SÁ, Robison Gomes de 
SÁ, Robson Gomes de. The school and its role in the construction of youth protagonism. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. 04 year, Ed. 08, Vol. 03, pp. 74-83. August 2019. ISSN: 2448-0959. Acess Link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/youth-protagonism
In this work, we intend to reflect on the importance of the school in the development of Protagonism, seeking to establish connections between the characteristics of the protagonist with the realization of his Life Projects. Here, it will also be indicated the creation of spaces for the experience of protagonism in the school day, aiming to understand the young as a source of initiative, freedom and commitment, in a school that seeks to train autonomous, competent and supportive citizens.
Keywords: protagonism, school, spaces of protagonism.
Education, in the face of the enormous challenges of our century, has sought to adapt and offer a formation that not only reaches the cognitive dimension of the student, but also the dimensions of his body, his spirit, his emotions. Thus, education begins to lose its one-dimensionality, becoming interdimensional.
However, this transformation is still in slow steps. However, even slowly, one cannot deny the fact that the transformation is happening and, in a positive way, has been giving young people with a formation for life, gradually building a range of skills necessary to face the challenges of the 21st century.
In this way, the school begins to discard random actions, while prioritizing intentional and effective actions.
Undoubtedly, the process is complex and quite expensive, but the results are exponentially positive.
For all this transformation to happen, it is necessary to place the young person at the heart of events, being part of the solution of problems, and not the problem itself. It is important to involve him in the process of evaluation and decision-making, causing him to develop a sense of responsibility over his own life, assuming the front line of the actions they perform, being, finally, protagonists.
For the leading role to flourish, the school must create spaces suitable for its development. These spaces are true “laboratories” of protagonism, in which students, faced with real life situations, can make their evaluations and make positions, thus modifying the reality in which they live.
Among the four educational principles constituting the pedagogical model of the School of Choice — Protagonism, Four Pillars of Education, Pedagogy of Presence and Interdimensional Education — we will delve only into the first, brushing the others and leaving the discussion of each of them for different and future articles.
2. WHAT IS PROTAGONISM?
When we consult the “Dicio”, online dictionary of the Portuguese language, we find that protagonism is the “quality of the person who stands out in any situation, event, playing the most important role among the others […].”
Antonio Carlos Gomes da Costa (apud ICE, 2016, p. 21), states that “youth protagonism is the participation of adolescents acting as part of the solution and, not, of the problem, in coping with real situations, in school, in the community and in broader social life“.
Therefore, to be a protagonist is to be in the spotlight, to make decisions, to be part of the solution of problems.
3. LEADING ROLE AND LIFE PROJECT
As the centrality of the pedagogical model of the School of Choice, which includes full-time high school in several Brazilian states, is the Youth and his Life Project. The dream, previously only seen as something unattainable, gained body, goals, strategies and actions, amplifying the chances of its realization.
For this, the young person is led to a deep reflection on his potentialities, his limits, his talents, his abilities and about who he, in fact, is. After all, you can’t start a trip without getting to know each other and plan the route.
They are the most varied life projects listed by the students. Some, professions; others don’t. However, what really interconnects all of them are the need for commitment, decision-making and the consequences that these decisions must necessarily bring.
In this perspective, the development of protagonism is necessary for success in the realization of vital projects, since it puts the young man facing real problems, involving them in the search for solutions and, in a way, tasting the world to which they are about to leave in search of their dreams.
4. THE SCHOOL AND THE SPACES OF PROTAGONISM
A privileged space for learning, the school is also an environment conducive to the socialization and insertion of young people in debates on topics of general scope. In the full-time modality, the possibilities of moving topics that generate discussions and provoke possible solutions, by the different groups of students, is even greater.
However, before proceeding to some suggestions of spaces of protagonism, it is necessary to remember that all educational action must be intentional and, therefore, planned, executed, evaluated and, if necessary, adjusted. Of course, if a good opportunity arises from chance, we should take it, even if it has not been properly planned. On the other hand, after skipping the planning step, we can proceed with the other stages of the PDCA cycle (PLAN (plan) – DO (execute)- CHECK (evaluate) – ADJUST ( adjust)).
Every school day begins with a welcome and every welcome can be a space for the development of protagonism.
In the brief time that is possible for the reception of the beginning of the day, a huge discussion can be initiated on topics such as: social inequality, rights of children and adolescents, public budget, prevention and combating of viral diseases, accessibility, prejudice, bullying, professions, environment, etc.
Here, through the Protagonism Clubs, initially with the support of a teacher or school manager, a welcoming agenda can be created, leading young people to the exercise of planning, study on the most varied topics, the execution of reception, the necessary adjustments to planning and the survey of proposals for solutions or improvements to the problems presented.
Obviously, time is not enough to deepen the themes, which may gain new discussion in the rounds of debates in the room, in thematic seminars, in study groups, in research in oriented study classes, at home, etc.
The most important thing here is to offer the student the possibility of him being active, of him participating from the conception of the idea to its execution. Here, we can clearly see the Four Pillars of Education being moved and the protagonism being exercised.
At first, the teacher’s assistance is highly important. After all, the students are experiencing the new. However, over time, the ideas of themes, the preparation of the agenda, the discussion about the objectives and the methodology to be adopted, all this and much more, will be germinated, watered, cared for and collected by the students themselves.
We realize, therefore, how welcoming is an important space for the experience of protagonism.
4.2 STUDY GUIDANCE (O.E.)
The essence of Guided Study (or Study Guidance) is not exactly in the classes, but in all the planning that precedes them. This methodology was created to favor self-teaching and the tools that result from it: planning, research, organization, commitment, discipline, etc.
The Study Orientation also lacks an agenda, which is the flow of a current of procedures prior to it. For example, the teacher should do his/her curriculum monitoring, pointing out predicted content, data, learned and not learned. In the case of un learned contents, a good strategy is to take them to the Oriented Study. Area coordinations can collect the un learned contents and refer them to pedagogical coordination, which collects all of them and forwards them to O.E. teachers and tutors. The tutors, in possession of the material, meet with their tutors and build together the agenda of each one, since not all the contents contained in the general list is a matter of doubt for everyone.
Where does the leading role come in here? Since monitoring. To know what the student has learned, it is necessary to have an honest dialogue with them, because a test does not always give us a diagnosis of the real situation of each one. This dialogue requires an awareness of the responsibility they will have on their learning and how important it will be for them to have an Academic Training of Excellence, for Life and with Skills that they can use in solving the challenges of our Century.
Only in this fact, the protagonism is already evident. When it leads to tutoring, once again, it blossoms, because the student will be responsible for building his schedule. The agenda will point out the points of attention, which will require a greater focus on their part. In the future, this agenda will be made autonomously by them, being only presented to the tutor, and not co built by him.
In the O.E. class, the student must follow his or her planning, be honest with himself, maintain commitment, and always be aware of the implications of neglect in his/her Life Project. He should always be aware of the importance of his actions for the success of his personal, social and productive life. That’s a leading role.
4.3 EXPERIMENTAL PRACTICES AND LIFE PROJECT CLASSES
The experimental classes of sciences are a great space for the exercise of Protagonism. Especially when the teacher does not develop all the theoretical and practical procedures, giving the conclusions and foundations, without even making room for the externalization of the curiosity of young people.
First, it is very important to stimulate the curiosity of students by introducing the class with motivating problems. The teacher, in the leading role, must be a good listener, an organizer, a facilitator, a co-creator with the students. It takes a change of attitude of the teacher, too. It should be remembered that the participation of students is the intention of this construction process. At first, the teacher’s cooperation is very important, but it should not be forgotten that the student’s autonomy is the end.
Therefore, the teacher, organizer of the class, guides the students, who raise questions, debate them, manipulate the materials and generate conclusions that will later be correlated with the scientific theory itself.
The same goes for Life Project classes. If the teacher only explains the theme and draw all the conclusions, a rich space is lost for the construction of protagonism. After all, the P.V. classes. are built for students. Not that the teacher does not change when passing through them, because this change is immediate, but the centrality of the class is the student. Thus, when the problem is proposed, one should keep an attentive ear to the students’ questions, to the correlations of the examples given by the teacher with their experiences. The teacher must observe the visible and the invisible, because, in the vast majority of times, feelings are not externalized with words, but body signs denounce the emotions about to explode.
We can say, therefore, that one of the great virtues of the teacher who seeks the authentic protagonism of the student is to see the centrality of this, since it is for the realization of his P.V. that the whole school works. This is not to say that the teacher has lost its importance in the process of educating. Quite the contrary. Now, with a closer look and a spirit of solidarity, the teacher organizes the educational processes, observes the intentionality of the actions, co creates with his students, provokes questions, guides, is more present than ever in their lives.
4.4 LESSONS AND EVALUATION MOMENTS
Says Moretto (2010, cover) that “The test should be a privileged moment of study, not a reckoning”. Yes, the test should be a moment of learning, reflection, questioning, serious face and trying to contribute to their solutions. I am not only talking about the solution charged in the evaluation instrument, but, if the test is well elaborated, it should leave the student with a feeling of wanting to delve into the theme and, within its limits and possibilities, think about ways of contributing to the debate of the themes.
Of course, this topic does not include only the evaluation instrument “proof”, but all the instruments that aim to realize the culmination of an entire teaching and learning process. Thus, in seminars, in group debates, in the wheels of conversations, in self-assessment, in practical classes, in field classes and in all moments where learning is experienced, one must provoke and observe the flowering of the leading role.
If we expand this thought further, we can transform all classes into true spaces of protagonism. Now, we should not even separate “classes” and “evaluations”, since all moments require some kind of evaluation, and should be made the most of. We are in a constant state of evaluation: evaluation of the practice itself, cognitive evaluation of the student, socioeotional evaluation, evaluation of a simple speech, evaluation of the education system, etc. We don’t stop evaluating. This is good, because the adjustments begin soon after a careful evaluation.
Therefore, transforming classes into spaces of protagonism greatly enhances the transformation of the student into a being of initiatives, freedom and commitment.
4.5 SCHOOL PROJECTS
Every school carries out several school projects throughout the school year. There are schools that even work only with projects. Here are excellent spaces of protagonism.
Before the culmination of the projects, there is a whole involvement of the students in their construction: they organize themselves into groups, elaborate schedules, stage, rehearse, dance, design, lead, are led, coexist, decide, research, execute, evaluate the results along the way. In the culmination, everyone observes ecstatic the result of individual and collective efforts, perceives the importance of decision-making and of staying active about their learning, glimpse the future that, in their dreams, has already gained body.
A school project never addresses just one theme. Several other topics are raised and discussed by young people throughout their development. Many problems will arise and need to be solved. Many conflicts will happen and need to be pacified. All this contributes, and much, for the student to understand himself as the author and main actor of his own story.
4.6 LEADING CLUBS
The Protagonism Clubs, as their own denomination suggests, is a space of autonomy for students, decision-making, initiatives, coexistence and, consequently, conflict mediations.
In clubs, young people organize their activities, develop action plans, set goals, perform their tasks, promote events, campaign, etc.
In addition to a moment of meeting for an unpretentious chat, the clubs spring intentional actions, reasoned and with pedagogical biases.
5. PROTAGONISM EVERYWHERE
Until now, several school moments were suggested that were conducive to the experiences of protagonism. The school, at this point, comes to be seen as, in fact, a true machine for the construction of these spaces. However, this is not the only thing that favors protagonism. Let us reflect a little more on the subject.
The students who participate in:
5.1 STUDENT/SOCIAL MOVEMENTS
Once engaged in causes of collective interest, he, even if he does not solve the macro problem alone, is placed as part of this solution. His involvement places him as an active being in education, seeking to discuss about the health of the environment, public finances, the population, the causes of hunger, about the problems of education itself, among other relevant topics.
Student demonstrations are a strong evidence of the youth’s prominence in the search for collective improvements and guaranteed by the laws. This occurs when, in the streets or in social networks, they manifest themselves against the neglects of governments related to education, whether in the direct achievement of the teacher, or in the lack of adequate physical structures, scarce financial conditions for the self-support of the school or even in the glaring lack of pedagogical resources for the potentiation of teaching and the facilitation of learning, as well as when they manifest themselves in favor of the common good on the various problems raised.
5.2 SOCIAL GROUPS
When they seek, through collective force, to strengthen themselves and strengthen the other. His participation in sports teams, reading clubs, solidarity groups, religious, scientific groups, among others, whether face-to-face or virtual, leads him to integration with the wide world, to which he should contribute with his interest and actions. In all of them, the student builds, evolves and becomes captain of his own ship.
5.3 VOLUNTEER WORK
Participating in volunteer work is evolutionary. In addition to performing the activity, which, most often, is the obligation of the State, the young person eases the pain of the other, while charging the authorities for a definitive solution to the problem.
5.4 LECTURES AND DEBATES
It is not uncommon for municipalities and states to offer lectures on the most varied topics with active participation of young people. In them, students can delve into various topics — environment, health, law, etc. —expanding their training and leading real debates on these topics.
5.5 PUBLIC HEARINGS AND ORDINARY/EXTRAORDINARY SESSIONS
By learning about public finances, accountability, approval and revision of laws, rights and guarantees, young people can position themselves in the face of facts of collective interest, deepening their knowledge with quality research and contributing to the debates that take place in these important moments in decision-making.
6. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
Well, it would be very pretentious of me to want to name in an article, or hundreds of them, all the possibilities of exercising protagonism. The intention of the work, in fact, is to point out the North.
The school, although not the only vehicle that leads to the leading role, can, and should, exploit its potential in this area. To do this, educators — teachers, managers, coordinators, support staff — need to be aware of opportunities to enhance them. In addition, actions must be intentional. For this, the interaction between the various actors of education must be permanent, providing the exchange of ideas, interspersing the proposals, rooting the leading role in all minutes of the school activity. Thus, with an intense and purposeful work, the school can lead the student to develop an interest in educational processes, since its construction will be part of it, moving on to taking initiatives, becoming free to choose and walking side by side with commitment. These three characteristics together — initiative, freedom, and commitment — will solidify the formation of a competent, self-employed, and supportive student.
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 Specialist in Mathematics Education for Pedagogues. Full Degree in Mathematics.
Submitted: July, 2019.
Approved: August, 2019.