SANTANA, Idaraí Santos de 
SANTANA, Idaraí Santos de. Investments in education in Brazil: how does the teacher look in this scenario?. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. 04 year, Ed. 06, Vol. 04, pp. 65-81. June 2019. ISSN: 2448-0959
This article aims to demonstrate Brazilian society the current working condition of the teacher, defending the premise that for a good development of Brazilian education it is necessary to invest and train its teachers. To this end, he proposed to make an association between the theory of human capital formalized by Theodore Schultz with the issue of investments made in education in Brazil in recent years, with the purpose of continuing economic development started in the Government of Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva from 2003 to 2010. It is noted the existence of timid investments in the area, and small incentive in improving the condition of the teacher's work, very scarce in certain cases. In view of this, the Brazilian government also proposed better management of investments in education, such as what South Korea did, which now reaps excellent fruits of its investments in this area since the 60s of the 20th century.
Keywords: Teacher, education, investment, society, capitalist development.
When we consider that certain cures for the evils of a society – violence, social inequality, low life expectancy, lack of basic sanitation and waste of all orders – are closely associated with massive investments in education, it is possible to note that developed countries have taken responsibility for investing in education, generating better social and economic conditions for the population.
Thus, if there is a well-stipulated policy of valuing a teaching career, investment in education can claim good results, that is, we can claim that the best results in relation to the economic, political and social development of a nation are under some circumstances, strongly related to the good working conditions of the teacher.
Initially, a short history of Brazilian economic development will be addressed during the period of the government of Luís Inácio Lula da Silva (Lula) from 2003 to 2010, soon an analysis on development and investment in the area of education in the lula's post government; then an association of human capital theory, formalized by Theodore Schultz, with investments in education already made by the Brazilian government, considering the teaching role. Finally, a parallel will be drawn between investments in the South Korean education area in the 1960s and Brazil.
According to this context, this article aims to defend the premise that for a good development of Brazilian education it is necessary to invest and train its teachers at all levels of education, these: basic, medium, technical and higher.
2. BRAZILIAN ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT IN THE "LULA" PERIOD
The lula government's economic policy initially structured itself in the capitalist economy of consumption, based on the progressive increase in the purchasing power of the minimum wage. With this policy, the Brazilian economy began to generate continuous cycles of economic development, because they obtained as a guiding process the consumption power of families, which, in turn, generated greater demand for production in the primary, secondary and tertiary of the economy, generating more employment in these sectors. And this caused this whole process to start again. This development cycle was also profitable for the government to increase revenue, considering that the Brazilian tax burden is one of the largest in the world, and is distributed in all consumer goods, financial operations, and in income itself workers (from income tax), among others. Adding this development cycle to the increase in revenue, the government began to invest in the increase in credit, in addition to providing the welfare policy of the family scholarship program, among other projects to assist the low-income population.
The consolidation of this development model made the Brazilian economy more solid, and thus more attractive to foreign investors. It turns out that foreign investors were receptive to acquiring Brazilian government debt securities, and stock exchange shares with the implementation of several multinational companies that also generated more jobs, income and revenue tax in Brazil. With this demand for public debt securities and stock exchange, investors had to convert their dollars into reais and, with this, a strong supply of dollars in the country was triggered, reducing the price of this currency in the Brazilian domestic market, a factor that contributed to make travel abroad more accessible and, as an example, the possibility of buying imported cars.
The development process not only brought good fruits, as it also caused increased inflation and as a result of this demand, generated increases in asset values, resulting in a decrease in the purchasing power of the worker's salary. Another item to be considered is infrastructure, because as an economy grows, a considerable need to run away from its production by increasing the port sectors, improving and expanding road and rail networks, among other situations, it is existing for the best functioning of economic society3.
But unfortunately, bureaucracy and corruption exert infrastructure investment on infrastructure a slower hike than the economic development provided, and to try to circumvent inflation, the government seeks to adopt, through the Central Bank, the policy increase in the basic interest rate, the Selic rate6. This fee serves as the basis for all others used in Brazilian credit. Thus, with this policy, term purchases are less affordable, the population decreases their demand for goods and products, which intends to reduce prices, reducing demand inflation.
The issue of investment in infrastructure is more sensitive. The speed of the implementation of these policies permeates the reduction of bureaucracy, corruption and especially the need for more qualified labor – quality is one of the main pillars of sustainable economic development, because for the need for implementation of such policies, it is essential that there are qualified persons to make them real. And this qualification is closely linked to significant investments in education3. To try to evaluate this premise, it is important to use the theory of human capital for a given purpose.
3. DEVELOPMENT AND INVESTMENT IN THE AREA OF POST-LULA EDUCATION
The discourse organized by the Brazilian government is to prioritize education in Brazil. According to the Education at a glance study (2011), the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), an international and intergovernmental entity, incorporated the most industrialized countries into the market economy. In the last decade, Brazil's investments for education have gone from 10.5% to 17.4% of total public budget expenditures, which has led to the third largest extension among the organization's countries, according to data from the Ministry of Education.
The expansion in basic education investment stimulated greater participation in high school – currently, 90% of Brazilian students spend at least nine years attending formal education, one more year than it dated in 2000. In higher education, where Brazil spends the equivalent of 106% of its GDP per capita per student, there was an increase of 57% of enrollment. "We only formed 300,000 Brazilians a year, today we are forming one million a year. We tripled in a decade the number of Brazilians trained," fernando haddad said in 2012.
The Minister of Education, Fernando Haddad, also recalled, that the increasing numbers of federal schools and the other investments of the ministry became possible because the budget of the portfolio went beyond double in six years. "It went from R$ 23 billion in 2004 to R$ 53 billion in the 2010 budget." Thus, it is understood that the investments made by Fernando Haddad for Brazilian education obtained only large increases, providing more study to Brazilians.
In 2013, a volume of R$ 49.4 billion was assigned by the federal government to apply education to the 12 host cities of the World Cup, and were also added to investments made in Novo FIES and PRONATEC. During the period of the government of President Dilma (2011-2016), it can be seen that there was a growth in the application of investment in the area of education, according to the data mentioned above, and also remembering that there was not only growth in FIES and PRONATEC, but also in the opening of several vacancies for the Unified Selection System (Sisu), which offers 171,401 vacancies in 4,723 courses from 115 public institutions of higher education.
Continuing the post-Lula era in the area of education, we reached the government of then President Michel Temer (2016-2019) that in his discourse on education ensured to give priority to investment to it and therefore the federal government strengthened, at the time, investments in such a sector.
Financial transfers were mainly allocated to primary and secondary education in order to ensure works and reforms in educational institutions. In all, R$ 3.8 billion was designated for higher education, aimed mainly at universities, federal institutes and scholarship payments. On the other hand, R$ 1.14 billion was transferred to pay for programs and works. The investments also reached technical education, with the release of R$ 226.23 million, to ensure the operation of programs such as PRONATEC, according to the Ministry of Education of 2017.
Despite the investments cited, for Director Andreas Schleicher (2018), of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, and important creator of Pisa, international learning test applied by the institution, "the investments of the Brazil in education are low and inefficient," he says.
4. HUMAN CAPITAL THEORY VERSUS INVESTMENTS IN EDUCATION IN BRAZIL
According to Theodore Schultz, the concept of Human Capital is to attribute a value to the capital incorporated into humans, the result of their experience, education, training and Know-How. This capital would be a fundamental factor in differentiated economic development between countries. The concept was also developed and popularized by Gary Becker (1930) and resumed in the 1980s (20th century), by multilateral organizations more directly linked to neoliberal thought, in the educational area and in the context of the challenges resulting from Restructuring.
By paralleling this theory with the successive cycles of economic development in Brazil, it is possible to consider that the Brazilian government noted that massive investment in education for the qualification of labor was indispensable, that is, to invest in human capital, a major factor for sustainable economic development. And thus, the resources of the Fund for the Maintenance and Development of Elementary and Teaching Education (FUNDEF) were expanded, which took effect between 1997 and 2006, for the Fund for the Development of Basic Education and Valorization of Education Professionals (FUNDEB).
According to the Ministry of Education, this fund" aims to:
"Attend all basic education, from daycare to high school. Substitute of the Fund for The Maintenance and Development of Elementary School and Specialization of the Magisterium (FUNDEF), which took effect from 1997 to 2006, FUNDEB has been in force since January 2007 and will extend until 2020. It is an important commitment of the Union to Basic Education, in materializing the systemic view of education, because it finances all stages of basic education and reserves resources for programs aimed at young people and adults." (BRASIL, 2017).
The strategy is to distribute resources across the country, taking into account the social and economic development of the regions – and the complementation of the money applied by the Union is directed to regions in which investment per student is lower than the minimum value set for each year. That is, FUNDEB's main objective is to promote the redistribution of resources linked to education. The application is intended according to the number of basic education students, based on data from the school census from the previous year. Monitoring and social control over the distribution, transfer and application of program resources are done on federal, state and municipal scales by councils created specifically for this purpose9.
To observe the return of these investments, the government applied evaluation programs such as: Prova Brasil 2, which aims to evaluate the quality of education offered by the Brazilian educational system from standardized tests and questionnaires socioeconomic; the National High School Exam (ENEM), which aims to evaluate the student's performance at the end of basic schooling; the Basic Education Development Index 3 (IDEB), calculated based on student performance in INEP assessments and approval fees.
Another important point is the investment in technical education to form future work hands to work in the naval, oil, chemical and also in the Brazilian agribusiness sector. To try to improve this investment, the federal government built 214 technical schools between 2003 and 2009, almost double what Brazil generated between 1909 and 2002 where 140 schools were erected to increase the number of technical labor including building these institutions near the cities of the poorly developed interiors. Such an attitude of the government was intended to bring progress to these less populous regions.
The investment made focused on technical education aimed to form labor for work in industries and sectors of Brazilian agribusiness. For this, the government invested with the construction of more technical schools that prioritized the training of students prepared for such functions. It is worth mentioning that this attitude provided greater opportunities for individuals of lower classes, since most schools were built near the cities of the poorly developed interiors.
The technical workforce specialized in Brazil had economic growth added to the discovery of the Pre-Salt. Another factor that influenced a certain situation was the real estate market, among others, which required, in addition to the technical workforce, the higher level of engineers, geologists and architects, etc. To this end, the government implemented the REUNI project (the program to support plans to restructure and expand federal universities), which aimed to expand access to and stay in higher education, promoting actions such as increasing the number of student vacancies, expansion and/or opening of night courses, increasing the number of students and teachers, reducing the cost per student, flexibilizating curricula and combating evasion. Thus, through this project, the government internalized traditional federal universities and even built more campuses. This meant that the population of the interior no longer had to go to large urban centers to take a higher education course.
In addition to this expansion of the higher level, the government offered scholarships for underprivileged students to study in private colleges through PROUNI. To observe the return on investments in higher education, the National Student Performance Exam (ENADE) was implemented, which aims to evaluate the students' income of undergraduate, entering and concluding courses, in relation to the contents programmed courses in which they are enrolled,.
Therefore, it can be reiterated that the government directly or indirectly applied the theory of human capital to the measures mentioned so far, with the objective of trying to ensure the sustainability of economic growth. However, it is discussed: Did this significant investment in human capital take into account the teaching role? We will follow this debate with greater load of detail in the next section.
5 THE ROLE OF PROFESSOR IN INVESTMENTS IN EDUCATION IN BRAZIL
What would be of Brazilian society without education professionals? Such questioning leads us to think that if this happened, we would certainly have a failed society. One way to illustrate this argument is by observing that a society is basically modulated by individuals who exercise their workforce for the development of it and, it is considered that all these individuals were trained by teachers. Therefore, if there are no more teachers willing to train citizens for society, we would simply have a society consisting of functional illiterate, that is, citizens without intellectual conditions to pursue any profession.
Has the importance of the teacher ever been reflected by the Brazilian population? According to what has been seen to date, the Brazilian government intensified its investment policies in human capital only targeting the student. In addition to the supplies of school meals and textbooks, projects also aimed at the student. Thus, the professor appears to be part of a background in the projects developed by the Brazilian government.
This lack of reflection can be characterized by the fact that the salaries of our masters remain low, and there is still resistance from certain governors to program the salary floor of the category, which is still considered derisory. Taking the State of Bahia as a reference, there are few stimuli in teacher qualifications, especially in specialization, master's and doctoral courses. In Bahia, the teacher can only request progression by titration with interstice of 36 months in a complete course at a time, stimulating professional improvement. In short, this is a picture of total reduction to teacher qualification, considering that inflation grows faster than encouraging professional qualification.
The challenges faced in the face of the reality of contemporary society promote approaches that address pedagogical practice in a weighting that goes beyond the role of school. When we observe the salary table of federal public servants, the great discrepancy between the remuneration of teachers with other careers is notorious. The initial salaries of some federal employees (including the teacher) are: union lawyer (second category) R$ 20,109.56; diplomat (third secretary) R$ 18,059.83; researcher at the Institute of Applied Economic Research (IPEA), R$ 16,274.39; PhD professor of Technical and Technological Basic Education R$ 8,638.80; and the teacher of the superior magisterium is R$ 7,842.97. With these values, it is possible to observe that the teaching career at the federal level, even being more privileged than that of the teachers of municipal and state networks, is still little valued in relation to the other careers of federal employees.
And the great result of this logic, associated with other adverse factors, is the great shortage of students in higher education courses of the Bachelor's Degree, that is, according to what has already been considered, there is a principle of collapse in relation to labor in Brazil in practically all professional areas, judging that everyone needs basic qualification such as: knowing how to read, interpret, write and have mastery of the four basic operations of mathematics. Qualifications are taught by teachers.
However, it is worth commenting that, in relation to some undergraduate courses such as chemistry, physics and mathematics, few are licensed in Brazil. According to a study conducted by Ruiz in the year (2007) in the microregion of the Federal District, he observed that the number of licensed teachers working in Basic Education, especially teachers of Natural Sciences, is falling not only in the region studied , but throughout Brazil. According to the same author, in 2007, the greatest lack of licensed teachers was in the chemistry discipline, with 17,619,000 teachers working in Basic Education throughout the country, unlike mathematics teachers, who corresponded almost six times more than chemistry.
A survey conducted in 2014 by Professor José Marcelino de Rezende Pinto, professor at the University of São Paulo (USP) and specialist in education funding, revealed that the total number of vacancies in graduation is still three times higher than the demand for teachers estimated in Basic Education. It states: "the number of undergraduate undergraduate students graduated between 1990 and 2010 would be enough to meet the demand of teachers in Brazilian public education", but, in reality, what is missing are professionals interested to pursue careers within the room class.
Also in his research, the author crossed the number of basic education professionals today with the number of graduates in the different disciplines between the years 1990 and 2010, and showed that in the discipline of Biology, there are 7 graduates for each vacancy demanded in the public network; in portuguese-speaking discipline, there are around 131,000 graduates; already in physics, it was possible to state, in fact, that the number of trainees is not enough to meet the need. It also states that recent data show that there is a deficit in Brazilian schools of 170,000 teachers in mathematics, physics and chemistry.
After this short comparison, it is understood the need to make professions more attractive and to encourage student stay in the most precarious areas, such as the degree in the discipline of physics. Therefore, the salary being the great attractiveness of a career.
6. A BRIEF PARAMETER BETWEEN BRAZIL VS. SOUTH KOREA'S INVESTMENTS IN THE AREA OF EDUCATION
South Korea, since the 1960s, could be an example to be adopted by Brazil, a nation of which is in penultimate place in the OECD education quality ranking. List of which, among 36 countries, Brazil ranked 35th, ahead of Only Turkey.
According to mec, the teacher's salary floor in Brazil in 2013 was 11.36%, equivalent to R$ 1,567 per month (about R$ 2,557.74 per month – about R$ 30 .684.00 per year (BRAZIL, 2018). However, some states of our federation do not comply with Law No. 11,738 of July 16, 2008, paying teachers a lower amount than the established salary floor.
The starting point of this investment occurred in the 1960s, when Brazil and South Korea had very similar social and economic indicators. These common features are reported by Weinberg (2005, p. 25), as follows:
"South Korea and Brazil have been very similar countries. In 1960, there were typical nations of the underdeveloped world, mired in calamitous socioeconomic indices and with illiteracy rates that bordered the 35%. At the time, Korean per capita income was equivalent to Sudan's: it skated around $900 a year. In this respect, Brazil took some advantage – its per capita income was twice as much as Korean. Korea was also bitter about the trauma of a civil war that left 1 million dead and the economy in ruins."
And observing this unfavorable scenario, the South Korean nation chose to leverage its economic development from seven pillars. These being:
- Focus public resources on elementary school – not university – as long as the quality of this level is suffering;
- Reward the best students with scholarships and extra classes to develop their talent;
- Relate resources to give teachers better salaries;
- Invest in university centers focused on technological areas;
- Attract companies' money to the university by producing fine-tuned research with market demands;
- Study more, because Brazilians dedicate five hours a day to studies, less than half the time of Koreans;
- Encourage parents to become assiduous and participants in their children's studies.
Observing these goals it is possible to conclude that, even with all the "effort" of the Brazilian government to invest in education, it is perceived that there is still some shyness compared to the South Korean stance. By implementing its efforts in these goals, South Korea has led to a much more expressive economic development than Brazil.
Today, after seventy years, an abyss separates the two nations. South Korea exhibits a swarming economy capable of triplein size every decade. Its per capita income has grown nineteen times more since the 1960s, and society has reached a level of enviable well-being. South Koreans virtually eradicated illiteracy with 97.9% and placed 80% of young people in universities. Illiteracy in Brazil fell from 11.5% to 8.7% of its population and, among young people who attended universities between 2006 and 2016, there was an increase of 62.8%, with an annual average of 5% growth. However, in relation to 2015, the positive variation was only 0.2%.
Figure 1: Education in South Korea vs Brazil.
Your per capita income is now less than half of The Korean income. In short, Brazil remained almost stagnant, while South Korea continued rampant toward progress. And why did that happen? Quite possibly because of the uninterrupted and massive investments in education presented by the Asian country – to which they were not adequately adhered by Brazil.
While Asians poured money into public elementary and high schools systematically and obstinately, Brazil preferred to channel its minguados resources to the university and invent exorbitant projects that became obsolete with each government exchange. That is, much was spent without setting the right target to be capitalized. Needless to say, i was right.
When investments in the teacher's human capital are compared, it is perceived that the gulf between the two countries is even greater. While in Brazil there are virtually no investments, South Korea presents the results of investments in this professional in a very expressive status to the teacher. This can be observed in the following text:
"In addition to infrastructure, the money poured into schools produced in Korea very attractive salaries for teachers, who are among the highest paid in the world. According to the OECD, an experienced elementary school teacher earns an annual salary of US$ 48,000 in Korea, transforming this, in the Brazilian currency equate so much to R$ 169,478.40, an international measure where Korea occupies the 70 position of the countries that pay better wages in education, which raises purchasing power in the country. It is six times more money than pockets a Brazilian professional of the same level". (OCDE, 2018).
A survey by seoul National University (2011) has come to the conclusion that for South Korean women, the professor is seen as the "best party to marry", because he obtains a stable job, long vacations and way to deal with children, in addition to a great salary. As well as having exemplary working conditions, with exclusive dedication to a single school and entitled to four hours daily to prepare their classes and attend students, and for the most part, all have graduate studies19.
7. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
After the research, it can be affirmed that Brazil has advanced in recent years (2010-2018) in the area of education, but continues to have major impasses in the sector that concerns professional development. The percentage of students who repeat the year is large and end up having to drop out of school because they need to work to survive. This text considers that the economic development of a nation is not only linked to household consumption, and for this type of stimulus to continue it is indispensable that there are greater investments in education, and especially in the greatest intellectual capital existing: the teacher. Therefore, you can already observe a parameter to follow. Society as a whole needs to take responsibility for itself in the form of practical measures that generate good results in the short, medium and long term.
Sustainable economic development is closely associated with valuing the teacher's work and increasing stimulus to make it possible to jointly associate teaching, research and extension activities. By achieving this policy, related to existing ones and the South Korean example, it will be possible to train more qualified citizens in every way, and this will contribute to the reduction of Brazilian social inequalities, making all gain, that is, this would make Brazilian economic development continuous.
Achieving a good quality of education is not an easy task. Time and joint actions are requested, ranging from teacher training to infrastructure, as well as from the salary issue to school management. And the good note and position in the ranking of the most developed countries demand investment – in a much higher amount than the current dated. There is no country that has achieved a leap without adopting this recipe, with the exception of South Korea.
Above all, it is necessary to take into account that, we Brazilians, we will not have a quality teaching without a change of political thought. Having Education as a priority, as most governments and political candidates propagate, means expanding investments continuously and in the long run. Finally, keeping a good school running during and continuously costs almost the same as building another from scratch – with the "disadvantage" that there is no new work to be inaugurated. Investing in Education costs expensive and the return is time consuming, but still yes, it's a big deal.
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 Graduated in Statistical Sciences from the School of Statistics of Bahia – ESEB (2002); Specialist in Teaching Methodology, Research and Extension in Education from the State University of Bahia – UNEB (2004); Graduated in Mathematics from the Faculty of Educational Sciences – FACE (2007); Professor of Mathematics and currently Master of Education Sciences by the Inter-American Facultad of Social Sciences – FICS.
Submitted: Sep, 2018.
Approved: June, 2019.