Physical education as Inclusive Method for children with special needs

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DINIZ, Rakel Pereira [1]

VIANA, Fabiana Cury [2]

DINIZ, Rakel Pereira; VIANA, Fabiana Cury.Physical education as inclusive method for children with special needs. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. Year 1. Vol. 9. pp. 235-253, October/November 2016. ISSN. 2448-0959

SUMMARY

Currently there are brazilian actually an intense struggle of people with special needs, mainly physical, to ensure their right to equality, seeking an education fair and reality less prejudiced. The teacher must understand the limiting factors to their students, the assistance in the transposition of the barriers that may arise. The special children should be welcomed in the educational core, because the learning centres are the initial environment where the human being develops socially. The agents are paramount in educators educational process. By means of various methods adapted it is possible the physical and psychosocial development of special students, being enhanced their potential in the pursuit of their autonomy.  The objective of this study is to understand the forms of inclusion of people with disabilities in physical education classes of regular education. The literature review was used as a methodology, with articles and research works of conclusion of course published in online data bases.

Keywords: physical activity. Regular education. Inclusion.

INTRODUCTION

In Brazil, there is an intense struggle of minority social groups for their rights. The world is not yet fully adapted for people with special needs can have a normal life, being supported in their difficulties through their own people and of the State.

The school is the introductory base in social world. The special children should be embraced, if possible, through regular education institutions. The Brazilian educational system goes through a series of modifications, aiming to achieve true educational inclusion.

The reality, as much of the students ' education professionals, is marked by relativismos and fears. Get an education fair and reality less prejudiced is the first step for Educational inclusion.

The school and the teacher have a fundamental role in the educational process of the life of any person, especially for children with special needs, in particular physical needs. There is, however, that if you have a distinct ' look ', a larger attention than usually has. Through the use of effective methods, adapted to the particular case, it is possible to provide capacity building, both at the cognitive and physical sector, encouraging socialization and autonomy of special students.

The overall objective of the study was to understand the forms of inclusion of people with disabilities in physical education classes of regular education. And, as specific objectives: expose about the historical and social process of inclusive education, emphasizing its impact on Brazilian educational system; understanding the role of physical education as a promoter of the inclusion of children and adolescents exceptional, analyzing publications on the topic.

It is remarkable the interest of many researchers by theme, which demonstrates the importance of writing about the school inclusion. The proposed scientific study surrounding this topic, seeking the amplification of research and the exchange of experience between schools on integration of physically challenged to their social nucleus, especially during sports practice.

The literature review was used as a methodology, with articles and research works of conclusion of course published in online data bases. The literary exploitation held in these materials was of utmost importance for the completion of work.

The sources considered for carrying out such research were scientific articles in Google Scholar databases and Scielo, published between 2008 and 2014. It was used as key-words: inclusion; disabilities; special needs; child; Physical Education. For selection of the sources were considered as criteria the bibliographies that approached the Gym as inclusive method for children with disabilities. The materials were collected between February and October 2016.

1. DEVELOPMENT OF LEARNING FOR CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

Learning is a process of behavioral change, resulting from the experience built by emotional, environmental and neurological aspects. "Learning is the result of interaction between mental structures and the environment." (1)

Learning, in its global aspect, is identical to each learning; in your particular aspect, it must be translated by the heterogeneity of the ducts observed classroom learning, i.e., each has its own peculiarities in the time to learn. Learning exercises, how to store and consolidate have undergone transformations, and currently, the educational base is formed by reflection, by quest, urging to create new procedures. (2)

Education, assimilated as a community practice and inserted in a social, economic and political context, is not a neutral activity. The pedagogical practice, when carried out within the dominant values, reduces social exclusion. This change produces benefits for all, ensuring fundamental rights in various levels. (3)

So, human beings that are incomplete in their biological structure are considered disabled. Historically, are determined to be incapable and inefficient on the world of work, education and socializing with other people. Today, through the new paradigm of educational and social inclusion for the rescue of integration, in order to build a more just society and less discriminatory. (4)

Inclusive education is a contemporary movement, which seeks the inclusion of all in regular education network, providing equal conditions for access and permanence in school, and include not only insert the student with special needs in regular school, but provide him technical both specific monitoring teaching, aiming always to search for knowledge. (5)

Inclusive education, therefore, means to educate all children in a school context. The option for this type of education does not mean denying the difficulties of students. On the contrary. With the inclusion, the differences are not seen as problems, but as diversity. It is this variety, from the social reality, you can enlarge the view of the world and develop coexistence opportunities to all children. Preserve the diversity presented at school, found in social reality, represents opportunity for meeting the educational needs with emphasis on skills, capabilities and potential of educating (6)

The scholar Mazzota determines three social attitudes that have marked the history of the educational process of people with disabilities: marginalization, assistance and education/rehabilitation:

The marginalization is characterized as an attitude of disbelief in the possibility of change for people with disabilities, which leads to a complete omission of society in relation to the Organization of services to this population. The assistance is an attitude marked by a philanthropic, paternalistic sense of individual change, accompanied by the Christian principle of human solidarity, which searches only give protection to people with disabilities. Education/rehabilitation is an attitude of belief in the possibility of change for people with disabilities and the actions arising out of this attitude are focused on the Organization of educational services. [grifo dos autores] (3)

Regardless of any characteristic that the learner has, he has the right to education of equal form, being assured its access, permanence and utilization within the school. (5)

The ideal of inclusion of people with disabilities obtained focus after the promulgation of the Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil of 1988, primarily in articles 205 and 206, I prescribe, namely:

Art. 205. Education, right of all and duty of the State and of the family, will be promoted and encouraged with the collaboration of the society, aimed at the full development of the person, his preparation for the exercise of citizenship and your qualification for the job.

Art. 206. The teaching will be conducted based on the following principles:

I – equal conditions for access and permanence in school;

II-freedom to learn, teach, research and disseminate the thought, art and knowledge;

III-pluralism of ideas and pedagogical conceptions, and coexistence of public and private educational institutions;

IV-free public education in official establishments;

V-value of education professionals, guaranteed, in accordance with the law, career plans, with ticket exclusively for public tender and titles, to public networks;

I saw democratic management of public education, in the form of the law;

VII-guarantee of quality standard.

VIII-professional national wage for professionals in the public school education, under federal law. (7)

The child develops language socialization, the thought, the initiative and self-esteem through inclusion, constituting themselves as citizen able to resolve conflicts, building a better world regardless of differences. (8)

The school inclusion, is not an easy process, but rather a challenge. The school deals with a new theme, leaving aside your selective character. Quality schools are those which propose educational contexts in which all students have opportunities to learn, always respecting the plurality of cultures, the complexity of human interaction and the ideal that every guy has the same intelligence capacity. (9)

Educational centers, places where are aggregated values, principles and knowledge, all students learn, whether these bearers of special needs. The community at large, the family settings and other social agents must be development boosters and insertion of disabled people, both in school and in the labour market and in social life. (10)

Include people with special educational needs in mainstream school assumes a major reform in the educational system. This implies the flexibility or suitability of the curriculum, with modification of the forms of teaching, methodology and evaluation; It also implies the development of work in groups in the classroom and in the creation and adaptation of physical structures that facilitate the entry and movement of all people. It's a challenge, to make the inclusion, without losing sight of the fact that besides the opportunities, we must ensure not only the development of learning, as well as the comprehensive development of individuals with special educational needs. (11)

The components of the physical education curriculum have undergone modifications over time, being implemented at the same time as the games, sports, wrestling, dancing and gymnastics. Within these practice opportunities there are several ways of approach on the part of the professional educator, working according to the needs, potential and aspirations of students. In this context, the inclusion of students with special needs demands a Physical education program planning, respecting the principles of human development and the characteristics of persons with disabilities. (12)

The inclusive education has as its foundation the search for a quality education for all, while respecting the diversity of students, building a deep change in the educational system. A great counterpoint experienced in reality is the unpreparedness of teachers to deal with students with special needs. (11)

The special need of a student is not cause for him to be excluded from the various teaching practices. It is necessary that the teacher has in mind that the student is a changeable, which need freedom to learn and to produce knowledge freely. The inclusive school seeks the construction of a pedagogy that meets all students and understand human diversity. (9)

The activities carried out in this type of work must be open and diverse, beyond relaxed to the approach in several levels of understanding, understanding, ownership and performance in these activities. You should never show or compare students who have skills and potential, the ideal is to commend and encourage the positive aspects built by all, but these activities can be enriched by debates, group research, written and spoken, dynamic records, movies, music and group experiences. The contents should be worked out gradually without charges and limitations. (8)

As above, the professor has a fundamental role within the process of inclusion. He is the mediator in the teaching/learning process. However, this task is not easy, and should be provided basic educational needs for that professor effectively work with students with special needs, the carrier that consequently demand in their stay at the teaching Center. (11)

2. ACTIVITY ADAPTED FOR CHILDREN WITH PHYSICAL DISABILITIES

To conceptualize disability, we can say that they are different conditions that affect motor people committing the mobility, General motor skills and speech, as a result of neurological, neuromuscular, orthopedic injuries, malformations or congenital or acquired. (3)

Cripple is the individual who presents impairment of motor skills, patterns considered normal for the human species, can be defined as a disadvantage, because the result of a disability, that limits or prevents the motor performance of a specific part of the body. Kinds of physical disability are: hemiplegia, which is the paralysis of the right side or left side of the body, paraplegia, which is the paralysis of the lower limbs, i.e. the legs, and quadriplegia which is the paralysis of all four limbs, the arms and legs. (13)

The physical disability can have numerous causes problems during pregnancy or birth, respiratory failure as well as cardiac arrest, nosocomial infection, trauma caused by strong fall or action of infectious diseases. (13)

All have some kind of difficulty in daily chores and there is the bearer of pursuit special needs: see the difficulties of them makes people rethink their difficulties, hiding them. The culture of contemporary society discriminates against the disabled, since it is synonymous with weakness, being "removed" socially. This proposal for removal is the bias felt by the poor and by his entire family, which must be combated in all its aspects. (13)

We must bear in mind that the concept of efficiency includes the relative partial or total incapacity, for the performance of activities within the standard considered normal for a human being. The person with disabilities can develop labour activities provided you have adequate support and its features. (13)

Students with physical disabilities have difficulties in performing routine tasks inside the school, requiring the aid of a third person. It is important to let the student is author of your development process, knowing and discovering new paths. Inclusive schools have as main characteristics the respect, acceptance and belief in the potential of each student, providing quality education, without prejudice. (14)

For a student who presents motor sequel have access to regular education network is necessary to transport to the school if the family does not have own driving and he can't ride the bus; equipment you need to attend classes, as a wheelchair; Elimination of architectural barriers and prejudice of the teacher in relation to the disabled person, the requirement of a caregiver accompanying the student in the classroom, where the family is unable to attend to it. For students to have access to regular education network is essential to understanding students ' concrete which have sequels. There is no possibility of this student attending a classroom without being met these needs, which are not special and are part of the struggle for access and permanence. (13)

Sport for people with disabilities began after World War I, as a treatment of injured soldiers. In Brazil, this sports category was introduced at the end of 50 years. This evolution within the sport has influenced directly the school environment. Often students with special needs were excused from physical activities, but must seek alternatives to this reality. (15)

The adapted sports projects are important to the development of high performance athletes with disabilities. However, the school physical education is evolving into an inclusive vision, which presupposes the conviviality and the participation of all students in the same activities. This view relates to the current international conventions in the area of human rights. (15)

Physical education, seen in modern design, brings the idea of homogeneous education, based on auto efficiency and competition. Thus, for many years, the disabled people were excluded from the practice. Currently, physical education search, as well as the educational system in General, be inclusive, which comprises all students (people with disabilities or not) in the same activity. (15)

Physical education has much to contribute to people with disabilities, promoting a greater integration of the disabled with the social environment, stimulating the interest in physical activities, or even by the professional training in the area. Inclusive physical education involves not only changes in existing physical practices, but also the creation of new activities. (15)

People with special needs should be recognised clearly their rights and education. Physical education, in this context, it should introduce training materials and not complementary, replacing the traditional curriculum of competitiveness by the objectives of cooperation and solidarity. (16)

The disabled person is needy and brings with her a series of no's, which in everyday life. So, are retained from thinking and affective aspects and action. We need to give these students fully develop their creative capacities capacities and spontaneous. (17)

The fact of riding in a wheelchair or crutches or have a walk slow, can not prevent you to stay out of the sports activity that is being performed. The Physical education teacher has to know how to change the styles of teaching so that there is no deleted. (16)

The people with special needs need to acquire and master the movement, in the same way as the other children. Thus, the proposed activities during the physical education lessons are seen as positive forms of development and professionals get technical means for everyone to participate in the proposed exercises. (16)

For the physically challenged, the exercises performed provide agility in the handling of the wheelchair, development of dynamic and static balance, increased muscle strength, motor coordination and the favoritism their physical rehabilitation. The choice of a sport depends on a lot of opportunities offered to people with special needs, their economic and social condition, the barriers formed by its physical aspect and its potential, location and suitable material, in addition to community and family stimulus:. (17)

Analyzing the current situation of brazilian education, it is clear that schools do not have prepared environments to meet students with physical disabilities. Are necessary adjustments and innovation in educational resources for students with special needs are really physical integrated into regular education. (14)

However, the relationship of inclusive physical education with special needs provides the community the observation of existing inequalities in its core; and, from this vision, all people understand that the disabled if Excel, demonstrating that equality is possible. (17)

3. STRATEGIES AND CONCEPTS FOR INCLUSION OF CHILDREN WITH SPECIAL NEEDS

Changes in standardization and the new educational policy guaranteed the right of persons with special needs access to regular schools. However, the theory is not enough. It is necessary the existence of strategies to ensure the effective inclusion of these people, especially during the practice of physical activities. (18)

Each student presents peculiarities, i.e. specific special needs; Thus, the methods and pedagogical resources need to be related to the learning situation in which they find themselves. It takes flexibility to meet the aspirations of each student, as various methodologies of teaching, differentiated assessment and modifications in the structure and organization of the educational environment. The proposal for inclusive education stresses that "are the schools that have to fit to serve all students and non-students who have to be prepared to adapt to school." (19)

However, the reality of the brazilian education creates hurdles. The opening of the offer of slots implies a greater diversity of students in the educational centres. Greater diversity presupposes a greater variety in teaching instruments, which does not occur in the current educational system. The existing pedagogical processes adopt a homogeneous attitude, not taking into account the specific needs of each student. Therefore there is great content of disapproval and truancy, affecting students in a very significant way and almost irreversible. (19)

Another barrier is the difficulty found the Faculty requires to accept modifications; as well as the lack of interest in study and dialogue with other teachers to create new ideas and methods. There are aggravating for this professional conduct, such as the lack of support of the direction, the lack of time during the workday for elaborate inclusive activities and the inadequacy of the structure of the school environment. (20)

The addition includes the right to education, equal opportunities and participation. However, more than ensure the access of people with disabilities into schools or other social spaces is necessary to make their stay and learning through construction of pedagogical proposals that can meet the specific needs of the students and educate them in and fo[…]r diversity for a society, in fact, inclusive, there needs to be a general change of attitude from the understanding that disability or any other condition not resume any atypical personality of a person, nor can be determinant of their existential, social and educational opportunities. (19)

Teachers need to "open their minds" for the job. The recognition of the vulnerability and the potential of each student, respectful and effective treatment, beyond the real and affability that student understanding is paramount to building a truly inclusive education, based on the conception of human rights. (21)

"The differences contain great opportunities for learning. They offer a free resource, abundant and renewable. " The diversity can strengthen all educational centers, as they will to reinvent itself to ensure equal enjoyment for all. "Social inclusion, when it occurs, it reinforces the idea that the differences are accepted and respected by society." (21)

With regard to the development of inclusive designs, must be borne in mind that the categorization of persons with disabilities is independent of the medical diagnosis, determining their physical and behavioral characteristics. The contextualization of these people must go beyond their disability, of your disorder or disturbance. The human being changes continually, turning the context in which it is inserted. Everything will depend on the socio-cultural environment, as well as the opportunities and resources that are available. (19)

However, it is valid to say that there are many similarities, as people with deafness, with physical or intellectual disabilities. It is possible to cause the disability work from the development of the groups as examples meet the needs of the hearing-impaired, who have a limitation in communicate; of disabled people adapting the architectural structure of the school to a higher mobility of the student. However, this work cannot be an end in itself, it is necessary to see the student in their particularities, as well as global handicap, and to provide them the best possible way. (19)

In the book "class strategies for inclusion of person with disabilities" (21) are listed a number of basic procedures for the effective educational process of people with disabilities. The following are some examples of conduct that must be carried out by teachers:

  • Stimulate social integration;
  • Merge different activities which have objectives different engines so that they are included situations in which everyone can participate;
  • Stick to the age of the learner, so that the social and psychomotor situations chosen comply and associated with its reality;
  • Stimulate both activities and collective games and how individual;
  • Guide students so that the wearer of special needs is comfortable in the company of other students, and vice versa.
  • Propose exercises that encourage self-confidence and the upwelling of individual potential;
  • Use visuals, with the subsequent explanation, clearly and accurately;
  • Encourage the basic care and describe how is accident prevention during sports practices;
  • Stimulate the artistic side of the student, and this is a very positive tool. Features like music, rhythmic activities and theater are effective instruments for the development of body language;
  • Use playful practices as games that stimulate the cognitive aspect and memory; sensory activities that comprise the visual, tactile stimulation, etc.
  • Understand the student's disability, knowing the characteristics of their disability, so that the teacher can devise activities that are viable and safe;
  • Stimulate the student always, highlighting its potential;
  • Offer help to students, asking before if this is necessary and how best to do it;
  • Always treat everyone with courtesy, patience and sincerity, thus providing a supportive school environment;
  • Using his own body for communication and expression;
  • Develop habits that encourage health and hygiene;

Even if they are directed to students with disabilities, such conduct shall apply to all students. What should operate during school is equal, being offered opportunities to all, whether handicapped or not. (21)

Through these changes, students with special educational needs, which were segregated and exempted from physical education, they can practice it. Obviously, it is necessary that the teacher doesn't let there be disadvantages during practice. Sports should be a challenge for all participants, giving them the chance to overcome. To overcome the obstacles stated above, as the lack of support from the Board and the mismanagement of time, several schools have adopted the mentoring, collaborative learning and consultancy. (18)

Through mentoring, the teacher prepares a colleague to accompany and help the student carrying special needs. The relationship between the student and the tutor is a intense exchange of experiences, met through a team work and individualised. (18)

In turn, the strategy of collaborative education leads to opportunity for all teachers work as a team, improving his skills by exchanging lessons learned and effective support of the administrative sector. "When there is cooperation and support at school, the teachers improve their skills with visible effects on students ' learning." (18)

Finally, the consultancy includes the family involvement in the educational process. Parents are who better know the difficulties and potentialities of their children, being key parts for the development of the student. Inside there is also consulting knowledge exchange with other institutions and entities, always seeking ways of improving. (18)

Teamwork, the organized learning environment and curriculum adaptations can transform the special needs of the students in temporary or even provide the integral school success. You can't say that the deficiency was cured or psychosocial conditions of the students have changed. However, the amendment will enable the teaching people with special needs have a good performance and an effective school integration. (19)

4. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

The professor, from the beginning of his academic training, must understand the limits of their students, helping them to overcome them. Within the discipline of physical education, several obstacles may arise, being part of the educator to stimulate his students, mostly in individual development.

When speaking in inclusive education is necessary for the State to work with a public policy that ensures diversity and respect for people with special needs, giving them the right to education, preferably in the regular education system.

The special children should be welcomed in the educational core, since the school is the starting point for the development of the human being in society. The school and the teacher are essential to the educational process and, through effective and adapted methods, it is possible the development of cognitive, social and motor skills of special students, stimulating their autonomy.

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[1] Academic course of physical education of College Patos de Minas (FPM).

[2] Teaching in Physical education course of the Faculty of Patos de Minas (FPM). Specialist in public health and Physiotherapy in trauma-Orthopedics and Neurology, by the Step 1

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