Bullying against obese children in school environment and its consequences

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PEREIRA, Fátima Luciana [1], MACIEL, Rosana Mendes [2]

PEREIRA, Fátima Luciana; MACIEL, Rosana Mendes. Bullying Against obese children in school environment and its consequences. Multidisciplinary Core Scientific Journal Of Knowledge. 01 year. 11 Edition. Vol. 10, pp. 249-260. November 2016. ISSN: 2448-0959

SUMMARY

The topic is of relevance to analyze the approach of Bullying in the classroom, in the teaching of science and demonstrate the role of the teacher as fitness of this process. This review aimed to analyze the bullying against obese children and the role of the teacher in front of the situation, arguing when the bullying in the classroom, as well as their consequences, and demonstrate to students the importance of respecting differences. Highlight the need to demonstrate to students the importance of differences and respect. The present study was conducted through literary review of exploratory and qualitative way, Having as sources scientific articles, thesis, dissertations, magazines and newspapers, in such a way that the searches were made in libraries, databases on websites Internet. Were used for the search key words: bullying, child obesity, educator. In addition to using materials that are related to education and bullying in schools.  The materials published or recorded were the period of year 2004 to 2016 and the period of the survey was January 2016 to July 2016. Bullying is an act of violence which unfortunately became reality in classrooms across the country. The victims suffer from this situation at school and, in some cases, even next to the family and are in need of psychological support to minimize the consequences. Therefore, the school must be better prepared to deal with this situation.

Keywords: Bullying, child obesity, educator.

1. INITIAL CONSIDERATIONS

Bullying, according to Zootesco (2010), is an act of physical or emotional violence, perpetrated against a person or a group of people, among them one can highlight those who suffer from obesity. For Mattos et al. (2012), these situations occur due to standards imposed by society and their stereotypes of right or wrong and ugly or beautiful.

According to Smith and wood (2011), obesity is a chronic pathology that has as main characteristic the accumulation of fat throughout the body, is multifactorial and may be associated with genetic predisposition, inadequate nutrition and/or excessive, socio-economic and psychological conditions.  Second Giugliano and Carneiro (2004), obesity has increased considerably in recent years.

According to Rabin (2015), "overweight" is the main rationale behind the bullying against children and this reality goes far beyond the classroom.  Often, discrimination and the teasing made with obese children depart from own family don't understand obesity as a disease. These situations lead to severe consequences for its victims.

Albuquerque, Williams and D ' affonseca (2013) are among the main consequences psychiatric and emotional changes, such as anxiety disorders and depression, eating disorders, difficulty dealing with feelings and low self-esteem. These may lead even to suicide.

The professor has a fundamental role in the control of these situations.  Meotti and Perícoli (2013) claim that it is through the attitudes of the teacher in the classroom that the student passes to respect those who live in this environment. Thus, the teacher is the students ' example and has important role as their fitness.

Searches are being carried out to assess the bullyingnas schools and statistics present a frightening reality. According to research done by the Center for Social Entrepreneurship and administration in third sector (2010), in the year of 2009, the majority of students have experienced a situation of this kind of violence. And according to these surveys parents and students claim that schools are not prepared to deal with it.

The topic is of relevance to analyze the approach of Bullying in the classroom, in the teaching of science and demonstrate the role of the teacher as fitness of this process. This design was chosen with the proposal to add knowledge on the subject to future educators and demonstrate the importance of transmitting these discussions to their students.

The present study objective to analyze the bullying against obese children and the role of the teacher in front of the situation, arguing when the bullying in the classroom, differing situations. In addition to analyzing the consequences of bullying for the obese children and the role of the teacher in front of situations, demonstrates his students the importance of respecting differences.

The present study was conducted through literary revision, so exploratory and qualitative, browsing in books, scientific articles, monographs, dissertations, theses, magazines etc., in such a way that the searches were made in libraries, banks data on internet sites as the SCIELO. Were used to search the keywords: bullying, child obesity, educator. In addition to using materials that are related to education and bullying in schools.  The materials published or registered will be preferably in the period of 2004 to 2016 and the period of the survey was January 2016 to July 2016.

2. BULLYING AND OBESITY

Bullying is an act of physical or emotional violence, perpetrated against a person or a group of people. Unfortunately, in today's society the bullying is part of the classroom routine, discrimination arises in many ways, but one of the main approaches since the beginning are the obese children. "Maybe what the population has not yet understood, is that obesity is not a choice, but the individual's condition. "(ZOTESSO, 2015, p. 1)

According to Costa, Souza and Oliveira (2012), Fame classifies students into four categories in relation to bullying: targets, authors, audience and targets/authors. The targets are the victims of bullying, are usually little sociable and has low self-esteem and insecurity, which makes them more prone to suffer violence; The authors are those who engage in bullying, are the strongest of the class and typically come from broken families where there's violent behavior and a little affection. The viewers are the witnesses to attend and accompany the practice of violence, but not the practice. Targets/authors are students who suffer and practice the bullying, downloading the aggression to colleagues.

According to Mattos et al. (2012), the current society imposes standards, especially when it relates to the aesthetic framework, thereby the bullying emerges from the moment that something or someone runs off of this pattern. Still following this line of reasoning slim body is the standard accepted by society, it tries to promote measures to standardize everyone, especially children and adolescents. "One aspect of this violence is the imposition of a" normal "social, expressed in the restrictive diets as therapeutic strategy, following the model of a growth curve for childhood and adolescence. "(MATTOS et al., 2012, p. 74)

According to the author above those who don't try or can't fit in certain standards imposed by the society in which they live, in this case, directly related to body aesthetics, suffer prejudice and are excluded in many ways. This way you can analyze that this bullying in the classroom comes out of it.

According to Smith and wood (2011) obesity is a kind of chronic pathology that has as main characteristic the accumulation of fat throughout the body. Obesity, multifactorial and may be associated with genetic predisposition, inadequate nutrition and/or excessive, socioeconomic and psychological conditions.

According to research done by the author above the excess consumption of foods loaded with saturated fats and sugars associated with a sedentary lifestyle, is among the leading causes of childhood obesity. Meals made in fast food networks are a classic example of erroneous and feeding routine in our current society.

Giugliano and Carneiro (2004) state that obesity is increasing considerably in recent decades, due to technological advancement, which encouraged kids to become increasingly sedentary, leaving aside the physical activities, one with paper essential in fighting obesity.

Obesity can start at any age, triggered by factors such as early weaning, the introduction of inadequate food, feeding behavior disorders and family relationship, especially during periods of accelerated growth. (GIUGLIANO and RAM 2004)

According to Rabin (2015) "overweight" is the main rationale behind the bullying against children and something needs to be done in that regard, since this situation goes far beyond the classroom. He said a study involving more than 400 doctors, revealed that more than 30% of respondents bleeding cool is obesity as a condition to which responded negatively, just behind the drug addiction, mental illness and alcoholism. In addition, during a survey by the CDC (Centers for disease control and prevention) almost half of young overweight reported provocations made by family members.

According to the author above, in addition to suffer prejudice, the obese children often are blamed for being overweight. The society is not able to understand that obesity goes far beyond food and incredible diets are not the answer to frame these kids in a certain pattern.

Still according to the same author, some people claim that bullying against these kids would be a sort of "incentive" for the same control eating habits and improve the physical, but what occurs and just the opposite, in these moments begin the eating disorders and frequent absences in class. "Students who are called fat during physical education class, for example, end up killing the lessons to avoid criticism. "(RABIN, 2015, p. 2). In this way, the obese children suffer even more, plus most of the time not being satisfied with the weight, the prejudice imposed triggers depression, reversed with binge eating what worsens the picture of obesity.

3. CONSEQUENCES OF BULLYING FOR OBESE CHILDREN

Children and adolescents who are bullied tend to deal with its consequences, whether they be late or even immediate. According to Albuquerque, Williams and D ' affonseca (2013), one of the main consequences may be psychiatric and emotional changes state between these depression, anxiety disorders, low self-esteem, extreme solitude, difficulty to deal with feelings and even suicide attempts, and of course the consummation of this.

According to the previous author, another major problem are the psicossomatizações suffered by victims of bullying, where we can observe in most cases frequent pains head and stomach, dizziness, trouble sleeping, encorpe and enuresis especially at night.  The consequences of bullying hit both victims as the perpetrators and spectators. For the aggressors the consequences range from difficulties in learning to involvement with illegality. "Low academic achievement, school drop-out, engaging in conduct infracionais, problems with the legal system and substance abuse. "(ALBUQUERQUE; WILLIAMS; D ' AFFONSECA, p. 93, 2013). Second Adario (2012), viewers for your time feel insecure because of the daily violence that witness.

Within the physical and emotional health, low immune resistance, and on self-esteem, stress, psychosomatic symptoms, psychological disorders, phobia, depression and suicide. For the "aggressors", the distance and the lack of adaptation to the school goals, the overvaluation of violence as a means of obtaining power, the development of skills for future criminal conduct, as well as the projection of pipelines violent in adulthood. For the "viewers", that is the most students, they may feel insecurity, anxiety, fear and stress, compromising your educational process (ADARIO, p. 1, 2012)

When the bullying episodes occur in school environment the student victim of this violence can be committed and this will give clear signs of it, is what claim Miranda and Mauriz (2012).

Some indicators may signal the student disinterest in school, as well as feel bad around the time I left the House, ask to change schools, fear of going or coming back from school, ordering to be taken to school, often changing the path between the home and the school are also very common and it directly affected the academic achievement of these students. (MIRANDA; MUNIZ, p. 5, 2012)

Albuquerque, Williams and D ' affonseca (2013), claim that victims of bullying in the classroom can star in episodes of aggression in this same environment late manner. The authors prove your theory by citing a report of Vossekuil et al. (2002).

That report, prepared by the United States secret service examined 37 incidents involving deadly assaults at schools in the same country, between 1974 and 2000, noting that almost 3/4 of the killers had been victims of bullying, bullying in some cases severe and persistent, with a history of feel threatened and persecuted.  (VOSSEKUIL et al, p. 15, 2002)

The authors mentioned above, still highlight a case occurred in Brazil in 2011 to illustrate the issue of violence generated by the bullying in a school in Realengo in Rio de Janeiro, where a former student broke into the school killed 11 students and injured 13 others, committing suicide soon after.  According to Lopes Neto (2005), these episodes of violence the perpetrators do not have specific victims. Thus the intention would be to murder the school due to the suffering which they associate this place.

Children who are bullied by your state of obesity, in addition to the consequences listed above, may still suffer from eating disorders. We can stand out among these anorexia and bulimia. "Anorexia nervosa is characterized by intense weight loss at the expense of strict diets that are self imposed aimed at a frantic search to achieve the thinness condition, accompanied by a significant distortion of body image and expression of amenorrhea. Bulimia nervosa, for your time, is characterized by large food intake of very fast and intense way associated with a feeling of loss of control – the so-called "bulimic episodes (ABREU; CANGELLI SON, p. 154, 2005).

These can be defined as bulimic episodes autoindução of vomiting and laxative substance use to avoid weight gain. Arágon (2012), cites two examples: the student Ashlee Renee and the photographer Maria Leone; Having first suffered from anorexia after suffering bullying ex-boyfriend and friends due to obesity and the second having suffered from bulimia after several episodes of bullying from their friends.

4. THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER IN THE FACE OF BULLYING IN SCHOOL ENVIRONMENT

The professor has a fundamental role to mitigate situations of bullying in the classroom. Second Meotti and Perícoli (2013), is through the teacher and their attitudes in the classroom, students tend to respect differences of colleagues, among them the physical type. In schools takes place, in many cases, the individual's first contact with different people, either because they have not the same religious beliefs or because they are physically different, as parents are not keeping up with the daily lives of these children and adolescents, the Professor makes them since the early years until high school about the importance of human values, including respect.

According to the Center for Social Entrepreneurship and administration in third sector-CEATS (2010), the research done by your team and presented in the report Plan related to bullying in school environment proved that one of the students interviewed 10% claim to suffer this violence constantly, 30% have been victims at least once and 70% witness this situation often. The author even States that in most cases the schools are not prepared to deal with bullying.

According to the author above mentioned above, some schools adopt measures to prevent such violence, such as lectures and group discussions, using interdisciplinarity and involving mainly school of philosophy, sociology and human values (education religious). According to the surveys conducted the majority of teachers States that attempts to keep the family of the assailants that occurred are in vain, since much of the time the family doesn't believe what's going on and in some cases even support attitudes. Try to avoid bullying school also tries to punish the aggressors, with warnings and even suspensions, but most often has no effect. One of the main reports made by teachers referred to the lack of information and preparation for dealing with these situations. For Garcia and Raj (2011), the first step that should be given by the school is the preparation of teachers with specialized professionals aware them about the consequences of bullying in the life of the individual who is victimized.

Second CEATS (2010), in some cases, even the lack of preparation, this situation escapes the control of the school in these cases 5.5% of respondents claim that report the incident to the Cps and let the same take appropriate attitudes and 3.1% trigger the Police, usually in cases where there is the involvement of physical violence. 3.9% of respondents already surprised with your reply, because they say ignore the violence that occurred. The fact described earlier is one of the evidence of the lack of preparation of the schools to deal with the situation.

Gomes and Raj (2011), claim that to prevent bullying in schools, one of the measures to be adopted urgently by the schools and that has shown great results in which already adopted is the inclusive education, which consists of presenting the differences and demonstrate the importance of the same so everyone has a harmonic coexistence. In this process include students with disabilities, visual and cognitive even in regular education classrooms.

Second CEATS (2010), the report also features other worrying data Plan in respect of the relationship of the schools to parents in cases of violence. While the students claim that the attitudes of educators depends on the methods adopted by educational institutions, the parents claim that the professor has no preparation for dealing with these conflicts and so are tied up on the situation. The parents say that in most cases the school adopts no action and not take attitudes, or when the does is so lenient that becomes almost imperceptible.  According to the survey the parents believe that if the measures taken by the school against the aggressors were strict punishments the violence would decrease.

-Mark, Pasini and Levandowski (2013), report that there is a huge need for the adoption of public policies to reverse the situation of discrimination in school environment. It is worth pointing out that the consequences occasioned by the marks left by the bullying affect their victims for the rest of their lives, showing these facts to the students and teachers can get the decrease of these cases at school.

5. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

Bullying is an act of violence which unfortunately became reality in classrooms across the country. The victims suffer from this situation at school and, in some cases, even by the family. The psychological consequences varying from eating disorders, depression and anxiety, even to suicide. The victims need psychological support and family support to minimize the consequences.

Therefore, the school must be better prepared to deal with this situation and teachers must be trained by professional experts in the air. Parents should participate actively in the life of children at school and be aware of such acts and the attackers must have specific punishments.

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[1] Student of biological sciences faculty Patos de Minas (FPM) forming in the year 2016.

[2] Professor of Methodology, public policy, educational Management, supervised internship and Tcc faculty Patos de Minas. Master's degree in education from the Universidade Federal de Uberlândia.

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