Teaching Practice in Professional Technical Education

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Teaching Practice in Professional Technical Education
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BOVE, Márcio da Silva Pereira [1]

ALMEIDA, Yara de Souza [2]

PEREIRA, Jamile Olívia Bove Silva [3]

BOVE, Márcio da Silva Pereira; et.al. Teaching Practice in Technical Professional Education. Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal. Edition 08. Year 02, Vol. 03. pp 102-114, November 2017. ISSN:2448-0959

ABSTRACT

This article, presented under the heading of bibliographic research, aims at the study of teaching practice in the field of professional technical education, in order to identify and present pedagogical teaching-learning methods as stimuli for a competent teaching performance. Considering that the teacher assumes an important role in the learning process of the students and in the quality of training of the future professionals, this work approaches topics about teaching-learning planning and strategies, use of didactic resources, evaluation of learning and mediation in the teaching. It intends to construct a reflection of the teaching practice in the professional education and stimulates the amplification of the pedagogical technical knowledge.

Keywords: Teaching, Teaching Learning, Professional Education.

1. INTRODUCTION

In Brazil in the last decades, the requirements for qualification for work have increased significantly, due to the population growth, the evolution of capitalist society, consumption growth, technological advances, and other events related to the modern world. Empowering professionals has become strategic for national development, but not only to meet the new configurations of the world of work, but also to contribute to raising the education of workers in general. According to Berger (2009, p.1), professional education has as main objectives:

The training of mid-level technicians, but also the qualification, requalification, reprofessionalization for workers with any education, permanent technological updating and qualification at the middle and higher levels. Professional education should lead to the permanent development of skills for productive life.

According to the Ministry of Education, through the publication of the Centennial of the Federal Network of Professional and Technological Education (BRASIL, 2009, p.7):

The current Federal Network of Professional and Technological Education in Brazil is based on a 100-year history of construction, whose initial activities were the instrument of a policy focused on the "deprived classes" and today it is an important structure for all effective access to scientific and technological achievements.

The educational field, in keeping with these demands of the contemporary world, organized curricula in accordance with the demands of the world of work and underpinned vocational education in skills training. This structure can be observed through:

Educational Plan, which is carried out by the government, through the National Education Plan (PNE), which organizes educational goals at national level, based on the National Education Guidelines and Bases Law (Law No. 9.394 / 96 – LDB) that determines that "school education should be linked to the world of work and to social practice" (LDB, art. 1, § 2).

National Catalog of Technical Courses (CNCT) which is an instrument that disciplines the offer of courses of professional technical education of average level, to orient the institutions, students and the society in general.

National Catalog of Advanced Courses of Technology (CST) which is an instrument carried out by the Ministry of Education with the purpose of improving, strengthening and disciplining the supply of technological courses in order to follow the dynamics of the productive sector and the demands of society.

The training of the technician is carried out in large part by professionals with higher education in the related technological areas, and the vast majority have little or no pedagogical competence to practice teaching. The need for technical pedagogical knowledge, skills and attitudes on the part of teachers in technical vocational education limits their ability to plan teaching and learning, to mediate in teaching, to make appropriate use of teaching resources, to evaluate learning and to know how to work with young people and adults. According to Haydt (2006, p.1).

Education and education are part of the social context and, as this context is dynamic, education and teaching are also dynamic. Therefore, the teacher needs to be always updating himself. But changing a behavior is not easy, especially when the person already has deep-rooted habits. Every change in behavior creates insecurity. Therefore, these pedagogical "innovations" create worries and even confusion in the minds of teachers, especially those who enjoy doing their work effectively.

Faced with the changes in the modern world, the structuring of the objectives of professional education and the needs of technical pedagogical skills required by professionals who work in professional education, this paper aims to present techniques and pedagogical methods as an alternative for the teacher to overcome the present challenges in vocational technical education.

Thus, this article was developed through qualitative research, based on the study, research and bibliographical research of books, pedagogical and vocational teaching documents, addressing topics such as teaching-learning planning, teaching-learning strategies , use of didactic resources and evaluation of learning, in order to propose pedagogical methods and techniques competent in teaching practice.

In the approach to the subject of teaching-learning planning and teaching-learning strategies, it was considered for reflection attitudinal, procedural, methodological and strategic characteristics for reflection on the teaching practice. These foundations are based on the authors: Anastasiou and Alves (2004), Marion and Marion (2006), Haydt (2006) and Menezes (2001).

Next, I describe about the use, importance and planning of didactic resources in the teaching-learning process in the teaching practice. In this scenario, it is based on the author Gil (2011).

Then, in the approach to the theme of evaluation of learning, I consider aspects of relevance, dimensions, assumptions, instruments and evaluation function in the learning process.  These foundations are based on the authors: Haydt (2006) and Sant'Anna (2001).

I conclude from the verification of the studies, investigating the importance of the competent teaching practice, in order to reflect on the challenges present in teaching-learning planning, the use of teaching resources and evaluation of learning.  Aiming to promote incentives for the professional technical education teacher to be committed and motivated to permanently update their skills, with the capacity to apply pedagogical methods that guide the teaching-learning process and are committed and hopeful with the social transformations from the contributions of education technical professional.

2. TEACHING-LEARNING PLANNING IN TECHNICAL PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION

Teaching-lea[4]rning planning in technical vocational education is characterized by a mental process that requires the teacher to define and organize objectives, select and organize contents, select bibliographical references, predict and choose teaching resources, select assessment tools and correction of learning, management of the class schedule and familiarization with school procedures. According to Haydt (2006, p.98):

The teacher, when planning, teaching anticipates, in an organized way, all the stages of school work. Carefully identifies the objectives that it intends to achieve, indicates the contents that will be developed, selects the procedures that will be used as an action strategy and predicts which instruments will be used to evaluate students' progress.

It is important to bear in mind that planning has a procedural character, that is, teaching-learning planning is not limited to the teacher's time of prepara[5]tion of the teaching unit, but it implies a permanent process of teaching- learning process, which seeks alternatives to problem solving and decision making, reviewing plans and correcting actions. Professional maturity in the design and execution of teaching-learning planning, avoids improvisation, helps overcome difficulties, contributes to the achievement of objectives, saves time and shows the teacher's capacity for professional management and leadership.

According to Haydt (2006, p.101), the teacher, in planning the teaching unit, must establish three stages:

Presentation – At this stage, the teacher will seek to identify and stimulate students' interests, trying to take advantage of their previous knowledge and relate them to the theme of unity. Among the activities of this stage we can relate: pre-test for soldering the students' previous experiences and knowledge; dialogue with the class; expository class to introduce the theme, communicating to the students the objectives of the unit; presentation of material to introduce the subject[…].

Development – At this stage, the teacher organizes and presents teaching-learning situations that stimulate the active participation of students, in order to achieve the specific objectives proposed (knowledge, skills and attitudes). Among the activities carried out in this stage we can indicate: problem solving, projects, text studies, directed study, research, experimentation, group work.

Integration – In this phase, the students will summarize the knowledge worked during the development of the unit. To carry out this synthesis, the following activities are suggested: oral or written reports summarizing the most important aspects of the unit; organization of synopses and summaries.

Thus, the teacher should be able to elaborate and execute teaching-learning planning and correct it when necessary in order to achieve the educational objectives. It should therefore be able to develop strategies, establish creative forms of teaching and learning, provide the necessary conditions for the development of professional education, carry out a more integrated and interdisciplinary work, provide contextualized didactic transposition and linked to the practical activities of the world of work and citizenship.

The andragogy, a widespread practice such as science, methodology or the art of teaching adults, should be observed as a technique that assists the teacher in his planning, since it is the educator's approach and didactic positioning in front of the adult audience. This approach considers that the adult is a subject who performs several functions in society and who has accumulated knowledge during his life and work trajectory and that the teacher is considered a knowledge facilitator or an information consultant, aimed at dialogue, respect, collaboration, trust, and that seeks to understand the adult considering the psychological, biological and social aspects. According to ROGERS (2011, page 52).

The best planning of adult learning aims to minimize the disadvantages and maximize the advantages of the experience that adults take with them to the learning process. The more students are involved and provide their own experiences, the greater the chances that they will learn quickly.

In this methodology, the teacher is instructed to invite his students to participate in the diagnosis of educational needs, in the preparation of the lesson plan, in the establishment of the objectives, in the evaluation methods, that is, the work is directed to the active participation of the students, and the curricular organization is flexible, aiming to meet the specificities of the students.

Thus, the teacher inviting the student to participate in the teaching-learning process also stimulates the student to reflect on the evolution of the natural and social world from the point of view of human relations with technological progress, to understand how products and technological processes are designed, manufactured and how they can be used. Helping students to develop proactive and socially responsible behaviors in relation to the production, distribution and consumption of technology, and making them understand that their professional contribution is indispensable to help in the maintenance and continuous construction of a more just and equality.

It is worth mentioning that it is also up to the teacher to share professional experiences, to guide students about the possibilities of working in the labor market, to give meaning to the importance of services provided by professionals to society, to encourage the student to discover new knowledge, to stimulate it to be creative, invite you to think and decide for yourself and take responsibility, that is, the challenge is to promote an education that prepares the individual for different spheres of personal and professional life.

2.1 TEACHING-LEARNING STRATEGIES

The need for learning in the human being is an event present from birth, which must be stimulated with precision and wisdom, so that the human can acquire knowledge, skills, abilities and values ​​that will help him in the quest for quality of life .  The choice of the te[6]aching-learning strategy should help the student to mobilize his / her operative thinking schemes and actively participate in learning experiences, observing, reading, writing, experimenting, proposing hypotheses, solving problems, comparing, classifying, ordering, analyzing , synthesizing etc. Table 1 provides a brief transcript of individualized teaching strategies, based on the understanding of the authors (Anastasiou and Alves (2004), Marion and Marion (2006), Haydt (2006) and (Menezes, 2001).

Table 1 – Teaching Strategies

Strategy description
Dialogues It is an exposition of content, with the active participation of the students, whose prior knowledge must be considered and can be taken as a starting point. The teacher leads the students to question, interpret and discuss the object of study, from recognition and confrontation with reality. (ANASTASIOU; ALVES, 2004, p.79).
Text study It is the exploration of ideas of an author from the critical study of a text and / or the search for information and exploration of ideas of the authors studied. (ANASTASIOU, ALVES, 2004, 80)
Portfolio It is the identification and construction of registration, analysis, selection and reflection of the most significant productions or identification of the greatest challenges / difficulties in relation to the object of study, as well as the forms found for overcoming. (ANASTASIOU; ALVES, 2004, p.81).
Brainstorming or brain storm It consists in the free presentation of ideas or solution of a solution to a given problem, giving scope to the creative imagination and without restricting to the logical schemes of thought. Only after the free presentation of the ideas will they be subjected to a critical analysis. (HAYDT, 2006, p.194).
Conceitual map It consists in the construction of a diagram that indicates the relation of concepts in a two-dimensional perspective, trying to show the hierarchical relations between the concepts pertinent to the content structure. (ANASTASIOU; ALVES, 2004, p.83).
Directed Study It consists of making the student study a subject from a script prepared by the teacher. This script establishes the extent and depth of the study.  (HAYDT, 2006, p.159).
Mailing list by computerized means It is the opportunity for a group of people to discuss, from a distance, a subject on which they are specialists or have carried out a previous study, or to deepen it by electronic means. (ANASTASIOU; ALVES, 2004, p.85).
Exercise resolution The study through concrete and practical tasks aims to assimilate knowledge, skills and habits under the guidance of the teacher. (Marion and Marion, 2006, p.
Distance learning It consists of teaching by interactive environments, modality with the use of interactive communication networks, such as computer networks, the Internet and videoconference systems, and incorporates the media of previous generations (correspondence and teleducation) and creates opportunities for cooperative learning on -line. (MENEZES, 2001).

 

Strategy description
Problems solution It is the confrontation of a new situation, requiring reflective, critical and creative thinking from the data expressed in the description of the problem; demands the application of principles, laws that may or may not be expressed in mathematical formulas. (ANASTASIOU; ALVES, 2004, p.86).
Teaching in small groups It consists of studying and analyzing a subject in small groups, ranging from five to eight people. It is recommended in situations that require collection and systematization of data and information, problem solving, decision making and tasks. (HAYDT, 2006, p.192).
Phillips 66 It is a group activity in which students are analyzed and discussed about themes / problems in the context of the students. It can also be useful for obtaining quick information about interests, problems, suggestions and questions. (ANASTASIOU; ALVES, 2004, p.87).
Group of verbalization and observation (GV / GO) It is the subject / problem analysis under the teacher's coordination, which divides the students into two groups: one of verbalization (GV) and one of observation (GO). It is a strategy successfully applied throughout the process of knowledge construction and requires readings, preliminary studies, in short, an initial contact with the theme. (ANASTASIOU; ALVES, 2004, p.88).
Groups of whisper

 

 

It consists of dividing the class into doubles. Thus, each subset of two elements, over a period of time, exchanges information about a subject, solves an exercise or problem, or performs a particular task. Then, each pair presents to the others their conclusions or task accomplished. (HAYDT, 2006, p.193).
Dramatization It is a theatrical presentation, from a focus, problem, theme, etc. It may contain explicit ideas, concepts, arguments and also be a particular way of studying cases, since the theatricalisation of a problem or situation before the students is equivalent to presenting them with a case of human relations. (ANASTASIOU; ALVES, 2004, p.89).
Seminar It is a space in which ideas must germinate or be sown. Therefore, space, where a group discusses or discusses themes or problems that are put into question. (ANASTASIOU; ALVES, 2004, p.90).
Case study It is the thorough and objective analysis of a real situation that needs to be investigated and is challenging for those involved. (ANASTASIOU; ALVES, 2004, p.91).
Simulated jury It is a simulation of a jury in which, from a problem, arguments of defense and of accusation are presented. It can lead the group to the analysis and evaluation of a proposed fact with objectivity and realism, to constructive criticism of a situation and to the dynamization of the group to study deeply a real theme. (ANASTASIOU, ALVES, 2004, p.92).
Symposium It is the brief lecture and lecture given by several people (two to five) on a subject or on various aspects of a subject. It enables the development of social skills, research, expands experiences on a specific content, develops skills to establish relationships. (ANASTASIOU; ALVES, 2004, p.
Panel It is the informal discussion of a group of students, indicated by the teacher (who have already studied the subject in question, interested or affected by the problem in question), in which they present antagonistic points of view in the presence of others. Students from other stages, courses or even specialists in the field can be invited. (ANASTASIOU; ALVES, 2004, p.94).
Speeches Possibility of discussion with the person outside the educational environment on a subject of collective interest. Enabling discussion, questions, data collection, application of the theme in practice, starting from the reality of the speaker. (Marion and Marion, 2006, p.42).

 

Strategy description
Forum It consists of a "meeting" type space in which all members of the group have the opportunity to participate in the debate of a particular theme or problem. It can be used after theatrical presentation, lecture, film projection, to discuss a book that has been read by the group, a historical problem or fact, a newspaper article, a visit or a tour. (ANASTASIOU; ALVES, 2004, p.95).
Discussion and debate Suggests students to reflect on knowledge obtained after reading a magazine, article, book or newspaper. And the discussion of the opportunity for students to formulate principles in their own words, suggesting the application of these principles. (Marion and Marion, 2006, pp. 42-44).
Workshop (laboratory or workshop) It is the meeting of a small number of people with common interests in order to study and work for the knowledge or deepening of a topic, under the guidance of a specialist. It enables you to learn to do something better, by applying concepts and knowledge previously acquired. (ANASTASIOU; ALVES, 2004, p.96).
Middle study It is a direct study of the natural and social context in which the student is inserted, aiming at a specific problem in an interdisciplinary way. It creates conditions for the contact with the reality, it facilitates the acquisition of knowledge directly, through the lived experience. (ANASTASIOU; ALVES, 2004, p.97).
Teaching with research It is the use of the principles of teaching associated with those of research: Conception of knowledge and science in which doubt and criticism are fundamental elements. (ANASTASIOU, ALVES, 2004, p.98).
Exhibitions, excursions and visits Participation of students in the preparation of the field work plan; possibility of integrating several areas of knowledge; integration of the student, through the school, with society, through companies; visualization by the student of theory in practice. (Marion and Marion, 2006, pp. 37-38).
Business Games The game is a physical or mental activity organized by a system of rules. By using games, the teacher is creating in the classroom an atmosphere of motivation that allows students to participate actively in the teaching-learning process, assimilating experiences and information and, above all, incorporating attitudes and values. (HAYDT, 2006, p.175).
Individualized teaching Learning mode characteristic of distance education, in which students study in a school environment, according to their rhythm of assimilation and orientation of a teacher who attends each student in the stage in which he is. (MENEZES, 2001).
Projects In the project method, teaching takes place through large work units with an end in view and supposes the student's purposeful activity, that is, motivated effort with defined purpose. The project is an activity that proceeds from a concrete problem and is effective in the search for practical solutions. (HAYDT, 2006, p.213).

Source: Prepared based on ANASTASIOU and ALVES (2004); MARION and MARION (2006); HAYDT (2006); (MENEZES, 2001).

2.2 USE OF DIDACTIC RESOURCES

With the technological innovation and the availability of different didactic resources, the technical education schools, mainly, began to prioritize a theoretical content subsidized by proposals of practical activities, seeking to prepare the students with practical skills that will be required in the job market. The teacher, by inserting practical activities in his teaching-learning plan, allows the students the opportunity to create, use, operate and transform technologies.

Being that use of these didactic resources presents itself as an important tool in the aid of the teaching-learning process, making the classes more dynamic and interesting. However, it requires careful teacher mediation to effectively promote learning and achieve the proposed goal.

There are a plethora of didactic resources that can be applied to the teaching-learning process, from a chalkboard to an interactive whiteboard passing through games, instruments, equipment, machines, and so on. "Success in the use of educational technology has a lot to do with teacher's abilities, with their attitudes towards their use and the time they have for their preparation" (GIL, 2011, p.225). the teacher is able to use the teaching resources that are within his reach.

The teaching resources should not be used in any way, it is necessary to have a planning by the teacher, who should know how to use it to reach the goal proposed by his discipline. It is also understood that the teacher should not consider that the didactic resource will account for every learning process of the students, or that this resource alone will do its job of teaching giving birth to the understanding of the content to the students. It is important that the teacher is clear about the reasons why he or she is using such resources and their relationship with the teaching-learning process.

2.3 EVALUATION OF LEARNING IN VOCATIONAL EDUCATION

The evaluation of learning in vocational education is characterized by a process that involves conceptions, beliefs, values, principles, theories, concepts, goals and desires, focusing on competence development.  This process is configured by collecting and analyzing data, by permanently monitoring learning and by regulating and reorienting students' learning to achieve the best possible result. In this sense Haydt (2006, p.287) describes that:

Within a more modern pedagogical conception, based on Genetic Psychology, education is conceived as experiencing multiple and varied experiences, the contents are instruments used to activate and mobilize the operative mental schemes of assimilation. In this approach, the learner is an active and dynamic being who participates in the construction of his own knowledge. Within this vision, in which to educate is to form and to learn, is to construct the own knowledge, the evaluation assumes more comprehensive dimensions. It is not just about assigning notes. Its connotation widens and shifts, in order to verify to what extent the students are reaching the proposed objectives for the teaching-learning process. These goals translate into change and acquisition of motor, cognitive, affective and social behaviors. If the act of teaching and learning consists in trying to achieve these goals, the act of evaluating consists in verifying that they are actually being reached and in what degree this achievement is given, in order to help the student to advance in the learning and construction of his / her knowledge . From this perspective, the evaluation assumes a guiding and cooperative meaning.

Thus, especially in the context of professional education, the term competence has been associated with the development of attributes such as knowledge, skills and attitudes that are mobilized by students in different situations in the educational environment, so that decisions and coping are possible situations.  However, in the world of work, we are assessed by our performance and by our attitudes, where competency is related to the skills, aptitudes and qualifications that are appropriate and necessary for the performance of professional activities.

Overall, competency assessment in the educational setting provides evidence of student performance and knowledge in relation to the professional skills required in the world of work, it also provides indicators of what has been truly taught and what really needs to improve in learning. For this reason, evaluation is an instrument that contributes to improving the quality of learning and teaching. According to Haydt (2006, p.288) we can draw some conclusions about the assumptions and principles of evaluation:

Evaluation is a continuous and systematic process. It is part of a broader system, which is the teaching-learning process, integrating it into it. Therefore, it does not have an end in itself, it is always a means, a resource, and as such it must be used. It can not be sporadic or improvised. It must be constant and planned, occurring normally throughout the entire process, to reorient and refine it.

The evaluation is functional, because it is performed according to the expected objectives. The objectives are the guiding element of the evaluation. Therefore, assessing the student's achievement consists in verifying that he or she is achieving the established objectives.

The evaluation is a guide, because it indicates the student's progress and difficulties, helping him / her to progress in learning, guiding the student towards the proposed objectives. From a guiding perspective, the evaluation also helps the teacher to re-plan their work, putting in place alternative procedures when they are needed.

The evaluation is integral because it considers the student as a total and integrated being and not in a shared way. Thus, it must analyze and judge all dimensions of behavior, focusing on the cognitive elements and also on the affective aspect and the psychomotor domain. As a result, the teacher must collect a wide variety of data, which goes beyond the routine written test. To achieve this, you must use all the resources available in the evaluation.

In practice, there are no specific evaluation tools capable of detecting the totality of student learning, so it is, given the limitation of each evaluation instrument, that the teacher needs the competence to select and plan instruments that measure with confidence and validate all the objectives which it aims to achieve. Thus, the teacher should diversify the use of assessment tools throughout the teaching-learning process, so that a comprehensive assessment of the student, ie an assessment of various dimensions, is done. For Haydt (2006, p.290) from the educational point of view:

When we use the term assess, however, we are referring not only to quantitative aspects of learning, but also to qualitative ones, encompassing both acquisition of knowledge arising from curricular contents, when the skills, interests, attitudes, habits of study and the personal and social adjustment.

In the educational environment, researcher Benjamin Bloom's classification (1913-1999) is widely used by scholars to clarify the functions of evaluation, and among the aforementioned classification are diagnostic (analytical), formative (controlling), and summative (classificatory) assessments.

In the diagnostic evaluation, the teacher, when initiating the course / unit of education, should check the students' previous knowledge and skills in order to understand how much knowledge and skills the students have about the teaching unit in order to plan new learning. In this sense:

The diagnostic evaluation helps the teacher to determine what knowledge and skills should be taken back before introducing the new contents planned in the planning. (HAYDT, 2006, p.292).

In the formative evaluation the teacher, during the course / unit of education, verifies if the students reached the objectives about the development of the knowledge, skills and attitudes that are necessary for professional formation, aiming to inform on the progress and difficulties of learning. In this sense:

The formative evaluation has the function to inform the student and the teacher about the results that are being achieved during the development of the activities; improving teaching and learning; to locate, to point out, to discriminate deficiencies, insufficiencies, in the development of teaching-learning to eliminate them; providing action feedback (reading, explanations, exercises) (SANT'ANNA, 2001, p.34).

In the summative evaluation the teacher at the end of an educational process, sums up the results obtained in the evaluations resulting in all teaching-learning process, classifying the students according to the levels of achievement and income and assigning a grade as final result. In this sense: "This summation assumes a comparison, because the student is classified according to the level of achievement and achievement reaching, usually in comparison with colleagues, that is with the class."  (HAYDT, 2006, p.294).

Based on the theoretical considerations, it is understood that the teacher plays a relevant role, with power and authority over the pedagogical action of evaluation, and that its preparation is necessary for the evaluation process to be guided by technical pedagogical principles, with a focus on learning, and ethics that ensure social well-being, in order to prepare students to overcome their personal and professional challenges.

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS  

From the work presented, it is understood that the teaching practice in technical vocational education is not restricted to the specific knowledge, skills and attitudes of the technological training or professional experience of the teacher, but that is amplified by the need of technical pedagogical skills that will guide the teaching-learning process. And that, within this vision, the teacher of technical education needs to seek scientific and technical improvement on the teaching practice so that it is able to competently plan teaching-learning, efficiently use didactic resources, evaluate learning and correct it, when necessary, and become a facilitator of the learner's learning, contributing to their intellectual, personal and professional training.

In planning practice, planning plays an important and strategic role, as it organizes the principles, criteria, resources, content, tools and didactics that will be used to achieve learning objectives. Therefore, it is imperative that the teacher is able to competently plan, understand and use diverse teaching strategies in order to broaden the student's interest in learning and attending classes. Addressing topics, situations, problems, examples that deal with the specific area of ​​their training and that is related to the world of work, causing the student to participate actively in the construction of their own knowledge.

The choice, organization and use of teaching resources by the teacher to assist in the teaching-learning process, becomes fundamental for teaching practice in vocational education, because it is through the didactic resources that students are stimulated and challenged to create, use, operate, transform technologies, making classes more dynamic, interesting for students, giving the student greater familiarity with the professional skills and attitudes demanded by the professional market.

The practice of assessment in professional technical education should be observed by the teacher in a broad way considering the acquisition of motor, cognitive, affective and social behavior by the student. It should be continuous and with diverse evaluative practices to serve as a diagnostic tool to detect learners' needs and learning possibilities, assuming a guiding and cooperative sense.  From this perspective, evaluation helps the educator to regulate and reorient students' learning to achieve the goals planned in their teaching plan.

It is concluded that the teaching practice in professional education is a topic of great relevance for the educational field, due mainly to the challenges present in the professional development of the teacher, the fulfillment of educational policy goals and the socioeconomic development of our country.

REFERENCES

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BRAZIL. Ministry of Education. Centenary of the Federal Network of Professional and Technological Education. Brasília, 2009.

FONSECA, Celso Suckow. History of Industrial Education in Brazil. Rio de Janeiro: Technical School, 1961. v.1.

GIL, Antonio Carlos. Didactics of Higher Education. São Paulo: Atlas, 2011. KNOWLES. Malcolm, S .; HOLTON III. Elwood F .; SWANSON. Richard A.

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MAXIMIANO, Antonio Cesar Amaru. Introduction to Administration. 6. ed. São Paulo: Atlas, 2006.

MENEZES, Ebenezer Takuno de; SANTOS, Thais Helena dos. Individualized teaching delivery. Interactive Dictionary of Brazilian Education Educabrasil. São Paulo: Midiamix, 2001. Available at: <http://www.educabrasil.com.br/ensino-individualizado/>. Accessed on: Dec 27th. 2016

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[1] Professor at the State Center for Professional Education Aureo de Oliveira Filho. Postgraduate in Teaching Higher Education, UNIASSELVI. Graduated in Electronic Engineering from the University Center of Santo André Foundation, CUFSA.

[2] Professor at UNIASSELVI Graduate and Graduation. Graduated in Pedagogy and Postgraduate in Psychopedagogy by the State University of Bahia, UNEB and Postgraduate in Pedagogical Coordination by the Federal University of Bahia, UFBA.

[3] Coautora. School Director at SESI-BA. Graduated in Pedagogy from Montenegro College, FAM. Graduated in Pedagogical Training for Vocational Education Trainers, UNISUL. Postgraduate in Methods and Techniques of Teaching by Salgado de Oliveira University, UNIVERSO.

[4] "Planning is analyzing a given reality, reflecting on existing conditions, and predicting alternative forms of action to overcome difficulties or achieve desired goals. Therefore, planning is a mental process that involves analysis, reflection, and prediction. In this sense, planning is a typically human activity, and is present in the lives of all individuals, at various times. "(HAYDT, 2006, p.94).

[5] Teaching unit presents the proposal of the teacher's work, which organizes the topics in a logical sequence, specific objectives of each class, program contents, didactic resources, methodologies / teaching-learning strategies and the evaluation method.

[6] According to Maximiano (2006, p. 329), strategy is "the selection of the means to achieve goals".

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