Pedagogical practices in elementary school: Overcoming problems with recreational activities [1]

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SILVA, Neuziane Gomes da [2]

SILVA, Neuziane Gomes da. Pedagogical practices in elementary school: Overcoming problems with recreational activities. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. 08 Edition. 02 year, vol. 01. pp 103-133, November 2017. ISSN: 0959-2448

SUMMARY

Within schools, the playful in the initial year of elementary school is little discussed, because it offers an education that does not lead to the reality and needs of each citizen. Thus, the objective of this monograph is to observe if the pedagogical practices developed in the early years of elementary school are suitable for the development of the teaching/learning of students. Some topics that guided the choice of theme and the main problem were: why children play and how? What is the importance and role of recreational activities in the development of teaching/learning in the early years of elementary school. What schools use methodology to develop the teaching/learning process of the students. And as the playful, through the formation of the educator, interfere in this process. Discuss such theme includes a vast theoretical study regarding strategies for the historical concept, design on caregiving, foundations and institutions dealing with concepts of playfulness and scholars who defend the playful as one of the various instruments that can be contextualized and influencing the social and cognitive development of the students, acting in relation to students and educators in the teaching and learning process. Were activities in which contents were observed involving the playful banter and confirming that children learn most easily playing. However, the playfulness on the improvement of education, can be critical and creative developing possibilities that will allow students to experiment, the confrontation with situations that interfere with learning, as well as the importance of the educator mediate this relationship of teaching and learning with the playfulness.

Keywords: Learning Education, Playfulness, methodology of elementary school.

INTRODUCTION

The methodology of this study is based bibliographical research that dealt with theories about pedagogical practices of the early years and Playfulness in the elementary school.

Authors such as: Tizuko Morchida Kishimoto, Eva Maria Marconi, Marina de Andrade, Ana Cristina Azevedo, Sara Pain, Piaget, Anna Bock, Odair Furtado, Maria Teixeira, Karoline Kahl, Maria Lima, Izabel Garcia among others, were of great importance to the development of this work with scientific contributions supporting all phases of this research, since assisted in the problem definition, the determination of goals, building hypotheses, in the grounds of justification of the choice of subject and the preparation of the report final. At present, the theorists seeking to explain the processes of teaching and learning have followed parallel paths, the diversity of interpretation of these processes contributed to many educators menosprezassem primordial information defended by the psychology of learning. In this sense, the distrust established sowed the skepticism about the contributions of this science, which resulted in the maintenance of traditional forms of performance in the classroom.

However, we must not lose the existence of a number of principles common to all theoretical landmarks, that learning depends on the unique features of each one of the apprentices; correspond, for the most part, the experiences that each lived since birth; the ability, motivation and interest of each student, the way and the way they produce the learning is the result of processes that are always unique and personal.

Thus, the present work is to help teachers of elementary school can be based on the area's scholars addressed introducing concepts of learning disability, which popularized-if commonly because we found children stigmatised by their different paces of learning. The learning difficulties are directly related to learn, which can be a passing situation and should not be understood as a permanent limitation. Because learning is a process which involves various factors related to the subject and the relationship of this with the environment, requiring of the educator the constant search to understand the context in which the subject is inserted, as well as the situation in which they explained the difficulty of learned learning.

The admission of children under school is a crucial time in the process of education, because it is a situation in which disruptions may occur during the same. Thus, the playful in the initial years of the elementary school is one of the most important activities in childhood, because the child needs to play, play, create and invent to maintain balance.

The child is a social being that is born with the affective and emotional and cognitive capacity has wishes and are close to the people and is able to interact and learn from them so that you can understand and influence your environment. Expanding your social relationships, interactions and communication. (TRAVALLA and CASAGRANDE, 2007p. 77).

In this context, the playfulness is fundamental and constitutive part of the teaching-learning process of children, because they have creative imagination, and this comes in the form of a game, first instrument to counter the reality.  The play and the play are acts necessary for the physical, emotional and intellectual health and have always been present in any people from the most remote times. Through them, the child develops the language, thought, socialization, self-esteem and initiative, preparing to be a citizen capable of facing challenges and participate in building a better world.

The game and the game is in itself a learning situation. The rules and the imagination promote child in addition to the usual behavior. She plays a lot of situations experienced in your daily life, that of make-believe are reworked creatively, gleaming new possibilities and interpretations of reality.

The element that separates an educational game from another character just playful is the games and educational toys are developed with explicit intent to provoke a significant learning, encourage the construction of a new knowledge and especially arouse the development of a surgical skill.

In this scenario the present study seeks to demonstrate what are the playful possibilities that are oportunizadas in the initial series of elementary school, with a view to learning expectations, unveiling the importance of fun and games with the process of learning, seeing it as a facilitator of the psychomotor development of the child.

Seeking to deepen the theme presented, this monographic work will be developed in five chapters. The first chapter will address the thematic learning and its concepts, this view as a dynamic system of interaction, because it is a process, biological, intellectual, emotional and social and be linked to the history of man, to your construction and evolution while being social adaptability to new situations, because since always taught and learned, more or less elaborated and organized. It is known that there is not a single source, able to encompass the fundamental elements for the understanding of learning, but they believe the proposals that highlight the importance of higher mental processes, being the result of the body's interaction with the environment.

In the second chapter, takes on the role of the educator, who must be an expert and Stimulator have capacity to generate an atmosphere of charm and seduction around activities that challenge students to think and build your own knowledge surrounding the situation presented. Your responsibility is to teach thinking, encouraging the construction of schemas and smart solution-generating, producing and offering to that challenges the imagination and creation. The educator interested in the development of student's intelligence in rallying intellectual actions can count on the recreational activities as an effective pedagogical resource.

The educator's role, in this context, it should be the one that generates action needs in your student, you can conquer your commitment to problem-solving. When your goal is to build logical intelligence he opens the games that allow the learner to engage emotionally in searches or attempts at solutions to the problems presented during the learning process, and most often can build your knowledge, because the activities have as their main role offer possibilities of hits.

The third Chapter deals with the importance of Playfulness To the teaching and learning process, understanding the contributions and the great importance that the playfulness, as the games, games, toys, can influence the development of the child and in your behavior, and even as an ally of the learning process, since the trips by the imagination, the shape and form to the different elements that can be transformed to promote changes in the behaviour of the individual.

The play and the play are essential for the formation of human acts, because through them, the child develops the language, thought, socialization, self-esteem and initiative, preparing to be a citizen capable of facing challenges and participate in building a world better. Thus, they are a learning situation, since the rules and the imagination promote child in addition to the usual behaviour; She plays a lot of situations experienced in your daily life, that of make-believe are reworked creatively, gleaming new possibilities and interpretations of reality.

The fourth chapter deals with themes about the games and the games as a facilitator of learning, because the play is vital to the development of body and mind. It recognizes a means to provide integral education in natural learning situations that generate strong interest in learning and pleasure. Enable the construction of knowledge so interesting and enjoyable, ensuring children the intrinsic motivation required for a good learning, to convert them into mature adults, with great imagination and self-confidence, even those that present any difficulty in your learning or the acquisition of knowledge. We give emphasis to methodologies based on the "play" in the ease of learning things through the game, the game, fantasy, enchantment. The magic of teaching-learning (ROJAS, 1997), allows the other build through the joy and pleasure of wanting to do.

1. LEARNING AND ITS CONCEPTS.

Conceptually learning is the process of acquisition or modification of competencies, skills, knowledge, behavior and values through study, experience, training, observation and reasoning. She is one of the most important mental functions of humans and is related to education and personal development.

Learning how human activity dates back to the very origin of our species, since the human being is born potentially inclined to learn, requiring external and internal stimuli for learning. These can be considered natural, as the Act of learning how to speak, walk, linked to the process of physical, psychological maturity, what happens in the social environment where the individual lives and time, favoring change in your conduct, and genetic predispositions, which allows grants and Foundation for maintaining the balance of the individual.

Long ago, philosophers and thinkers concerned themselves with the facts learning verbal or ideativo type. Hence the reason why the first theories they were confused with the explanations of logical processes with the knowledge. Since learning he got mixed up with the action of capturing ideas, establish their names, retain them and call them, kept in the affirmation that there have always been in human life the Act of teaching and learning.

The explanations and study about learning came with the development of psychology as a science, based on the knowledge and theories of Neuropsychology, education and pedagogy, which considered it as a process of association between a situation and stimulating the reply, checked on conexionista theory, as a process of adjustment or adaptation of the individual to the environment, defended by the functionalist theory, or like perceptual process where knowledge is the result of preformed structures, defended by the theory Rationalist.

To Hilgard (apud CAMPOS, 1987) learning is a process by which an activity originates or is modified by the reaction to a situation found, since the characteristics of change of activity cannot be explained by innate tendencies of responses, maturation or temporary States of the organism.

So, we can't consider it only as a learning process, either as a set of mental functions or solely as physical or emotional elements, as it is the development of all the powers, abilities and potential of man, both physical how much mental and emotional.

Already rabbit and José (1999) defines it as the result of environmental stimulation on the mature individual who expresses himself in front of a situation-problem, in the form of a change in behavior in the light of experience.

Believe that the effective behavior change and expansion of the potential of the individual, demands effective relationship between what you're learning with life, that is, the subject needs to be able to recognize situations in which will apply the new knowledge or skill. This fact needs to be based on the maturation of the individual.

Some scholars claim that learning is an integrated process that causes a qualitative transformation in the mental structure of that learning. This transformation through the change of conduct, whether by operant conditioning, experience, or both, but on a permanent basis. The information can be absorbed through teaching techniques or even by simply purchasing habits.

The Act or desire to learn is an essential feature of the human psyche, because only it has the intentional character of learning. This Act can be dynamic, ever-changing and look up information to the learner; or creator, to seek new methods aimed at improving own learning through trial and error.

Another concept of learning is a relatively long-lasting behavior change, in a systematic way, or not, acquired by experience, by observation and practice motivated. So the Act of learning necessarily must include engines, emotional aspects, ideativos or mental, because behavior change will have qu requires full participation and individual global for all constituent aspects of your personality come into activity in the Act to learn, so that vital balance is re-established, broken by the appearance of a problematic situation.

The learning is real only when the individual incorporates new pipelines, new ways of acting and new ways to respond on the situations presented in the daily. She must always be present, since the beginning of life and be apprehended individually, because it is considered non-transferable from one individual to another, since the way and own pace to learn vary from individual to individual, named here as personal character learning.

The learning process is not watertight, he continuously and increasingly complex, as each new situation involves a greater number of elements. Thus, each new addition learning new elements to the previous experience, being flexible and taking the new organization cumulative behaviour patterns, which are incorporated by the subject.

Right now the knowledge generated in personal history and education have a crucial role in expectation that the individual has, the process itself, in their motivations and interests, in your self concept and your self-esteem. For both factors and affective, motivational and relational processes are important. Thus, the fundamental function of human learning is internalize or incorporate new fundamental behaviors to develop a meaningful learning, which oportunizará the individual to build a representation of himself as someone who can.

To the behaviorists, the man can't be considered a liability. He organizes his experiences and seeks to give them meaning. Emphasizes the importance of the mental processes of the learning process, in the form with perceives, selects, organizes and assigns meanings to objects and events. A social approach, people learn by observing the other within the social context. In this approach to learning is in function of the interaction of the person, the environment and behaviour.

The learning objectives are classified into: cognitive domain (attached to knowledge, information or intellectual capacities) in the individual's learning skills, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation; affective domain, (related to feelings, emotions, tastes or attitudes) where the skills of receptivity, answers, enhancement, organization and characterization are developed; psychomotor domain (which emphasize the use and coordination of muscles) guarantees basic fundamental movements skills, reflexes, perceptive and physical abilities and the discursive communication.

Education view of the prism of learning represents the time of voice, the time and the opportunity to be taken into account. Knowledge as cooperation, creativity and criticality, fosters freedom and courage to transform, and the apprentice becomes the subject as actor protagonist of your learning.

Learning is one of these factors. Unlike other animals, in humans learning is seen as a dynamic system of interaction, as it is a process, biological, intellectual, emotional and social.

In recent years, there are many studies on the learn, and learn, and that directly or indirectly seek to unveil the man learns. There is not a single source, able to encompass the fundamental elements for the understanding of learning, but they believe the proposals that highlight the importance of higher mental processes, being the result of the body's interaction with the environment.

Therefore, learning has a broad sense: it covers the habits we form aspects of our life and effective assimilation of cultural values. Anyway, learning refers to functional aspects and results of all environmental stimulation received by the individual in the course of life, because the Act of learning is a result of maturation and the individual experience, where no one learns by itself and in itself, by automodificação.

1.1 EDUCATION and learning.

The individual is constantly learning and teaching process, so all the spaces occupied by it have educational processes. So, he learns and teaches at the same time, because the do requires knowing, being and living together need to be learned every time.

Being the school a significant learning spaces, it needs to establish in your context an important function: to contribute with individual in your organization thought from the informal knowledge, of culture until then acquired in environments outside school, that is, Act on systematization of scientific knowledge and in the formation of concepts.

For the implementation of this function the individual cannot be regarded as a taxable person in which is deposited knowledge and information, but as an active being able to build new knowledge from your experience in different concepts. The crucial point for this practice is linked to the stimulus that should provide the individual in taking up your place of active subject in society, as an agent of transformation.

Contemporary theories define knowledge as meaning from the subject establishes relations between the object and your own powers of observation, reflection and information. Teaching is therefore helping the individual to construct meanings that imply your totality and not just on their previous knowledge or in your ability to establish substantive relations between these and the new learning material, or between the different parts of this material.

For Garvin, (1993), a learning organization must have the ability to create, acquire and transfer knowledge and modify your behavior to reflect on new knowledge and insights, as learning organisations people are not trained to perform their functions, but brought up to play with satisfaction its activities, developing team spirit and creativity. In this sense, Paulo Freire has contributed significantly to the organizational learning.

We believe, therefore, that school education should promote the publication and the construction of the so-called knowledge pertinent to have your support in complex understanding of reality, because understanding the reality means look at it, analyze it and interpret it based on principle organizers of knowledge, scientific thought can't devise convincing explanations about the complexity of reality, since it is based on knowledge, expertise and leakproof translated into disciplines compartmentalized and don't know each other.

The relevant knowledge, therefore, is not something outside of the individual and that it simply acquires, or something he constructs regardless of reality and of other individuals, is rather historical and social construction, in which interfere with cultural factors and psychological. For this reason, school education should be seen as a process of operation of a community on the development of the individual so that he can act in a society ready for the pursuit of acceptance of collective goals.

In this context, the school must seek mechanisms to configure as a significant, innovative and enterprising effectively, and the students should be considered/as in the physical and intellectual plan aware of the possibilities and limitations, capable of understand and reflect on the reality of the world that surrounds it, and should consider your role of social transformation, seeking solidarity among the people, while respecting individual differences of each.

You can't deny that the school has an essential role in the proposal of human formation, for it must concern itself not only with the content itself, with the transfer of existing knowledge to the students, but rather to promote mediation of construction of knowledge. This requires that prefacing the choice of the method of teaching, which must be coupled to the vision of education professor, she should understand the commitment of the actors of the teaching-learning process (teachers and students) with a kind of education that collaborate with the liberation and emancipation of man, through your awareness to build a more dignified and fair society.

Second Charlot (2000), learning is exerting an activity in a situation, in one location, in a moment of your history and in various weather conditions, with the help of people that help you learn. The relationship with the know is relation with the world, in a general sense, but is also relationship with these private worlds. The author considers that individuals learn because they have opportunities to do so, at a time when we are available to take advantage of them.

To meet the requirements of the school learning process, the purpose of the school in relation to knowledge should be rethought, and redirected the course until then seen as viable for the construction of knowledge. Is necessary to transform the school into a mediating instance and facilitator of learning, reviewing constantly the teaching methodologies and didactic strategies used for the student to learn to learn, learn to know, finally, learn how to think about it.

Freire and Shor (1997, p. 18) clarify this issue very convincing:

[…] If you look at the cycle of knowledge, we can perceive two moments, and no more than two, two moments that relate dialectically. The first moment of the cycle, or one of the moments of the cycle is the time of production, the production of new knowledge, of something new. The other time is one in which the knowledge produced is known or understood. A moment is the production of new knowledge and the second is one in which you know the existing knowledge. What often happens is that dicotomizamos these two moments, isolated from each other. Consequently, we have reduced the Act to meet the existing knowledge to a mere transfer of existing knowledge.

The school learning process should consider the appropriation of concepts in the perspective of common sense assuming a new respect to some usual uses of the concept of learning and putting new and fascinating questions about the mechanisms through which the educational influence is exercised, that is, about the mechanisms that allow the teacher to teach and students to learn and build your own knowledge, and they both get to share, to a greater or lesser degree, the meaning and the meaning of what they do.

Blacksmith & Garcia (2000), claim that the scientific notions were first extracted from the notions of common sense, and the prehistory of these spontaneous and common notions can remain forever unknown. Legitimizes the relationship between the historical-critical method and the governing psychogenetic, between the natural and scientific comparison.  Learning is conditioned, on one side, your cognitive structure – their knowledge schemes that encompass both the Organization's level of thought as the previous knowledge and experience and, on the other hand, by the interaction with other individuals.

The teaching and learning process should always rely on the social approach capable of causing pedagogical discussions about numerous aspects of extreme relevance, in particular as regards the way to understand the relationship between development and learning, the importance of interpersonal relationship, the relationship between culture and education and the role of educational aid adjusted to the situation and the characteristics that each moment, is present in the constructive mental activity of the student.

Tapia and tape (2003), claim that learning involves an interaction of pupil with the environment, providing conditions to capture and process the stimuli coming from outside, which, for your time, have been selected, arranged and sequenced by the teacher. Thus, through learning, pupil changes your initial state, becoming able to keep a duct in order to accomplish something before I couldn't or didn't know how to do.

So that the school can play this role properly, it is necessary to deprive many of the connotations that were piling up so surreptitious and develop at the same time other that until now were barely taken into account. Because she needs to, concretely, suit both the direction as to the meaning of the school learning; renounce more individualistic connotations of the construction process of meanings and senses; and, finally, recituar this construction process in the context of interpersonal relationship that is intrinsic to the Act of teaching.

Second César Coll (1994), on school learning should be present significant content, structured and with an intrinsic logic, because unlike hardly the pupil will understand the same and neither will be able to build new knowledge from them. Thus, if the educational project requires resign the teaching and learning process, you need to worry about preserving the desire to know and to know that all knowledge children arrive to school, keep the good quality of the connection with this knowledge and not destroy it with repeated failure, ensuring successful experiences, but not omit or disguise the failure.

Theoretical arguments directed to understanding about cognitive development and the way in which the students build knowledge, were provided by genetic psychology. So it is of great importance a sound development that fosters a quality learning, because the school learning will bring the knowledge and the child will have the opportunity to transform into a more autonomous, independent thinking and the protagonist of your own history, where I can be respected and able to give your opinion for or against something, based on your life story and what you believe to be true and essential.

Understand how the learning process in the context pointed to by Meirieu: the interaction between the information and the project does not start in school, nor in the formalized learning situations; It exists very early on and causes the child to reach the classroom, as the adult training level, has a whole range of knowledge, a teacher, in this perspective should be the mediator of the process of the pursuit of knowledge by organizing and coordinating the learning situations, adapting its interventions to individual characteristics of students to develop their abilities and intellectual skills.

2. THE TEACHER'S ROLE IN THE MEDIATION OF LEARNING.

The school today seeks to be a space of ruptures, transformations and of building a truly democratic society must have your work first, based on pedagogical and in the premises of the four learning: learning to know, that is, acquire the instruments of understanding; Learn how to do, to be able to act on the environment; Learn to live together in order to participate and cooperate with each other in all human activities and learn to be, via essential that integrates the three precedent.

When it comes to teaching, she gets back her eyes especially for its/their educators, returning them to boldness before the Act of educating, do the necessary changes to the quality education manifest themselves first before the breaking of paradigms, beliefs and values rooted in the Act of teaching. When educators become aware of these new perspectives, make the first step to change and become agents transformers.

Salazar brings out a reflection however, when print the daily lives of teachers, directors, technicians and educational experts, to discuss the pedagogical practice and the stance on issues that put in check beliefs and values that gave support to your performance as educators. Clearly demonstrates that a new order instituted in the Organization of society in General, and as such is part of education join her in order to promote a democratic, liberating, pedagogical, and able to provide any individual mechanisms required to sign as an integral part of society and of its buildings, because as the author at this school, have validated function socially, because everything is built of skills and skills required for life in the 21st century.

On the exposed, we realized that in relation to education, the teacher has in his hands the responsibility to act as subjects in the world and teach your/your students/the knowledge accumulated historically, giving them the opportunity to also act as protagonists in society. Because, besides being a teacher/educator and transmitter of knowledge, must also act as a mediator. That is, he/she should be put as a bridge between the student and the knowledge that he/she will learn to think and to question for yourself and do not passively receive the information as if it were a deposit of educator.

Freire (1979), States that the teaching action is the Foundation of a good education and contributes to the construction of a thinking society. However, the teacher needs to take your true commitment and face the path of learning to teach and every day renewing your pedagogical action in order to meet the need of his/her students in the construction of their knowledge and learning.

The school and the educators should ensure that the students learn with quality and that are able to develop your intellectual autonomy. To this end it is necessary that the instruments of planning, methodology and record to the consolidation of a pedagogical action are based on action-reflection-action, as well as the role of teacher, within the educational process, is seen as an actor able to ensure the student//a to your right to learn and develop according to their limitations and capabilities, without losing sight of the possibilities offered and required by society.

So, as Kramer (1989), for which this function is effective in practice:

[…] the pedagogical work need to be guided by a vision of children as social beings, individuals living in society, citizens. This requires us to take into account their different characteristics, not only in terms of life stories or geographic region, but also of social class, ethnicity and sex. Recognize children as social beings that are not to ignore the differences mean. (KRAMER, 1989, p. 19)

It is exactly in this direction that we must consider the social experiences accumulated for each pupil and your social context, in order to build from there, a welcoming school environment in which the pupil will feel part of the whole and is fully open to new learning.

According to the National curricular parameters (2001), the social approach offered the processes of teaching and learning brings to the pedagogical aspects of exceptional importance discussion, in particular with regard to the way in which we must understand the relationships between development and learning, the importance of interpersonal relationship in this process, the relationship between education and culture and the role of educational action set to learning situations and characteristics of the constructive mental activity of pupil in every moment of your schooling.

The social learning approach must from the questioning embedded in social reality of the child, because only from this point is that the knowledge really will begin to be built individually and socialized through mediation by a teacher. So, he/she needs to be aware of and committed to your practice and be able to work with innovation without leaving aside the planning of their actions, as the educational process requires systematic organization, without abandoning the principles of freedom, the needs collective and individual opportunities for all and education for citizenship.

Libâneo (1994) States that:

School learning has a direct link with the social environment that encloses not only the living conditions of children, but also to your relationship with the school and study, your perception and understanding of materials. Consolidation of knowledge depends on the meaning they carry in relation to the social experience of children and young people in the family, in the social environment at work. (LIBÂNEO, 1994, p. 87)

The achievement of the learning process with cultural-historical character requires that the child be brought about and instigated to put as subject of the construction of your own knowledge and learning, to do so she should be heard and his words raised and processed active learning and critical. In this sense, the role of a teacher is of fundamental importance, because it is through him that there will be intervention of educational practice resulting from guidelines, speeches, mediations and provocations.

In this perspective, Fontana and cross (1997), state that think about how your child uses the word, is to think in a new and complex intellectual activity. Thus, the teacher must from the historically accumulated knowledge and take the kids to develop a kind of intellectual activity that they still don't realize for themselves, that is, the end of the process, she must have the ability to re-shape the knowledge and express an understanding practice in terms so elaborate as it is possible to/a/educator.

Evidence-if so, what the social practice of the teaching-learning process is only achieved once established a pedagogical action mediator and problem of content organized, the experiences of students and of society events, already that the teaching relationship established in the classroom, the teacher must understand that teaching is the/a student/moments from reworking of divided, allowing your critical access to these knowledge and contributing to your performance as being active and critical in the process historic-cultural society. This goes beyond the simple transfer of knowledge.

Second Libâneo (1994, PG. 88):

The teaching work is an activity that gives unity to both teaching and learning, by the transmission process-active assimilation of knowledge, performing the task of mediation in cognitive relationship between the student and the study material.

The interrelation between two moments of the teaching process – active assimilation and transmission-is of fundamental importance, since the confrontation between the contents described below, brought by the teacher, the socio-cultural experience and the cognoscitivas forces/ the pupil, allowing the confrontation of the same at school learning situations through the guidance of a teacher.

In the dimension of the teaching work the teacher should have made clear that the pupil is the center of your work and requires more than technical looks that are far from your own reality, you need to tell your tongue looks , you are able to explore their abilities, they are able to make them increasingly and continuously, social actors aware not only of the revelation of the world and of themselves, but of your building, your intervention in your history and in the world, making and contingenciando think for the size of your destination.

To score best pedagogical actions the teacher needs from a systematic intervention in relation to the performance of its/their student, always using the most appropriate instruments knowledge or rebuilt. Yes, it's not worth knowing and applying any interventionist State, according to the Group's request, changes are needed. Before your commitment will be able to figure out where, how and when you need to modify the methodological referential, because better than any other social actor is nearing the school your student and can perform readings that allow you to redirect your practice pedagogically.

Because the process of ownership and production of knowledge only reflected by active and critical relationship/the student with the knowledge, since he/she needs to reflect, deepen the object of study understand the reality and not simply memorize information, and is the teacher largely responsible for leading the process of appropriation of the new knowledge, allowing the unveiling of the real and the percussion of own historical situation.

Wedge (1989) presents some practical pedagogical skills and one of them points out that the teacher is the main source of systematic knowledge, and it's up to him to worry about the content, the proposed activities to the students, because the performance of these depends on much of how the mediation process, because the teaching if well planned and conducted, activates various mental functions. To implement this practice, the teacher is challenged and need to seek means to motivate, encourage and take students to learning.

Provide an intentional process of mediation of knowledge is primary responsibility of a teacher, because education directly interferes in the development of the individual who, through the quality of teaching and learning that the school provided and through the appropriation of scientific knowledge, will be able to understand the social conditions of your life, turn your conscience and act to transform it.

Vázquez apud Saviani (2003), States that:

The theory itse[…]lf transforms the world. Can contribute to your transformation, but for that you have to get out of herself, and, first of all have to be assimilated by you will result in, with their real acts, effective, such transformation. Between theory and practical manufacturing activity is part of a work of education of consciences, of organization of material means and concrete plans of action; all this as essential to develop real actions pass, effective. In this sense, a theory is practice to the extent that materializes through a series of mediations, which previously only existed ideally, as knowledge of reality or anticipation of your transformation. (VÁZQUEZ apud SAVIANI, 2003, p. 73)

Thus, it appears that only through educational action is possible to promote the transformation and form critical social and active subjects in a thinking society, since it is precisely by the formation of autonomous and productive subjects that education must stand out, because middle of it, teachers and students, learn each other, so that both can be critically on your historical process and in society.

3. THE PLAYFUL AS A FACILITATOR OF LEARNING.

Human evolution associated with the technological revolution and social transformations has long demanded changes in the educational process. This for your time, to be understood as social practice becomes questioned the effectiveness of the methods used by tutors in the construction of knowledge and therefore of significant learning.

To meet the actual requirements for a social space of training knowledge must be focused on the experiences and the experiences of children, awakening interests and facilitating the teaching-learning process. Thus, the educator/to realize that teaching is not only knowledge transmission, but creating the conditions and situations for learning to happen, leading the child to act and dare to take risks. It is necessary to let that creativity is always present in the preparation of your lesson plans and classroom practices.

According to Steiner (1986, p. 10):

When we started as educators to introduce coercion by whatever minimum, what the individual wants to nature: when we do not understand that it is necessary to leave it free and only the auxiliary guides, harm so the human organization for eternal life.

So, the climate of security and of affectivity in the classroom is important, because the child should feel able to participate, to propose alternatives, react to the stimuli presented and evaluate the whole process of learning which is key element. For the effectuation of this climate, it is up to the teacher/child to offer efficient and effective methodologies, able to create opportunities to use procedures that facilitate your trajectory to acquire skills, better understanding and use of information received, which promote the development of their cognitive skills and relationships.

In this context the teacher plays a major role in the teaching-learning process. Yes, she is much more significant as the new content is embedded knowledge structures of pupil and acquires meaning from the relationship with your previous knowledge. The development of this with the activities create odd opportunity for your integration with the object of knowledge enabling you to automate your forms, understand their possibilities and finally implement the learning, openness to new learning.

Brenelli (1996) States that:

The subject when it interacts with the object, abstracts its properties according to their possibilities of interpretation. This activity makes the opening of new possibilities increasingly numerous and followed by rich interpretations. (BRENELLI, 1996: p. 39)

The interaction with the object generates no/the pupil more security to actively participate in the educational proposals, provides policies to structure the situations of organized and coherent manner, to interpret the possibilities, to fill the gaps, to seek explanations, to adapt to the difficulties and finally realise their mistakes and successes through reflection, getting a positive cognitive and satisfactory construction.

In this sense, when the teacher respects the potential and capabilities of understanding of the child, the more chance you will have of achieving the objectives of the teaching-learning process, because it will channel all your motivation and interest and will be an agent of this whole process, coordinating ideas, producing, perceiving, expressing, conceptualizing, no longer mere receiver of information.

Animate the teaching-learning process is the duty and function that it is up to the teachers to play and, therefore, need to be competent, researchers, nurture certain knowledge in order to develop activities that are fun and that, above all, touch sensitivity of students, knowing that it will generate to discern the good or bad for them. However the simple pursuit of new ideas and methodologies is not enough to solidify the necessary transformations and proposals, we must also transform your teaching material, together with the child's interest so by new discoveries and experiences, generating stimulating situations, effective and efficient for the process.

The promotion of a more active and attractive learning that results in the effectiveness of education requires the establishment of an environment pleasant, playful, enjoyable and collaborative to facilitate the execution of toys, games and games able to facilitate discussion and exchange of knowledge between students and teacher. And therefore an area where you can demonstrate your autonomy, independence and active participation, able to demonstrate your understanding of the information absorbed.

Worth points out that the execution of an activity or even a content analysis, the child awakens curiosity and causes it to evaluate and consider the way things are being worked on or presented. Thus, the teacher can use various pedagogical resources must, which will enable the construction of knowledge so intense and covering a total of individuals constituted in identity and autonomy touched by know.

Currently, within the context of established educational process changes, one of the methodologies considered how efficient and effective is the playfulness. This is because it allows greater clarity in the application of content and serves as a bridge between the student and knowledge.

The playful has the power to motivate the learner, make learning more interesting, to facilitate the understanding of the content and information presented and to exert influence in the process of learning grid. When you play a lot of situations experienced in your daily life, through the combination of past experiences and new possibilities of interpretation and reproduction of reality, according to your liking, needs, desires and passions the child is building the knowledge and therefore effecting the learning. These actions are key to the creative activity of man.

Miranda (2001) acknowledges that the child learns living, experimenting, making discoveries and acting, because at this stage it's all about the games, toys and people. Hence the importance of playfulness in the school as an instrument to ensure the child explore objects and situations and develop mental representations about the meaning of the content, facilitating your understanding. Because to believe in your ability, she will engage and participate with greater involvement and commitment in the construction of knowledge.

WEISS (2004), States that the playful activity help in learning, but she must be crafted taking into account some observations, as: propose tasks that are appropriate to the developmental level of the child and to transform the environment in a nice area and well relaxed. Since the playfulness in this context cannot be seen only as entertainment, or a play by play, but as a methodology to work with educational purpose promoter of meaningful learning.

The playfulness is very effective in building the child's development, because the play generates a space to think, and that through this she advances in reasoning, develops the mind, establishes social contacts, comprises the Middle, satisfies desires, develops skills, knowledge and creativity. The interactions that the play and the game create opportunities favour the overcoming of selfishness, which is natural in every child, developing solidarity and socialization.

Negrine (1994, p. 19) States that:

… contributions of recreational activities in the comprehensive development indicate that they contribute mightily in the global development of the child and that all dimensions are inextricably linked: intelligence, affection, motor skills and sociability are inseparable, with the affection that is the energy required for the psychic, moral, intellectual progression and motives of the child.

Any action the family, school or other social group is considered as activities that promote learning, reason by which the playful cannot be considered as a hobby or superficial fun, since, the costumes in the symbolic part of a joke set of actions that need to be encouraged in order to promote a sound and balanced development. It is necessary that the teacher have clarity as to the importance of playfulness to the children, understanding that the playful not materializes just in toys or in games, but in the fine arts, in songs, in architecture, in tales and stories, in design, in culture etc.

For Oliveira (2000, p. 10) the man is able to during your life developing your intelligence learning and building knowledge in a way that permanently pleasure representing your reality and symbolically interacting better in society. Because the playful is not in things, in toys or in the techniques, but in children, or better, saying, the man who imagines, organizes and builds.

To the author the playful attitude isn't necessarily the one who teaches through content of toys and games, but in teaching of teacher, who must be active, in the selection of content and the role of pupil, that appears within the process as a subject of learning.

According to Szymanski (2006), the playful used as pedagogical action is fundamental to the learning process, because the games, toys, games, children's stories, songs and poems offer a wide range of possibilities for children to participate, compete, produce, socialise as well as develop Act of interpretation, dancing and Declamation, thus demonstrating skills that have not yet been detected, creating new possibilities of knowledge relevant to your learning.

When the child realizes that there is a systematic approach in the proposal for a dynamic and playful activity, the joke becomes interesting and the concentration of the pupil gets bigger, assimilating the contents with more ease and naturalness. Unlike learning difficulties are highlighted. Under this vision, points out the importance of the imaginary as a learning process, this includes the toy. Playing is a natural Act and is part of the development of the human being. The make-believe and reality shows are ways found by the child to act and change, contributing to the development of both motor as psychic.

For Dockrell (2000 p 11):

The learning disabilities affect a substantial number of children in our society. Are mild, moderate, heterogeneous, graves, of short or long duration and require evaluations and interventions and a theorization of the models of cognitiv[…]e functioning learning difficulties can be classified in various ways, the most relevant is related to cognitive basis underlying a difficulty, because the intervention seeks to affect cognitive functioning, features a profile assessment the potential within the areas of cognitive functioning. (Dockrell 2000, p. 11).

Typically the child, by experience within your environment, moment of curiosity she's predisposed to perform all the activities proposed and likes to learn. In the school environment when it doesn't happen it's because something is not going well, in this sense, it is necessary to question and raise chances of the reasons of the difficulties presented. Assuming the diagnosis/the teacher should change your posture and get methods that meet the needs and requirements of children in all its aspects. According to Morais (1986), the lack of adequate stimulation, inappropriate teaching methods, emotional problems, lack of maturity and dyslexia, are causes of difficulties in learning.

Usually the first signs of learning disability appear normally on the ticket of the child in the school space, where time is required of her greater attention focused on carrying out activities. In this sense, through the playfulness you can develop in children the memory, stimulate attention, appropriate concepts and respect rules, important conditions for the child to overcome their difficulties.

Simpson (1973) believes that even when children present difficulties in reading and writing, they can develop in other areas of knowledge, since their areas of interests are stimulated to develop your self-esteem. Children struggling to read and write has usually skills for music, painting, mathematics, science, and it is up to the teacher to stimulate the development of these skills, helping to use with middle to compensate for its limitations. Hence the importance of the use of playful educational process in schools, since through it the child focuses his energies, exceeds their difficulties, rebuild your reality, creates favourable conditions for fantasy and turns it into a source of pleasure in building of your knowledge and learning.

According to Vygotsk (1984, p. 97):

… the game creates to children a zone of proximal development that is not anything other than the distance between the actual developmental level as determined by the ability to solve independently problem, and the level of potential development as determined by solving a problem under the guidance of an adult or with the collaboration of a more capable partner.

Thus, the Act of play gives the child the zone of proximal development that defines for functions that have not yet matured, but that are in the process of maturation, present since your embryonic State. Hence the importance of respect for the child's development and offer her an environment conducive to learning through fun activities that ensure the appropriation of concepts necessary for your academic development gradually without burning of the steps learning, guarantee to exclude future damage process.

According to Mackin (2003, p. 29), the games enrich the curriculum and can be proposed in own discipline, working so the contents of a practical and concrete. However, it is the teacher in the classroom or outside it, that should establish procedures and policies to develop and facilitate this kind of work, creating opportunities for the play happen way.

Alicia Fernandez archipelago, (1991), States that the learning needs of the learner and ensinante characters, while the link between both. The ensinante need to connect with your learner position and favor that the students can connect with your ensinante position. The teacher is not information transmitter, but a construction of knowledge environment in space where it creates between him and your/your pupil.

On the above, we can say that the knowledge to be built through the playful causes the child to learn in a more easy and fun, stimulating creativity, self-confidence, independence and curiosity, because it's part of your context at the time the play and play, ensuring a maturation in the acquisition of new knowledge. It is of the utmost importance, because by expressing let your creativity soar ludicrously, frustrations, dreams and fantasies, and so learn to act and deal with their thoughts and feelings spontaneously.

4. THE IMPORTANCE OF FUN AND GAMES IN THE INTEGRAL FORMATION OF CHILDREN

The individual interaction with others and with your middle, made through rules that represent the limit that regulates relations among people, at an early age, through the game which gives you the knowledge of reality itself with cognitive development, and social and intellectual.

Once the child has contact with toys and games she spends to assume different roles, experience different responsibilities, and thus build rules for your games and thus discover, interact and broaden their knowledge.

These practices are manifestations produced in moments of playfulness that will shape the cultural aspects relevant to society in which every child is inserted. Thus, according to Huizinga (1999) these human expressions are earlier culture, understand that the man is before you understand man, Man ludens, i.e. one that plays and play takes place, producing culture. It also States that in remote times, the amusements were one of the principal means available to the company to strengthen its collective ties and feel. It applied the games, the games and in realization of large seasonal parties.

In this context, the games and the games have a fundamental importance in building the emotional balance of the individual, because they favor him the process of separation and integration of I with the other, especially in an environment that gives you not only conditions of interact but also to acquire knowledge of the world by your surroundings.

In Greco-Roman education was much of the importance to the toy, the game and the games as instruments of the learning process, according to Kishimoto (1990). In the 18th century, with the works of Rousseau, the use of such an instrument was being intensified in the everyday life of the school. However throughout the middle ages, the games and the games were banned from schools and only in the following century enters definitively in the field of education, this due to Fröebel theory (1837) which defended the toy and joke as core of pedagogical work.

This fröebeliana pedagogy, served as a support for the recovery movement of the toy in units of kindergartens in Brazil aimed at educating children from three to six years. There arises the playful universe within the educational institutions more broadly involving play, play, play and toy.

Entering the game and the game in elementary school curriculum is one of the ways to consider children as subjects, participating and transform the reality in which they live. Due to the decrease of the play in today's society, it is up to the school to provide this space with the objective of contributing to the child in the production of knowledge and offer real possibilities for experimentation of situations involving the play.

According to the NPC's – national curriculum Parameters (AUSTRALIA, 1997)

The different competencies with which the children arrive to school are determined by the bodily experiences that had the opportunity to experience, that is, if they could not play, socializing with other children, explore various spaces, probably their competences will be restricted.

Thus, the actual need to insert "school and the game as a didactic role to be developed in order to educate, teach without charge and at the same time develop and stimulate interaction and the exchange of experience with other individuals and with your own the middle.

Second Zin (2001, p. 12):

The joke refers to the action of play, spontaneous behavior that results from an unstructured activity; game is understood as a joke that involves rules; toy is used to designate the direction of object of play; playful activity covers, more broadly, the previous concepts.

The use of the play, the game and the games in the establishment of the pedagogical actions will be important asset, as these activities will meet the physical and psychological needs of the child as well as contribute to them to enter in contact with the world of knowledge and information, develop their skills to create and relate this knowledge and learn to master all kinds of information.

According to Kahl (2003, p. 02):

… in the world of toy and games, in which the educator learns to edit the rules, the game is not an innate activity, but rather a social and human activity assumes social contexts from which the apprentice commands a new reality and establishes its standards.

The games and the games are intended to develop in students the Exchange, interaction, socialization and experience through the imagination your day to day, so they are important in the integral formation of students.  In this sense the play, as a moment of learning, is an activity that needs to be included in the school's pedagogical proposal, to provide continuity to the actions developed in the classroom and other spaces occupied by individual.

Vygostky and Fröebel show us the importance of playfulness, placing it as paramount in the process of teaching and learning, preparation of the child, so he cannot be considered only as a hobby to occupy the time of the child, these resources must be planned with the intention of promoting learning and skills in the development of students, who are in the process of construction and acquisition of knowledge.

At school games and the games are present in the most varied situations, under the most various shapes and designs, so they can be translated into educational methods and didactic resources important for the enhancement of learning. It is at school that other values, paths, possibilities of thinking assigned the jokes will be discovered.

According to Oliveira (2002, p. 43), in the development process,

[…] the child starts using the same forms of behavior that other people initially used against it. This is because, since the first occurs because, since the first days of life, the activities of the child acquire a meaning a system of social behavior, refracted through your human environment that helps you meet your goals

It is important to note that the game held at school is different from what happens in other places. Typically, the games and the games have a function, an intention which are determined, appropriate, depending on where they happen. For Kahl (2003), playing in the school must always be seeking to achieve a goal, whether it's for literacy, is for the transfer of good manners, or with any educational purpose. This is because, in your all, is a period of significant learning for the child, regardless of where it occurs.

Kahl (2003) continues to assert that:

"In school, more precisely in the initial series, the work with the playful can be made in order to recognize the issues of childhood, arousing interest and an attempt to study the subjects so more pleasant" (2003, p. 05 KAHL).

General, such activities are important in the sense that the same be new possibilities for understanding and apprehension of the content offered within the school context, especially when it comes to students with more difficulties. Also not only to develop content, but to ensure the motivation and enjoyment of educating in everyday school, participate so playful utilization in school is characterized as a pedagogical resource rich. According to Adams, through play, the teacher can explore creativity, recovery of movement, solidarity, cultural development the assimilation of new knowledge and the relations of society, incorporating new values. In this sense, the achievement in the school is a guarantee of the magic moment happen.

According to the National curricular parameters (BRAZIL, 1997), it can be affirmed that the student needs to develop hypotheses and try them in order to reach a meaningful learning are always natural and personal.

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

This study contributed to the understanding of teachers of elementary school can elaborate practical-theoretical concepts about learning disability.

It is understandable that learning difficulties are directly related to learn, which can be a passing situation and should not be understood as a permanent limitation. Because learning is a process which involves various factors related to the subject and relations.

So, at the end of this study allows us to conclude that the climate of security and of affectivity in the classroom is important, the child should feel able to participate, to propose alternatives, react to the stimuli presented and evaluate the whole process of learning which is key element. However, for the execution of this climate, the educator will offer efficient and effective methodologies child, able to create opportunities to use procedures that facilitate your trajectory to acquire skills, better understanding and use of information received, which promote the development of their cognitive skills and relationships. Finally, as stated by Kahl (2003), in school, more precisely in the initial series, the work with the playful can be made in order to recognize the issues of childhood, arousing interest and an attempt to study the subjects so more enjoyable.

REFERENCES

Brazil. Fundamental education Secretariat. National Curriculum Parameters. Presentation of cross-cutting issues and ethics. Brasilia: MEC/SEF, 1997.

Campos, d. m. s. Psychology of learning. Petrópolis: Vozes, 1987. RABBIT, M.; Joseph e. a. learning problems. São Paulo: Ática, 1999.

WRUCK, Dianne Françoise. Development and learning in school/Dianne Françoise Wruck, Fernanda Germani. -Blumenau: Edifurb: Gaspar: ASSEVALI. Educational, 2008.

By: Iara Maria Stein Benítez in 16/03/2012
Collaborator of the Glue Web site

[1] Article submitted as Partial requirement for completion of the postgraduate course in early childhood education and special education.

[2] Specialization in early childhood education and special education

 

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