A view of educators who accompany students with ADHD: Literature review

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BIBLIOMETRIC REVIEW

PENHA JÚNIOR, Edson Ricardo Passos [1]

PENHA JÚNIOR, Edson Ricardo Passos. A view of educators who accompany students with ADHD: Literature review. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 05, Ed. 09, Vol. 09, pp. 46-55. September 2020. ISSN: 2448-0959, Access link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/view-of-educators

ABSTRACT

This article aims to understand the perception of teachers about Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), within the school environment, and their pedagogical practices with students involved in the process in each child’s time, in the following segments: “The increase in diagnoses of ADHD in recent times ”,“ School participation and ADHD ”and“ Premature suspicion of diagnosis in children with ADHD or lack of specialized ADHD diagnosis ”. The methodology used was bibliographic research based on elaborated materials, mainly of scientific articles in the Databases. The results achieved support the high premise on methodological and diagnostic criteria, and the source of information, on the variability of prevalence estimates at the global level.

Keywords: ADHD, educator, school diagnosis.

1. INTRODUCTION

According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V) (2014), the essential characteristic of ADHD is the challenge and hyperactivity-impulsivity, which can interfere with the way it works and the way it develops. Inattention manifests itself in behavior, wandering about tasks, lack of persistence, difficulty in maintaining focus and disorganization, not constituting consequences of challenges or lack of understanding, that is, for these children it is somewhat tiring since most of the education system is homogeneous.

There are some behaviors present in this sense that are often stigmatized by society, such as: agitation, disobedience, learning difficulties, lack of concentration. Such complaints about behavior often pass through the parents, many of them have no knowledge about the diagnosis and especially some teachers, corroborating the stigmas and prejudices that surround the child with ADHD. Mendes (2010) states that this meeting of pretensions and concerns on the part of the majority of teachers, with regard to forms of inclusion, about the differences, in the face of the lack of preparation is still happening.

Thus, the choice of this topic was due to a concern about how to understand the teaching-learning process in these children who are diagnosed with this disorder, that is, how in their daily lives these children are seen by their teachers and how they experience their surroundings, that is, to understand what the skills are and / or how a child with a disorder develops during the learning process in the school space, involving the preparation of teachers to accommodate this demand.

Therefore, the main objective of this study will be to understand the perception of teachers about ADHD, within the school environment. Also seeking to achieve the specific objectives: Investigate pedagogical practices with the students involved in the process at the time of each child. how teachers identify children with signs of ADHD; identify which factors lead the student to exclusion (family, school and social).

Justifying itself by the fact that I need to understand that each child has his own way of learning, his way of processing imposed demands, since his learning processes may be at different levels from those who are not carriers of ADHD.

2. METHODOLOGY

The methodology used in the present project was an exploratory research with the objective of providing greater familiarity with the problem, thus contributing with a hypothesis and still understanding the perception of teachers about the topic addressed.

It is stated that the bibliographic methodology is an important procedure for the production of scientific knowledge, especially the few explored, providing assumptions or interpretations that will serve as a basis for other research. (SASSO, 2007)

The research was carried out from August to November 2019 in the aforementioned databases: Scientific Electronic Library Online (Scielo), Electronic Journals in Psychology (PePSIC), Virtual Health Library (VHL) and the CAPES Portal, these are the most important databases well regarded and accepted by the scientific community, where they were chosen. Descriptors: ADHD, school, teacher, childhood, psychology, family and development, all separated by the Boolean operator AND and grouped into pairs of words.

As for the bibliographic research procedures, they were developed from elaborated materials, mainly from scientific articles in the databases: Electronic Psychology Journals portal (PePSIC) Virtual Health Library (VHL), CAPES Journals Portal and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), widely disseminated and recognized in the academic community.

Right after reading such databases, the inclusion criteria were used: original articles from the last ten years were linked to the topic addressed and articles in Portuguese. However, articles that do not favor the theme or repeated articles were excluded.

3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

3.1 THE INCREASE IN ADHD DIAGNOSTICS IN THE LAST TIMES

Analyzing the article by Caliman (2008) with the title “ADHD: among the functions, dysfunctions of attention”, he showed that ADHD has been shown as a malfunction in neuropsychiatric, which starts in childhood and goes on to adulthood, being a public problem, since it is from an international perspective. Contrary to this, comes its adequacy, requiring a medical and biological coherence, in which the narrative defended by neuropsychiatry shows the existence of controversies that has been consolidating. This article had the main objective of analyzing the delicate terms that establish the functions and dysfunctions of this disorder.

In the article by Tassotti (2015) with the title “ADHD: differential diagnosis and treatment”, it can be seen that this subject has been gaining prominence in recent years, both for parents, as teachers and mental health professionals, even considering him as main psychological disorder in youth. Especially affecting children and adolescents of school age. He showed that several studies point to possible genetic and environmental causes, even claiming that he does not have an exclusive cause that results in ADHD. Such behaviors, which are normal times in a child’s life, end up being seen as pathological behaviors. He also showed the importance of the differential diagnosis that ADHD has, thus, easily confused with other disorders, often accompanied by comorbidities. He finally stressed that the practice of drug therapy will only have acceptable results if there is a psychological accompaniment, by the environment, which is the foundation of the family.

It is observed in the article that Souza et. al. (2017), entitled “Difficulties in diagnosing ADHD in children”, that this disorder is a disease that has a higher prevalence in school-age children. However, many understand that they have a diagnosis of low morbidity, even though ADHD has recently been recognized as something important, not only for its active and social impact, but for its high prevalence in psychiatric comorbidities. Thus, global cognitive deficits and invasive disorders on the increase in learning disorders, in which the complex conditions associated with ADHD symptoms have their representations aggravated, promoting greater attention and more individualized therapeutic tactics.

3.2 SCHOOL PARTICIPATION AND ADHD

It was observed in the view of these three authors that other types of disorders, such as Challenging Oppositional Disorder (COD), cause, as a morbidity, it worsens the prognosis of ADHD. However, ADHD is a neuropsychiatric malfunction as well as seen as a public order problem from an international perspective. And these children continue to have this disease in adulthood, since it is of a genetic and biological nature, that is, it is linked to the brain.

ADHD is considered a disease because it brings problems in the life of that individual, who are unable to perform tasks like most people. And precisely because we are inserted in a society that demands greater productivity, these people with the disorder appear more, that is, the diagnoses have grown in recent years.

In Reis’s article; De Camargo (2008), which deals with “School practices and academic performance of students with ADHD”, was shown how teacher training courses in Higher Education work under its varied dimensions. The survey focused on five adults who were diagnosed with ADHD. It was seen that the results obtained can contribute significantly for new teachers to learn about the determinant points in the school performance of students with the disorder, as well as guide the search for society with other professionals when it is necessary.

Rocha; Del Prette (2017) in the essay “Educational social skills for mothers of children with ADHD and school inclusion” present a category of Special Education, focusing on the implications of ADHD disorder in the school environment and what was the role of parents within the partnership family-school. Highlighting the personal and parental skills of those directly involved with children diagnosed with ADHD, presenting the most effective educational actions, which sought to cooperate with the rise of the increase in social and academic skills, approving that they show the social and educational opportunities in the school environment.

Resende (2009), with the article entitled “Elementary school students with symptoms of ADHD: School motivation with the practice of recreational and recreational activities based on the teaching of judo”, showed that ADHD affects between 3 to 7% of children in school age worldwide, that is, the number exceeds two million students. As it is a neurobiological disorder characterized by difficulty in maintaining attention, hyperactivity, excessive movement and impulsivity / difficulties in controlling impulses, it ends up manifesting itself more frequently in academic life, but it can also be found in family life , personal and social. Being that the pedagogical attention constitutes a great challenge for the educators, since the demand of these agents differentiated actions taking into account the development of all personalities.

It was observed that there is still a lack of preparation on the part of teachers, with regard to students with ADHD. The authors of the three articles also showed the importance of the family to the child with ADHD in the classroom. A function that, in a way, places the family as the main and most fundamental element in education, whether within the classroom, or even in the family, and the importance of uniting with the school to combat these challenges posed to development and child’s learning. Thus showing that there are different ways in different areas to work on a specific cause that concerns ADHD.

In addition, it is clear that much still needs to be done on the points that guide the teaching of children with ADHD, where it was possible to verify each counterpoint of the readings the role of the educator, when confronted with a child who has been diagnosed with this disorder, or even if it only presents a differentiated hyperactivity, showing the importance of diversifying the classes taught, and emphasizing the need to work with the entire support group, whether they are parents, teachers, school, psychologists or health professionals.

The present study had limitations since the survey database was articles, and there is a large gap on topics directly related to the educational area of ​​children. It is necessary to understand more about the prevalence of the main comorbidities of ADHD, and to be more investigated about these categorized studies.

The results obtained support the principle that methodological and diagnostic procedures, sample selection, and the source of information, globally expand the diversity of prevalence estimates. Research carried out in the future will be able to analyze the interrelation of these coefficients in establishing the diagnosis of ADHD and, as a consequence, the prevalence rate achieved.

3.3 SUSPECTED PREMATURE OF DIAGNOSIS IN CHILDREN WITH ADHD OR LACK OF ADHD DIAGNOSIS

Sensu’s work; Barbosa (2011) with the theme on “The Teaching Practice in the Face of Suspicion and Diagnosis of Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in School Children”, deals with this complex disorder, which attacks school-age children, seeking to show the process that the child passes and how it is relevant to your development, because it is directly linked to your learning and cognitive development. Children who have such symptoms directly show the difference in their behavior and teaching-learning process. It also showed the important role of the school in understanding the behaviors and outlining a pedagogical intervention program, in which the function is to insert such children in the school context, allowing the advancement in learning and intellectual development, in addition to providing conditions that allow the methodology of social interaction and success in school performance.

The work of Peixoto and Rodrigues (2008), “Diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in school children, according to mental health professionals”, aimed to raise what were the criteria for diagnosis and treatment performed in school-age children, who presented ADHD, showing how mental health professionals worked in private offices, in the region of Grande Vitória / ES. They were able to show all the information obtained through their research, in addition to indicating criteria in the specialized literature. It showed that the majority of professionals indicated medications as the main form of treatment for this disorder, not without having a multidisciplinary team, despite the recognition of the need to adjust the medication intervention in other modalities, especially psychotherapy.

In the work of Santos (2013), “The diagnosis of ADHD: conceptions of teachers of specialized care, other education professionals and health professionals”, discussed the circulation and assimilation about the diagnoses of ADHD, taking into account the school scenarios. It approached the context of a paradigm shift, in which the human sciences allowed to be referenced to the different interfaces of neuroscience. They took into account the various issues related to the diagnosis of ADHD, in the school environment, showing positive and negative opinions, mainly explaining the positivity related to the provision of support services to learning in the organizations of individual strategies, including the child in activities and exposing the negativity based on the construction of labels and stigmas. At the end, the analysis of the articles selected for the research was carried out and will be divided into three categories of analysis (conceptual, theoretical and empirical analytical).

According to the author Bardin (2011) establishes an analytical explanation indicating the possible uses of content analysis as a method of categories that authorize the classification of the members of the concept of the message in kind of drawers. This content analysis is also an analysis of meanings, against which it would be a systematic, quantitative and objective description of the content removed from communications and its corresponding interpretation.

As previously mentioned, it was seen that Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder is not a pathology that has recently emerged, the interest in this theme comes from the 19th century. However, in Brazil, the studies raised on the subject are still very discouraging and there is rarely anything about the education and monitoring of children within the school environment. It is common for teachers to point out the parents as the culprits for not giving limits to their children, creating guilt in the family, which, even being directly responsible for the child, does not live as much with the child as the educators during school years.

Many children are labeled, by schools, rude and rebellious. Therefore, analyzing how far the studies on this topic go is important, because it is with this information, correct about ADHD, that one can make a correct orientation with parents and teachers, since they are a very important tool to do the correct diagnosis, as well as for the realization and success, or not, of the therapy.

4. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

Nowadays the relationships that concern the family towards children with ADHD make a kind of stigma towards school, that is, the child just needs to start showing more inattentive, more restless behaviors, and start interfering in her performance at school. , which ends up being the main concern of parents and teachers for putting a disorder as the main hypothesis of the problem, thus, ADHD appears as an “explanation” of the child’s behavior.

The biggest problem seen in this survey was the distinctions between the functions and dysfunctions related to the attention and the optimization of the diagnosis of ADHD. Referring to the pedagogical strategies aimed at overcoming the obstacles seen today. The diagnosis of ADHD comes through the established within this hybrid field, in which the analysis of ADHD as a challenging diagnosis, where a team of professionals is needed to assess neurotics, in diagnosis and therapeutics.

Trying to put aside the possibility that the child may have the disorder, it is necessary to explore other probabilities before giving a wrong early psychiatric diagnosis and thus applying medications to a child who does not have ADHD. Because what came up most during the research was the fact that the chance of a child having ADHD, ends up being the first thing that comes to mind for many parents, educators or even the school. This has caused an exponential increase in the rate of “children with ADHD”, as it ends up being a simpler and more instant answer.

Finally, it was seen that the need to do more research in the methodological scope is undeniable, seeking to ascertain the proportion of the diverse estimates of this disorder, since it creates difficulty directly on public policies aimed at the education of the population, so that in this way educators have more knowledge about possible cases of ADHD and how this disorder occurs with the child, thus being able to mediate education for the diagnosed child.

REFERENCES

BARDIN, L. (2011). Análise de conteúdo. São Paulo: Edições 70.

CALIMAN, LV. A biologia moral da atenção: a constituição do sujeito desatento. Rio de Janeiro (RJ): Programa de Pós-Graduação em Saúde Coletiva, Instituto de Medicina Social, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro; 2006.

DSM-V. AMERICAN PSYCHIATRIC ASSOCIATION et al. DSM-5: Manual diagnóstico e estatístico de transtornos mentais. Artmed Editora, 201.

MENDES, PDE Adriana Valéria Fantin. TDAH, O DESAFIO DA INCLUSÃO.

PEIXOTO, A. L; RODRIGUES, M. Diagnóstico e tratamento de TDAH em crianças escolares, segundo profissionais da saúde mental. Aletheia, n. 28, p. 91-103, 2008. Disponível em: https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/1150/115012542008.pdf. Acesso em: 22 nov. 2019.

REIS, M.; DE CAMARGO, D. Práticas escolares e desempenho acadêmico de alunos com TDAH. Psicologia escolar e educacional, v. 12, n. 1, p. 89-100, 2008. Disponível em: https://www.redalyc.org/pdf/2823/282321824007.pdf. Acesso em: 24 nov. 2019

RESENDE, FAH. Alunos do ensino fundamental com sintomas de TDAH: A motivação escolar com a prática de atividades lúdico-recreativas baseadas na pedagogia do judô. EDUCERE, p. 9143-9158, 2009.

ROCHA, M. M.; DEL PRETTE, Z. A. P. Habilidades sociais educativas para mães de crianças com TDAH e a inclusão escolar. Psicologia Argumento, v. 28, n. 60, 2017.Disponível em: https://periodicos.pucpr.br/index.php/psicologiaargumento/article /view /19723/19 047. Acesso em: 23 nov. 2019

SANTOS, K. O diagnóstico do TDAH: concepções de professoras de atendimento especializado, outros profissionais da educação e profissionais da saúde. 2013. Disponível em: http://www.repositorio.unifesp.br/handle/11600/48312. Acesso em: 22 nov. 2019

SASSO DE LIMA, T. C.; TAMASO MIOTO, R. C. Procedimentos metodológicos na construção do conhecimento científico: a pesquisa bibliográfica. Revista Katálysis, v. 10, 2007.

SENSU, PÓSGEME; BARBOSA, CLAUDIA WALTRICK MACHADO. A PRÁTICA DOCENTE FRENTE A SUSPEITA E DIAGNÓSTICO DO TRANSTORNO DE DÉFICIT DE ATENÇÃO E HIPERATIVIDADE (TDAH) DE CRIANÇAS EM FASE ESCOLAR.

SOUSA, A. C. et alComo a Família e a Escola Podem Contribuir Para o Processo de Aprendizagem de Alunos Portadores de TDAH. ANAIS 4ª JORNADA DE INICIAÇÃO CIENTÍFICA, p. 99, 201

TASSOTTI, C. TDAH: diagnóstico diferencial e tratamento. 2015. Disponível em: http://bibliodigital.unijui.edu.br:8080/xmlui/bitstream/handle/123456789/3051/TCC%20corrigido.%20.pdf?sequence=1. Acesso em: 20 nov. 2019

[1] Psychology Student at faculty Luciano Feijão.

Submitted: August, 2020.

Approved: September, 2020.

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