about the quantity and quality of physical activity necessary for health. The author strengthens his ideas with the phrase: "I would say that the physical educator should help in building the excitement of feeling the power of life in the body. "With this importance, the professional school physical education can influence the way in which the student relates to his own body and how to take care of him.

The teacher, as the main responsible for the Organization of learning situations, should know the value of bodily practices of physical education oriented to health and quality of life, aiming at the development of the student in all aspects (physical, cognitive, affective and social). It is understood as an mediator to operationalize the creative and innovative action, and to develop your work, based on a design of body culture, helps build a school physical education geared to the exercise of citizenship. It behooves him also offer a space to merge practical and theoretical classes favouring an environment conducive to learning and providing joy, pleasure, movement and solidarity in the Act of learning.

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

After studies, it was possible to perceive that the school physical education plays a very important role in the promotion of school health, being the school a pedagogical practices related to health, which is treated with a resource for life. When using body culture practices involving games, games, dancing, gymnastics, wrestling events and sports professor will be promoting the health of their students.

It was evident that having health and quality of life is not something static, but dynamic. The Ottawa Charter for health promotion, one of the most important documents produced on the world stage on the theme of health and quality of life, says peace, income, housing, education, proper nutrition, healthy environment and social justice are indispensable resources for health, because it is the result of factors, social, economic, political, cultural, collective and individual.

It is important to note that the Physical education teacher plays a leading role in the planning and implementation of activities with the students in the school space, being able to diagnose and monitor the levels of growth, body composition, motor performance of students, working with practices that involve the body culture movement critically, reflective and sensitive, through recreational games, games, dancing, gymnastics, wrestling and sports competitions, but also promotes discussions on unfavorable factors to health mobilizes projects, actions with respect to individual and collective health, considering the health under its various aspects.

Finally, to promote the health of students, through the practice of the physical education of reflective and autonomous way, is ensuring health beyond the school years, leading for life.

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[1] Student of the course of physical education of College Patos de Minas (FPM) graduate in the year 2016.

[2] Professor of the course of physical education of the Faculty of Patos de Minas. Master in Health promotion from the University of France.

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