Psychopedagogy and art therapy encounters in the teaching learning process

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ORIGINAL ARTICLE 

MAINARDI, Maria Lucia Teixeira [1], AMARAL, Célia Regina Da Silva [2]

MAINARDI, Maria Lucia Teixeira. AMARAL, Célia Regina Da Silva. Psychopedagogy and art therapy encounters in the teaching learning process. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 05, Ed. 02, Vol. 03, pp. 39-54. February 2020. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access Link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/psychopedagogy

SUMMARY

This article deals with a research in Psychopedagogy, in which two experiences lived in the classroom are reported and aimed to understand the teaching process learning in children with difficulty to improve their school performance and interaction with other children. The subjects chosen were two children: one from private school and the other from a municipal early childhood education unit, because they demonstrated difficulties in presenting language and interaction and socialization. For this research, the concepts of Psychopedagogy and Art Therapy were performed. The aim of this research was to demonstrate that both Psychopedagogy and Art therapy can be facilitators of the cognitive development of these children, considering that the meeting of activities of drawings, paintings, and modeling acts on the emotions of children who have difficulty verbalizing their discoveries in learning.

Keywords: psychopedagogy, art therapy, children, difficulties, learning.

INTRODUCTION

This article deals with a research from a monograph in Psychopedagogy, in which two experiences lived in the classroom are reported and aimed to understand the learning teaching process in children with difficulty to improve their school performance, interaction and socialization with other children.

The subjects chosen were two children: one from private early childhood education school and the other from a municipal early childhood education unit, because they demonstrated difficulty in presenting language and interaction.

[…] although we know the notions of art therapy because it includes in its context psychotherapeutic treatment, which uses artistic expression as mediation (dance, theater, music and others), our knowledge is still limited, with regard to plastic representation: painting drawing, engraving, modeling, mask, puppet. (PAIN, 1996, p.9)

For this research, the concepts of Psychopedagogy and Art Therapy were paired.  The aim of this research was to demonstrate that both Psychopedagogy and Art therapy can be facilitators of the cognitive development of these children considering that the meeting of activities of drawings, paintings, and modeling acts on the emotions of children who have difficulty verbalizing their discoveries in learning. Valuing the playful world with fairy tale stories, wheel toys as a form of internal reconstruction.

Psychopedagogy and Art therapy have similar points in the conduction and prevention of difficulties in learning children and have as diagnoses and intervention. Professionals should conceive a keen eye and a keen notion of understanding to understand the messages that are transmitted through the nonverbal form of communication.

For this purpose it is necessary to observe all the behavior presented by the child as his walking, the tone of voice, his general “rhythm” treats this study of simple and common problems, as well as shows childish symbology and creative ways of dealing in each case.

Psychopedagogy, as well as Art therapy, aims at the well-being of development and balance in the area of learning and in self-awareness. And it has in common theoretical references that have defined similar concepts and that it says respect self-expression. It is unlimited art linked to the therapeutic process that transforms and expands creative potential.

These two areas of study aim at well-being, development, balance, in the area of learning and self-awareness. Therefore, it is a way of working using artistic language as a basis of client-professional communication, that is, teacher – student. And its essence is non-aesthetic creation and artistic elaboration for health and learning.

The plastic, sound, dramatic, body and literary languages, involving the techniques of drawing, painting, modeling, constructions, sound, musicalization, dance, drama, poetry, and sung wheel toy. In these follow-ups, an evaluation is also applied to prove the results achieved.

To this quality of life in a school institution that the science of Psychopedagogy applies to the knowledge of Psychology which constitutes a way of seeing and feeling the child’s need as the main element and percesee it the way it is.

The relevance of this article is the association of the two areas of knowledge, because psychopedagogical work and therapeutic art aims at emotional cultural growth for students and teachers, from the moment they provide the well-being of the other, In this sense the general objective of this study was: To understand the learning teaching process in children with difficulty their interactive school and affective performance.

And as a specific objective: To identify children with more difficulties in verbalizing through their imaginary and to compare the performance among the children attended through Psychopedagogy, having in this process art therapy as a facilitator of teaching/ learning.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

BRIEF HISTORY OF PSYCHOPEDAGOGY

Psychopedagogy was born in Europe, beginning of the century. The first Psychopedagogical centers were founded in France in 1946 by J. Boutonier and George Mauco, who tried to readapt children with socially inappropriate behaviors at school or at home and assist children with learning difficulties even though children were intelligent, the centers brought together knowledge of Psychology, Psychocanalise and Pedagogy. (MERY, apud BARBOSA, 2000).

In South America the first psychopedagogical studies emerged in 1960, and in Argentina influenced by European currents and in Buenos Aires in the 1970s, psychopedagogical centers emerged.

In Brazil in Porto Alegre in the 1970s, specialist training courses in psychopedagogy began, focusing on learning problems, having as one of the main diffusers the Argentine professor Jorge Visca, who published through a course in several Brazilian cities.

Psychopedagogy was born as an empirical occupation due to the need to assist children with learning difficulties, whose causes were studied by medicine and psychology. Over time, which was initially a subsidiary action of these disciplines, it was profiled as independent and complementary knowledge, possessing an object of study (the learning process) and diagnostic resources, brokers and preventive resources of its own. (VISCA, 1987, p.7).

Psychopedagogy is not a discipline but interdisciplinary, because it operates in various areas of knowledge, studies and works in human learning, offers an intervention field whose limits are broad. The human learning process itself is a complex phenomenon that involves multiple factors and challenges any attempt at explanation from a single scientific discourse.

According to Fernandez (1990). The human being learns from his inherited individual organism and from his body constructed in a spectacular way, from an intelligence constructed in an interactionist way, that is, the subject and the environment in which he lives are permeated by desires, whether his or her own or others.

These learnings take place within the human bond, whose first nucleus is in the family, because the human being is the only being who needs, until the end of his life, to learn in order to live.

Allessandrine (1996) emphasizes that psychopedagogy works praxis with the totality of the being, enabling the student to develop integrally. It also considers that it is a way for him to build his knowledge and lifelong learning process. The author is a master’s degree in Psychology, Psychopedagogy and, Art Therapy studied the constructivism of Jean Piaget and its consequences in clinical thoughts, in the way of thinking the world in the universe of concept formation and cognitive construction.

To synthesize the theories presented, a framework was elaborated to understand the authors’ definition of the basic concepts that support this article.

Table 01: Definition of authors on some basic concepts of research

Concepts

                PSYCHOPEDAGOGY ARTTHERAPY
ALLESSANDRINI: Psychopedagogy works praxis with the totality of the being, enabling the student to develop its integral development. It also considers that it is a way for him to build his knowledge and his learning process throughout his life.

BARBOSA: The apprentice is an integer; at the same time that it has aspects common to all apprentices, they have a particularity that is intertwined with the relationships it establishes as a means at the moment of interaction.

VISCA: Psychopedagogy was born as an empirical occupation due to the need to assist children with learning difficulties, whose causes were studied by Medicine and Psychology. Over time, which was initially a subsidiary action of these disciplines, became the object of study (learning teaching process) and diagnostic resources, brokers and preventive resources.

FERNANDEZ: Learning is a process whose matrix is to bind, playful and its body root; its unfolding, creative puts itself at stake through articulation: intelligence, desire, balance, assimilation and accommodation.  

 

 

PAIN: Art therapy plays an important role – of following the learning process and being a witness to your adventure, helping to overcome obstacles encountered, considering a subjective point of view. Therefore, there must be a standard in the observation of subjects who are performing a creative activity to decide the opportunity and content of intervention

CIORNAI: The importance of subjectivity and the unconscious (“of what influences and weighs on human choices do not obey cartesian laws, rational logic”) and dreamlike and pictorial images as a diagnostic and revealing element of what becomes revealing in Freud’s works, Jung.

FERGUSON: It concerns studies of complex human subjectivity and its transformation, that is, the transformation of consciousness: being aware of one’s own consciousness.

VALADARES; FUSI: Art therapy as a process to stimulate creativity allows clients to express and communicate ideas and emotions, enabling the increase of self-esteem and emotional expression, reducing their anxiety.

JUNG: individuation process is an engineering between the self organizing center from which the regulatory action emanates that the author called the “Atomic Nucleus” of our Psyche system.

Source: Researcher’s Collection/2007.

DEFINITION OF ART THERAPY

According to Pain (1996), these activities have in common the objective of visual representation of the figurative domain, from the transformation of matter. Because it is a recent area, dating from the post-war period, it is necessary to take the word “art” in the sense that it acquired in the second half of the century, in which it is no longer a craft of the recreation of ideal beauty, nor is it at the service of religion or exaltation to nature.

This observation constitutes a recognition of the rupture of contemporary art with those that preceded it, asking in our time what the function of art and what change is possible to occur, from the choice of techniques to be used and also from the ideology of the subject who lives it.

The language of Art therapy becomes hybrid, from the understanding that other peoples use various means of therapeutic art. However, drawing and painting are the ones that most express the contextualization of “being yourself”, leading the individual served to acquire a better quality of life, relating and integrating with their environment and with the world around them.

Of the current trends, according to Pain (1996), the work in art therapy is the closest to the psychotherapeutic clinic, which considers plastic activity as a secondary medium because it attributes the therapeutic effect coming from verbal exchanges around the content of the work.

[…] although we know the notions of art therapy because it includes in its context psychotherapeutic treatment, which uses artistic expression as mediation (dance, theater, music and others), our knowledge is still limited, with regard to plastic representation: painting drawing, engraving, modeling, mask, puppet. (PAIN, 1996, p.9)

 On the other hand, Art therapy supports the individual so that, through the images acquired in his inner universe, give meanings, exploring and purging subjective conflicts.

Art therapy, for the author, has an important role that is to follow the process of learning and be a witness to her adventure, helping to overcome the obstacles encountered, considering them, at the same time, from a subjective and objective point of view. For this, it is necessary to have norms in the observation of the subjects who are performing a creative activity and, on the other hand, decide the opportunity and content of the interventions.

In the context of the therapist is required a great capacity for concentration each time the process of symbolic construction is considered as a continuous adventure, in which successive transformations are more important than the final result. According to the latest definition, Art Therapy:

[…] it is based on the belief that the creative process involved in artistic activity is therapeutic and enriching people’s quality of life. Art therapy is the therapeutic use of artistic activity in the context of a professional relationship by people who experience diseases, traumas or difficulties in life, as well as by people who seek personal development. Through creating art and reflecting on the resulting processes and artwork, people can broaden knowledge of themselves and others, increase self-esteem, better deal with symptoms, stress and traumatic experiences, develop physical, cognitive and emotional resources, and enjoy and enjoy the vitalizing making of artistic doing. Art therapists are professionals with training in both art and therapy. He has knowledge about human development, psychological theory, clinical practice, spiritual, multicultural and artistic traditions and about the curative potential of art. They use art in treatments, evaluations and research, offering advice to professionals in related areas. Artherapists work with people of all ages, individuals, couples, families, groups and communities. (AATA, 2003).

Allessandrini (1969), was the implementer of creative workshops and the elaboration of a methodology to work in therapeutic workshop, contextualizes that it is a space in which the participant, through an artistic activity, creatively expresses an image, which is processed in discovery and sensitization.

Think according to Pain; Jarreau (apud ALLESSANDRINI, 1969) who consider the therapeutic atelier as a place of adventure, in which the participant chooses the risks he wants to take, as he comes into contact with the material he had affinity: an interesting doing instead of a beautiful doing. To create is to explore inner worlds, to awaken through sensitization, dialogue and feel the material that aflorathe emotions, sharing and evaluating its final result.

To explore inner worlds it is necessary to understand the other by human development, its conscious and unconscious time.

Psychology, according to Winnicott (apud ALLESSANDRINI, 2004) has studied the conscious and unconscious mechanism of the psyche. In this sense, the unveiling of psychic processes from Freud, Jung, Winnicott and others help us, in a strong way, to understand the importance of such mechanisms in human development.

CASE STUDY I

This article dealt with an account of experience lived in a municipal public school institution, with the objective of diagnosing some learning problems, against the background of the relationship between parents and children of Early Childhood Education. This analysis occurs based on changes in children’s behavior during the course, as well as on the evolution in the development of learning with children with difficulty in verbalizing.

The present study was based on observations in garden I and II, in which we found a child, whose fictitious name is (M) who presents learning difficulties, specifically in speech and language, being six years old, studying in the morning in Jardim l and in the afternoon in Jardim ll, under the care of the same teacher in both shifts. It is emphasized that an interview was conducted with their relatives, teachers and other colleagues in their classes.

We know that learning in the first school years is a primary factor in child development, both at school and in the family, in addition to the affective-emotional factors that allow the child to acquire his knowledge very successfully. Therefore, preparations of playful activities involving motricity, concentration, balance and perception to verify what learning difficulties (M) presented.

The article is based on reading from the perspective of Analytical Psychology structured by Carl Gustav Jung, in which there is an emphasis on the relationship between the family and learning, because according to Jung (apud SARGO, 2005, p.57):

[…], the indispensable basis for the development of the child’s Ego is its relationship with the personal mother or substitute, which will humanize the archetype of the Great Mother, whose standard is to provide security and, mainly, protection for the continuity of the existence of this being. This archetype is governed by the principles of pleasure of fertility, sensuality, emotion and nutrition.

 Since,

 […] in this cycle, not only has a sense of nourishing physically, but mainly of affectively nourishing. To this extent, it is understood that food given without affection is not able to nourish with quality in either way (ibid. p.58)

Therefore, it is necessary that the relationship of the child with his mother in the first months of life be indispensable and of an exceptional character.

It was observed during the interview with parents and grandparents that the birth of (M) was a little problematic, since the child in question was born from normal delivery at home with eight months of gestation, being hospitalized in the Santa Casa de Misericórdia for one week, due to presenting spots on his body, called cyanosis. As her mother even reports to us (M) she was always a debilitated child prone to diseases, and until the age of four was treated with pneumonia medications and only after a certain consultation with the pulmonologist was a heart problem detected, leading her to be constantly medicated with controlled medications and to have to visit doctors periodically , in addition to taking tests regularly.

(M) presents difficulties in speech, that is, language and, because of this, its writing, that is, its records or written codes are not yet developed enough for its age. Then, her teachers asked her mother to seek the help and accompaniment of a speech therapist. Thus, the mother of the child asked for a referral to the doctor, however, this lady had lost the role, the medical guide, for such a specialist.

What we can observe and detect during our interviews with the parents of (M) is interesting as there are similarities in the behaviors of the parents with the child, because the tone of voice is low and very cautious when expressing; they are not to talk much, but to observe a lot; they only talk when they are instigated. Moreover, both parents and people living with (M) do not have the habit of reading and talking to each other; the mother only carries out the tasks of the home, as if it were her total obligation and does not demonstrate any commanding voice for her children; are apathetic figures, with very sad and suffering expressions.

As for the interaction in the classroom, he finds it difficult to relate, because we detect that he/she cannot complete the proposed activities. In a few moments it starts, but then gives up proceeding. We identified in (M), which did not react to stimuli and is almost always apathetic.  During the activities developed in groups, always seeks to move away.

We noticed, then, that it expresses itself much more after the interventions, although in a weak and precarious way, because it has a good thick motor coordination (running, jumping and overcoming obstacle). At the end of the second semester it was found that the child was already expressing himself voluntarily, for example, that he would go to the bathroom, smiling when his mother arrived to pick it up, besides repeatedly having shown interest in handling the alphabyte toy, taken to perform psychopedagogical interventions, including having to talk to (M) that there were other mechanisms, that is, other forms of writing such as the pencil , for example, since he refused to register his written codes in this simple way. (E) through a lot of conversation to convince herself and through the cooperation of some children and the teachers who accompanied her.

It was verified in the light of Jung’s Analytical Psychology that the difficulty of (M) in learning stems from the lack of greater physical contact, affection, teaching rules, both on the part of the mother and father, because he has no command voice, greater dialogue with the child, only demonstrate a certain overprotection.

For Jung (apud SARGO, 2005, p.166):

 We know that the implications of interpersonal relationships in the learning process are undoubtedly unquestionable. An unsatisfactory relationship can create conflicts in children generating in addition to specific difficulties (writing, reading, reasoning) problems such as Apathy dispersion and indiscipline. These behaviors are symptoms generated by defense mechanisms, used by children and adolescents against the external influences of adults, so that they can give themselves, without being disturbed, to the internal processes of fantasy (p.166)

CASE STUDY II

This case and observation study had as its principle the monitoring of the development of the student’s learning (E), fictitious name, of the student of Garden I of a private school. Tracking a child’s growth is like planting a seed and seeing it sprout gradually, with some moments of interruption caused by diseases such as flu, allergies and others that often prevent the child from going to school with more satisfaction.

To start, an interview with the child’s mother to know about him (E.), and also about his family. The child’s mother reported that she had a normal pregnancy, without problems: she had prenatal care and had good medical follow-up. However, her delivery was Cesarian, because the child had her navel wrapped around her neck. After the birth, a few days later, the mother realized that the child had yellowish skin and eyes. Worried, she took it to the pediatrician who informed her that it was jaundice and that she should sunbathe every morning before bathing. (E) is the second child and is five years old. (E) developed very well, kittenu, walked at the right time, learned in his space, that is, in his house, to go up, down and recognize his limits. Until a year old his parents still lived together and at the age of two they were part of it and from then on it was realized how much the presence of the father was lacking. This lack began to interfere with learning and agreement to develop their activities. These discoveries were detected in Jardim l, because this year is in Jardim ll. In one of the interviews with the teachers of (E.), he informed us about the relationship with friends in the classroom and whether during the activities he developed fine and thick motor coordination well.

The teachers reported that he socializes well with his friends, except with a boy of the same age, more with a much larger physical size and that it took some time for him to get used to the schoolgirl. And it was also reported that the whole development process was good in some parameters according to the teacher, but had a great emotional load that prevented him, for example, from participating in the festive activities that required dance, movement with the body, citing as an example one of the presentations of the day of the June party in which all friends of (E) danced the typical dance carimbó of Pará , but he became static and had no one to make him move.

The sequences of observations regarding learning were based on the activities proposed within the school curriculum. The teacher forwarded the activities and he always said “I don’t know how to do this” and showed no interest in looking at what others were doing. Most of the time he was always accompanied by his dolls related to the drawings watched by television, with which he talked and was distracted.

After a series of continuous observations it was perceived his safety (E.) when the psychopedagogical activities with emphasis on therapeutic art were recorded, always started with sensitization, working the breath so that there was a relaxation and the children were more comfortable for the choice of play. When a wheel toy was made, the children were invited to choose between the song “So many ripe oranges” or “All ducklings know how to swim”. They chose “So many ripe oranges.”

This song speaks of colors, instigating learning, leaving them looser, more participative and without resistance. It was the case of (E.) at that moment the key point happened to make you participate. A joke was performed in the house of (E), because the mother would like to participate in this activity of Art therapy. He participated, imitated the movements he asked to turn his back. After the wheel toy was finished, he was asked to take the material, pencils, sheets of sulfite paper. And in silence each sat in his place and began to draw: it was observed his creative potential and what he could reveal to us with his story.

The time has come for (E) to share his drawing, because it ended first, which he did not do before when applying art therapy. Everyone was expected to finish, not least because it was a group of five children. By asking them who wants to talk about your drawing? (And)-answered: I! He described his drawing like this: “These up here, (in the case it was at the top of the paper), these that are here are the clouds” that day was raining and he said he was very afraid of rain and thunder and right on the footer of the page drew children playing wheel and told me they were the ripe oranges, revealing –” These kids are happy because they’re all dancing , maybe he was referring to the person himself.

It is perceived that his refusal to do the school work was associated with the games and, from that day on, (E.) did all the duties without complaining.

According to Rubinstein (1999, p.32):

Experience the “not knowing” with a condition to know. Being able to live a teaching/learning process in which the therapist can also show himself in his learning process and in which also the “not knowing” is present, in the sense that he does not have the answer to everything to deal with the error in the constructive sense and also lacking, in the sense of our incompleteness, must be constantly present in the intervention process. Experiencing during treatment these two aspects would certainly contribute to the constitution of a subject who learns creatively and productively.

And in this way it is perceived when a child needs greater attention, in addition to the teacher himself understanding himself as a person who deals with the challenges, anguish and sadness of children and their non-knowledge. From the psychopedagogical and therapeutic art sides, it is necessary to learn how to deal with these problems that bother the souls of children. In this respect, make an analogy to the wisdom of bees to build knowledge and new follow-ups to improve the quality of their honey. This is an analogy to the children’s discoveries in their learning.

The bees have a queen who shows or stands as guardian of the hive, while the beehives go hunting for which the best flower will give a good honey, that is, the result at the end of their long work. This accompanies the development and learning of a child: what happens on this path will be the responsibility of parents and teachers in the production of awareness of being himself, waves and oscillations that represent the cognitive growth of the child.

CONCLUSION

It is believed that, upon reaching the end of this article, the objectives were achieved, both in the psychopedagogical and therapeutic art, because it is perceived that the work instruments that were used were innovative and that the children studied had the opportunity to rediscover themselves as true learners.

In the case of the child (M.) the use of the Alphabyte instrument, which would be out of its reach, that is, out of its reality caused its performance in relation to writing (codes) and speech to improve significantly. And as mentioned by the teacher, the child’s parents are accommodated people, because they do not insist on seeking the appropriate treatment for it. But may these questions serve as an example so that in the future (M), claim your rights as a citizen and continue in search of a better education and not become more inert or accommodated, like your parents.

In case II the child (E) who found in a simple instrument, such as the mass of modeling, a means to create family situations that would like them to occur in their real life, transmitted, the teacher and the researcher, who could express herself very well by other means, not only by oral language, but by the language of art.

A point exposed in this article was the construction of knowledge throughout the teaching network, in which there would be project planning and the teacher’s mediating role.

Always starting from the notion that learning occurs since the individual is born and that development and learning constitute each other, in a dialectical unit, the object of study interacts with the world, giving education a fundamental role.

Because of this, one cannot see early childhood education only as a place of recreation, care or preparation of future learning, but as a space for the construction of knowledge and expansion of the symbolic universe of children.

Starting from the historical-cultural conception, all who are part of this child educational network act as mediators between the child and knowledge. We are not observers of the maturation of the child, nor those whose main responsibility is only to pass on absorbed information. As mediators, we’ll put them in touch with different content or ways to find them, and help them critically prosemake them. Children and knowledge will emerge res-meanings in each meeting, because starting from the previous knowledge already acquired by the child, the teacher will indicate the path of new conceptual contents.

The teacher becomes an intercessor, that is, the one who promotes the intercession between the child and knowledge, indicating, at each intercession, his possibilities of new connections with other fields of knowledge, causing the emergence of the notion of construction of knowledge in network.

Having this knowledge, it should be considered that the subject who learns has to be involved in constant transformations and that it changes after each new interaction. After all, subject and medium do not exist as isolated instances, because what each one is, at every moment, is defined from their interactions that continuously provoke new configurations.

The construction of knowledge, in this perspective, should be linked to projects that have as their theme social events that children are experiencing at the moment or cultural events that are foreseen in the school schedule (such as the visit to exhibitions or excursions) or that are decided and planned by children and / or teachers. This will lead them to the need for a division of tasks and the search for information in different sources, which will lead to collaborative learning and the production of knowledge so desired in network.

We have the clarity that the axis between Psychopedagogy and Art therapy, unveiled in this article, is of paramount importance, in order to resignify the child’s encounter with knowledge, despite facing many obstacles. Such a meeting should be experienced in school as something attractive, necessary for life and citizenship.

It concludes – that we have to count on the help and help of other specialized professionals (psychopedagogue, speech therapist, art therapist, and others), together with the teacher in the school universe, so that the possibilities of advancing the development of children are fuller and truer, so that, finally, everyone in the near future has more opportunities in their education.

It is suggested that new research be carried out in the area of Art therapy with Psychopedagogy here in Belém do Pará and that these professionals be given opportunities, because these two specialties contribute in a special way with teachers in everyday life to understand the facts they experience in the classroom, since they often have foundation. At this point, the teacher will have more participation in the discourses of the laws of the school, helping to understand why listening to children or dialoguing with them, starting from the perspective of the child, going to the search for understanding of their concerns and desires, as well as their learning mechanisms, recognizing that the child should develop through a learning with the family and the group of which he is part.

Having in Art therapy the help to provide children with conditions to establish a differentiated learning relationship with their peers and with the world around them, making them understand and express themselves through senses, shapes, colors and images.

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[1] Specialist in Institutional Psychopedagogy. Acaraú Valley State University. Graduation: Degree in Visual Arts and Image Technology – University of the Amazon.

[2] Improvement in The Annual Work Plan and tecnolo resources. Specialization in Teaching of the 3rd Degree. Specialization in Educational Psychology. Master’s degree in Master’s degree.

Submitted: June, 2019.

Approved: February, 2020.

3.7/5 - (3 votes)

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