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Challenges of Vocational Education in Small-Scale Municipalities: Case of São José de Ubá

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PAVAN, Fabiana Cruz [1]

PAVAN, FABIANA CRUZ. Challenges of Vocational Education in Small-Scale Municipalities: Case of São José de Ubá. Multidisciplinary Scientific Journal. Edition 08. Year 02, Vol. 02. pp. 146-159, November 2017. ISSN:2448-0959

SUMMARY

According to the IBGE (2017) small municipality can be considered that municipality with less than 20 thousand inhabitants. In Brazil, 17.1% of the inhabitants, about 32 million live in small municipalities. Justified by the relevance of discussing aspects related to education, and the challenges pertinent to small municipalities, this study aims to demonstrate the challenges of vocational education through the experience of a CETEP in São José UBA / RJ bringing reflections around the strategic possibilities that can be applied to stay and encourage this professionalization.

Keywords: Vocational Education, Small Township, Vocational Training.

INTRODUCTION

According to the IBGE (2010), about 32 million Brazilians (17.1%) reside in small municipalities. These municipalities are considered to have lower HDI (Human Development Index) than cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants.

Also according to information from the IBGE (2010) in the smaller municipalities (up to 20 000 inhabitants), the surplus of men (gender ratio always above 100.0) is remarkable in any of the regions of Brazil, a characteristic related to the rural environment. These regions also tend to present about 8.1% higher illiteracy rate, and lower monthly income. And consequently less capacity for job creation and development.

São José de Ubá, is a municipality in the State of Rio de Janeiro, which has about 7,236 inhabitants.  With extension of 250.78Km2. The Municipality presents direct challenges regarding its socioeconomic development.  One of the reasons for this lack of development is directly related to the lack of capacity of the citizens to develop specific labor activities.

In this way, CETEP (Centro Técnico profissionalalizante) discusses how a municipal strategy focused on the socioeconomic development of the municipality.

Within the context presented, this paper aims to present the challenges of vocational education in small municipalities, using the municipality of São José de Ubá as a case study.

PROFESSIONAL EDUCATION

The conception of education as a dialectical process, in which the participation of all the actors involved is fundamental, so that dialogue between them is politically and pedagogically indispensable. All that teach participants in the educational process and learn to be mediated educational space.

Freire (1996: 23) defines some criteria for teaching: "There is no teaching without teaching", "Teaching is not transferring knowledge" and "Teaching is a human specificity".

For the author the learning is reciprocal between student and teacher.

In order to carry out the present case study, a dialectical epistemological stance was adopted, since it was considered better to explain the phenomenon analyzed.

Dialectical materialism is important for social practice, because depending on society and culture, they are modeled by the environment. Through its history the individual accumulates knowledge, in this sense, it transforms social practice into accumulated knowledge. Being the social practice an action constituted by the consciousness reflecting the material reality.

Social practice category is the most important of dialectical materialism. It is alongside the categories of matter, consciousness and contradictions. What is the category of social practice? It is the knowledge accumulated by the human being through its history. In this sense, social practice is, on the one hand, action, practice, and, on the other hand, a concept of this practice that was realized in the world of material phenomena and that was elaborated by the consciousness that has the capacity to reflect this material reality. In this sense, Triviños (1987, p. 129) states:

The qualitative research of the historical-structural, dialectical type is part of the description that tries to capture not only the appearance of the phenomenon, but also its essence. It seeks, however, the causes of his existence, seeking to explain its origin, its relations, its changes and strives to intuit the consequences they will have for human life.

The semistructured interview allows the researcher to describe the social phenomena, their explanation and the comprehension of the researched subject.

Also, according to Triviños (2007) the approach of the problem specifies the theoretical foundation developed in the research. It is important to emphasize the construction requirements of the p[…]roblem: "Whatever the theoretical point of view that guides the investigator's work, precision and clarity are elementary obligations[…]." For example, when trying to work with the positivist theoretical approach, it is important that the relationship between phenomena is explicit in the problem (TRIVIÑOS, 2007, p.96).

In this sense, Nunes (2003) emphasizes the need for cooperation. The teacher as a social being when committed to his work is a transforming agent of society. In the dialectical understanding, Mészaro, (2004: 546), reports:

Without it, the working classes of the advanced capitalist countries will not be able to become "aware of their interests," much less to "fight for them" in solidarity and spirit of effective cooperation with the working classes of the "other" parts of the one world real – to a positive conclusion.

The challenge of vocational training is the lack of training. Workers often unemployed due to competitiveness. In this sense, the approach of work and unemployment continues. It is necessary that the formal and informal performance is the responsibility of the individual in a constant education.

According to Hirata, companies select workers according to their training, which is the responsibility of each person. The labor market has sought qualified professionals, giving people the constant search for professional training, according to Gallart.

According to Gadotti, a research teacher is expected to be open to change and to give meaning to students' learning, making it inseparable from research. The teacher, in ministering his classroom, must transmit it with love, with flexibility, with dynamism and must have dominion over the students. Teaching and research, for the author, go together, taking into account that the student and the teacher learn from each other.

The material goods acquired during the evolution of the human being, such cultural or material goods are grounds for a democratic society. "For this reason, the right to education is recognized and enshrined in the legislation of virtually all countries, and particularly the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child" (GADOTTI, 2005, p.1).

Gadotti's educational facets of education emphasize formal education and informal education. It also defines non-formal education, "Any organized, systematic educational activity performed outside the framework of the formal system to offer selected types of education to certain subgroups of the population."

For him, all formal education is also non-formal, since formal education can happen outside the classroom, in the community, without regularization and formalities. Making the class more relaxed and informal. Gadotti reports that both formal and non-formal education have organized and systematic activities.

CETEP: LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL ASPECTS

According to the D.O.U. Decree nº 43.477 / 12, establishes the Technological and Vocational Education Center, as published:

DECREE No. 43,477 of February 16, 2012, establishes, without increase of expenses, the Technological and Vocational Education Center – CETEP / São José de Ubá FAETEC and makes other provisions.

The Governor of the State of Rio de Janeiro, with the use of his legal duties, in view of Administrative Proceeding no. E26 / 42793/2011.

DECREE: Art. 1 – The Center for Technological and Vocational Education – CETEP, which operates in the property located at Rua Hemengardo Ramos Vieira, s / n °, in the municipality of São José de Ubá / RJ, is hereby instituted, without any increase in expenses.

Art. 2 – The Center for Technological and Vocational Education – CETEP will work with the structure of the Foundation for Technical School Support – FAETEC, according to the provisions of Decree 22.011 of February 9, 1997, Decree 23.644-A of October 23, 1997 and Decree 26.069 of March 14, 2000.

Art. 3 – The Foundation of Support to the Technical School – FAETEC will adopt the necessary measures to the faithful fulfillment of this Decree.

Art.4º- This Decree will come into force on the date of its publication, revoked to the contrary dispositions.

Rio de Janeiro, February 12, 2012-Sergio Cabral / Governor (RIO DE JANEIRO, 2012).

According to the Norms and Management of the courses, FAETEC imbued with the responsibility of constructing a Quality Education of the FIC courses, through the courses and the presential or semi-presential activities, and in the use of its legal attributions, according to Law Nº 11.741 / 2008 , p.4 and considering:

  • That training for work requires ever higher levels of qualification, not being reduced to mere learning of some technical skills;
  • Offering short-term, worker-oriented courses to job opportunities should be associated with the promotion of increasing levels of schooling;
  • That Education can not be conceived only as a teaching modality, but must constitute Continuing Education, which pervades the whole life of the worker

Resolve: Art. 2º The Teaching Units may offer in addition to courses of professional qualification, instrumental courses (languages ​​and computer science), as well as physical-sports and artistic-cultural activities, provided they present specific spaces for this offer. (BRASIL, 2008).

The educational units elaborate educational projects with the local community. Skilled labor is not limited to mechanical skills. The short-term courses are associated with educational growth, surpassing the life of the citizen to a quality education.

The School Units are installed in appropriate spaces and offer professional and instrumental qualification courses. And, in partnership with the community, it elaborates its projects.

The FIC courses refer to Initial and Continuing Education courses open to the community with the objectives and purposes of providing people with a vocational education, according to Articles 6, in its entirety:

Art.6º Professional Education has the following objectives:

  • Promote insertion in the world of work;
  • Provide the training of professionals capable of carrying out specific activities;
  • To specialize, perfect and update the worker in his technological knowledge;
  • Qualify and requalify young people and / or adults, with minimum education and age defined for each course, aiming at a better performance in the work exercise;

Certify the courses, when structured in steps, enabling the obtainment of partial certificates of professional qualification, after completing the stages with use. (BRASIL, 2008, p.5).

Refers to the instrumental courses, computer and language courses offered to students who are at least 15 years old and have completed basic education, in accordance with the objectives and purposes contained in Article 13, p.7:

Art.13 The instrumental courses aim to expand opportunities for professional training, constituting important tools for professional qualification. They include language and computer courses.

I- Language courses seek to develop the four language skills of oral and written production and comprehension, through the use of specific communicative tasks, so that the language can be used in real communication situations. (BRASIL, 2008).

This modality aims to insert the individual into the work, enabling him with adequate resources and adding values ​​for his professional training.

PEDAGOGICAL STRUCTURE: CURRENCIES AND COURSE PLANS OF CETEP

The curricula, course plans and the contents of the course are based on the pedagogical structure according to the teachers and managers that are elaborated together with the partner board, according to Articles 56 to 58, described in full, in verbis:

ART. 56 The curricula, translated by the curricular structures of the courses, will be developed by the Technical and Pedagogical Coordination of the board, in partnership with the pedagogical team and the teachers of the Teaching Units.

Art. 57 The course plans should contain: the modality, the technology axis, the entrance profile, the basic skills and competences, the curricular structure, the syllabus, the admission requirements, the minimum number of students per class and the evaluation criteria , obeying the guidelines established by the technical and pedagogical coordination of the board of directors and the legislation in force.

Art. 58 The programmatic contents should be directed to the search of day-to-day problem solving, with the objective of reaching the specific needs and profile of the professional. (BRASIL, 2008, p.26).

The evaluation of the students of the qualification courses and the instrumental courses obeys criteria of achievement and performance, attitude and behavior, attendance and results of formal evaluations, through the following criteria:

The systematic evaluation of the student is made according to the use and performance, through the following instruments:

The student will be evaluated through the following instruments:

  • Theoretical test;
  • Practical test;
  • Qualitative / formative evaluation;
  • Assessment of ambiance (exclusive for the FIC courses semipresencial)

The qualitative evaluation is carried out by attitudes and behaviors below:

The student will be evaluated considering:

  • Personal presentation;
  • Punctuality;
  • Professional ethics;
  • Respect for the teacher and colleagues;
  • Team work;
  • Ability of expression and apprehension of contents;
  • Participation in proposed activities.

For the students' approval it is necessary attendance, minimum working hours established, considering the duration of each course, taking advantage of the knowledge acquired in their reality:

  • Attendance of 75% of the classes planned for the course / discipline;
  • The absence will be computed considering class / hour given.

The evaluation is considered an instrument used in the courses considering the time and duration involved with the knowledge brought by the student.

REGISTRATION, DRAFT AND ENROLLMENT PROCESSES OF FIC COURSES AND INSTRUMENTAL COURSES

The selective processes of the FIC and instrumental courses are carried out by the electronic lottery.

In the registration the interested parties must carry out through the electronic address or obey the criteria in Article 78, p.31:

Art. 78 Entries will be made through choosing the courses of your interest, according to electronic address, obeying the days provided in the dates prepared by the board.

  • 1 ° To register, the candidate must access the electronic address, obeying the requirements informed, and fill in the requested fields.
  • 2 ° The registration to fill the vacancies of interest will apply in the unrestricted acceptance of the conditions established in the norms of registration, and the candidate does not have any later recourse.
  • 3 ° Registration is free.
  • 4 ° to read and agree to the terms of the rules, and at the end of the registration, it is recommended to print the voucher with the registration number. (BRASIL, 2008).

Drawings and dissemination of results are carried out online and registration is done effectively at the school unit's office, obeying days and times informed at the time of enrollment. The vacancies will be filled obeying the list of those who were drawn.

The enrollments will be made, according to some established criteria, according to Article, 80 in full:

Art. 80 ° The registration of the SUCCESSFUL candidate will follow the calendar informed in the rules of registration.

  • 1 ° Free registration in any nature.
  • 2 ° Only the students who have been drawn, who prove the fulfillment of the required prerequisites of schooling and age, will be able to carry out the enrollment process.
  • 3 ° The enrollment is subject to the presentation of the documentation required in the registration rules. Therefore, the information provided in the act of registration will be considered CANCELED for failing to meet the required entry requirements.
  • 4 ° The candidate must attend the place of registration (in the case of a minor must be accompanied by his / her supervisor), and present the documents proving the information provided in the registration. (BRASIL, 2008).

After the enrollment is completed, the randomly selected candidates should search the units for clarification of idle places.

Students may request their transfer to the school unit criteria when in accordance with criteria cited in Article 86, p.35:

Art. 86 ° The transfer of students to another unit is conditioned to the availability of vacancy in the same course and / or activity, after analyzing the situation of the student and favorable opinion of the educational supervision of the destination unit.

Sole Paragraph: If there is no vacancy in the course and / or activity for which the student intends the transfer, it must remain in the course and / or activity of origin until it can be transferred. (BRASIL, 2008).

Students may request their certificate at the end of the course, according to the criteria mentioned in Article 87, p.35:

Art. 87. The certificate of completion of the course must contain the course schedule and the syllabus of the curricular components and must be signed by the unit coordinator and the educational supervisor. (BRASIL, 2008).

DIF-authorized school units provide certificates to students who have successfully completed the courses.

THE CHALLENGES OF CETEP'S ACTIVITIES IN MUNICIPALITIES OF PEQUENO PORTE- SÃO JOSÉ DE UBÁ

This paper presents the general competencies, intentions and actions of CETEP, however, in this topic, the pertinent challenges will be presented to the implementation and performance of CETEP in small municipalities.

One of the great challenges is to understand the importance of educators, municipal leaders, and citizens in the importance of the development of society through education. Especially an education that brings them the ability to develop work skills simultaneously.

According to Perrenoud (2000 apud FROGUEL, 2003), "Human beings do not live in the same situations and skills must be adapted to their world," Perrenoud theorizes, "living in the jungle of cities requires dominating some of them; others. Likewise, the poor have problems other than the rich to solve. "

According to Hirata (1996), the professional competence allows attention first to the person, not to the work, enabling cooperation in the production.

For professional skills to occur it is necessary to provide working conditions so that the worker can maintain his productive activities and socioeconomic context.

It is of fundamental importance for the functioning of the competencies model that government, companies and workers develop their role, so that the objectives proposed by this new way of teaching are achieved. This requires the involvement of every society, as each sector plays a different role in the national system of professional competences. The school should raise awareness about citizenship, according to NCPs – cross-cutting themes (1998, p.17).

Society is made up of individuals who are often unaware of their rights.

The starting point for obtaining good results and productivity is what characterizes a complete worker, a real citizen who has in his hands the future of the world of work that is the driving force of the country. Finally, training for skills points to good results and performance.

The CETEP in São José de Ubá-RJ was built in 2011, and the writings published between 2012 and 2014 are sufficient to evaluate the debates of ideas, which invalidates the theoretical foundation addressed in this research. Faced with this, we have used theorists who approach other categories besides education, such as: education, work, ethics, citizenship, entrepreneurship and others that do not distance themselves from the view of the CETEP processors in our own vision.

Thus, it is possible to point out as a contemporary challenge the adhesion of CETEP by the community as one of the potential promoters of the municipal municipality.

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

It was possible to observe in the development of this study that the teaching, in particular the vocational training is one of the tools with greater socioeconomic transformation, mainly in relation to the unfolding expected in the small municipalities.

In São José de Ubá, a municipality in the state of Rio de Janeiro, although still recent, CETEP is able to present the first results, however, it still presents great challenges to be transported, among them, awareness of its importance by all citizens including educators and managers.

It is believed that work such as this can be developed to help educators of CETEP advocates to implement educational policies and public policies that can serve as a tool for municipal development through CETEPs.

REFERENCES

BRAZIL. Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology. Standards and Management FIC / professional qualification 2008. Available at: http://portal.ifrn.edu.br/ensino/cursos/cursos-de-qualificacao-profissional/fics. Accessed on: 21 Mar. 2015.

Freire, Paulo. Awareness – theory and practice of freedom: an introduction to Paulo Freire's thought. 3. ed. São Paulo: Peace and Earth, 1996.

GADOTTI, Moacir. The issue of formal / non-formal education. Sion: International Institut of Droits of I "Enfant, 2005.

HIRATA, H. The world (s) of work: Convergence and diversity in a context of changing production paradigms. São Paulo, 1996 (mimeo).

MÉSZÁROS, István. Ideology and Emancipation. In: The Power of Ideology. Translation by Paulo Cezar Castanheira. São Paulo: Good time Editorial, 2004. Accessed on: 12 Dec. 2014.

PERRENOUD, P. Practical pedagogical policies, teaching profession and training. Sociological practices. Lisbon: Don Quixote, 1993.

RIO DE JANEIRO (State). Official Gazette of the state of Rio de Janeiro. Executive power. v. 38, n. 34, part I, Friday, February 17, 2012, fla 2. Education.

TRIVINÕS, Augusto N. S. Introduction to research in social sciences: qualitative research in education. São Paulo: Atlas, 1987.

[1] Teacher in São José de Ubá, Master in Education.

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