MALDONADO, Gabriel Orlando Quiñones. MARTÍNEZ, Clara Coleta Oropeza. Brazilian musical sociolinguistics. Revista Científica Multidisciplinar Núcleo do Conhecimento. Year 05, Ed. 02, Vol. 04, pp. 93-130. February 2020. ISSN: 2448-0959, Acess link: https://www.nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/sociolinguistic-musical, DOI: 10.32749/nucleodoconhecimento.com.br/education/sociolinguistic-musical
- 1. INTRODUCTION
- 2. CURRICULUM MILESTONE
- 2.1 LINGUISTICS AND THEIR VARIATIONS
- 2.2 DIATOPIC VARIATION
- 2.3 DIASTRÁTICA VARIATION
- 2.4 DIAPHASEVARIATION
- 3. SOCIETY AND CULTURE
- 4. THE INTEGRATION OF MUSIC AND MUSIC VIDEOS
- 5. DIDACTICS OF CONCEPTUALIZATION
- 6. LISTENING
- 7. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
- 7.1 INVOLVED IN RESEARCH
- 7.2 THE OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH PROJECT
- 7.3 TYPE OF DATA TO COLLECT
- 7.4 POSSIBLE RESULTS
- 7.5 DATA COLLECTION, PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS
- 8. Analysis
- 9. Solution
- 9.1 CREATION OF THE BRAZILIAN MUSICAL SOCIOLINGUISTICS COURSE
- 9.2 BRAZILIAN MUSICAL SOCIOLINGUISTICBLOG
- 9.3 TEACHING-LEARNING STRATEGIES
- 9.4 COURSE CURRICULUM
- 9.5 TEACHING-LEARNING ORGANISATION
This article is the result of years of experience and contact with the teaching of the Portuguese of Brazil and with the reflections derived from a postdoctoral research. In this research, there is relevant information about the teaching of the Portuguese of Brazil as a foreign language and the various needs presented by former students from Puerto Rico. The questionnaire was used to investigate if there was a problem among the alumni community. The problem presented by the former students was the lack of a playful course in Brazilian music, which, in turn, needs to integrate all the essential components for the advanced learning of the Portuguese, such as: linguistics and its variants and society and culture. The needs found in the investigation were compiled based on the responses of students from Portuguese of Brazil in Puerto Rico. Neuroscience data revealed the indisputable connection that exists between the two cerebral hemispheres: the logical and the holistic in parallel. To solve the problem with the creation of the Brazilian musical sociolinguistics course to meet the needs of future students of the Portuguese program was one of the objectives of the work. It is also intended that the research serves as a scientific basis for the implementation of the course.
Keywords: Brazilian culture and society, Brazilian Portuguese didactics, Brazilian music, Portuguese linguistics, Brazilian musical sociolinguistics, linguistic variations of the Brazilian Portuguese.
Education is a continuous and always moving process. Progress in education is so fast that we cannot move at a slow pace. We should not allow stagnation due to lack of resources, professional training or willingness. Our era brings a wide range of factors and elements that we must work with to achieve successful integration into the educational trend of the 21st century. In some areas, we must prioritize the effective integration of transformations. This is the case of our population of apprentices from the Brazilian Portuguese in Puerto Rico. In language teaching-learning, there are many techniques and resources that can be used to enrich oral communication skills, oral comprehension, written expression, reading comprehension and interaction with the Brazilian Portuguese. It is important to cover all the essential competencies for language development, in a real environment of immersion in Brazilian society. The problem found in this investigation was the lack of a playful course of Brazilian music, in which all the essential components for the advanced learning of the Portuguese were integrated, such as: linguistics and its variants, society and its culture. This problem presents the need to have access to a specific treatment of knowledge of linguistics, linguistic variations, society and its culture. Thus, the advanced teaching-learning of the Brazilian Portuguese, linguistics and its variants, of society and its culture would encompass the formal situations that occur in the classroom in formal and appropriate contexts with the different resources used in the day-to-day development of the course.
The role of language in establishing social contacts and the social role it plays in transmitting information about the speaker is a thorough proof that there is an intimate relationship between language and society (…). Language itself as a system closely monitors the evolution of society and reflects in a certain way the patterns of behavior, which vary depending on time and space (MONTEIRO, 2000, p. 16-17).
This would help the student to have a good communicative competence in any region or state of Brazil. It is also essential for the student to use their knowledge about the cultural diversity existing in the country. The method to be used in the course aims to allow the student to also be able to understand and practice the cultural diversity of each Portuguese-speaking country, however, in this case, the emphasis is on Brazilian diversity. This allows him to learn, at the same time, the academic concepts of the different themes and develop the necessary communicative competence that can interact socially and culturally in a pleasant environment, without having prejudice dined by the ignorance of the linguistic, social and cultural functioning of the Brazilian people.
2. CURRICULUM MILESTONE
2.1 LINGUISTICS AND THEIR VARIATIONS
The aim of this research is to analyze the benefits of the inclusion of apprentices in the teaching-learning process of linguistic varieties in the field of oral comprehension of Accents of the Brazilian Portuguese. Our social system allows frequent interaction with other countries that may introduce variations in learning in language study. Linguistic variations are the culture and society of a people. We need to know this variety to avoid confusion in future interactions between native speakers and people who have studied the same foreign language, but with a different accent.
There are national dialects: the Portuguese of Portugal is, for example, different from the Brazilian Portuguese. Within the nations, there are differences in regional dialects: the way of speaking of cariocas is clearly different from that of gauchos or paulistas. Within the communities, there are differences between different population groups: between urban and rural, between people from different social and educational backgrounds, between ethnic groups, between age groups, men and women (GUY; ZILLES, 2006, p. 42).
Recognizing that there is this variety of dialects in the same territory, it is important, when teaching the Portuguese language, to demonstrate to the learners the variability of the language, especially the different ways of speaking in the different regions of the country, and also the plurality of meanings that the same word can have, depending on the region in which this student-learner is.
2.2 DIATOPIC VARIATION
Leaving aside any kind of clarification of the concept of language, this type of variety is relative to the announcer according to its territorial origin. These varieties are traditionally called “dialects”. In fact, this term refers to the diversity of language expression forms and the domains in which it is used. The study of these varieties includes local dialects and dialects. The social considerations of the linguistic facts of language, understood as a linguistic system characterized by a strong differentiation, are defined with great direction, being promoted as an important literary tradition and sometimes impose various linguistic meanings derived from the same source. Thus, the two essential characteristics of language belong to a sufficient degree of differentiation from other linguistic systems and to a structure composed of characteristics in common with geographical, social and personal variations.
At some point (for example, in the first decade of this century), the Portuguese language is not spoken in exactly the same way by all individuals who have it as their mother tongue. This variation results from several factors. A diatopic variation (or geographic variation or regional variation) refers to the different ways of speaking of subjects with a given natural language according to the geographical areas in which they live. There is a diatopic variation in a natural language that reflects expressions of people who use language in their different modes of use, for reasons that arise from the region where they live and where they were born and grew up (for the collection of the language variety of this region is called geographic variety). Strictly speaking, it is not geography that determines the different ways of speaking a natural language, but the spatial dispersion of speakers of a language that contributes to the communities that speak this language, which have different linguistic behaviors (SILVA, 2010, p. 239).
It is essential to keep in mind that the language will never be spoken in the same way by all individuals in a community, here, in this case, the community of speakers of the Portuguese-Brazilian. This variation is derived from the most diverse linguistic phenomena that have linguistic, regional, gender, age group character as well as responds to the social, cultural and economic aspects that are part of the daily life of this speaker. Language will become natural depending on the region in which this individual is located, so when contacting speakers from other regions, it will come across the linguistic richness of the Brazilian Portuguese.
2.3 DIASTRÁTICA VARIATION
Many linguists have linked the study of language to the characteristics of the different groups that make up society. For them, there is a close relationship between language and the social environment in which it is used. All languages have varieties determined by social variety, and thus subjects are conditioned by factors such as the class to which people belong, education, occupation, economic situation, etc. The results of this diatopic variety indicate that speakers of the same language do not speak in the same way, because the geographic region in which they live and/or the place of their origin influence this speaking. Even residents who live in a particular region may not speak exactly the same way. For example, residents who live or are from the north of Portugal do not speak in the same way.
Human beings live in societies that have achieved great complexity, particularly with regard to the organization of professional and social groups. Many differences in the use of language come from the profession that a person has or from the privileged contacts he has with people from a particular professional partner group. Each professional partner group has its own characteristics; for example, in relation to the level of education of the group members, the realities to which they are exposed daily in the course of their activity, etc. The linguistic variation that results from the sociocultural nature of these properties is called “diastrática variety”. In a simplistic way, the diastrática variation is identified by the fact that a lawyer does not speak in the same way as a computer engineer, a mechanic, an opera singer, an ophthalmologist or a sports journalist (SILVA, 2010, p. 251).
Considering this context, it is possible to perceive that this type of variation can also occur due to the professional occupation of an individual. Thus, if he/she comes to perform another activity, at first, he may not be able to use the typical expressions of the new profession. This difference in the updating of a language is studied in sociolinguistics. Thus, as the name suggests, sociolinguistics uses concepts and methods of sociology and linguistics to explain its object of study. It is, therefore, “a discipline that is at the border between two fields of study that aim to analyze the influence of social contexts on linguistic uses” (SILVA, 2010, p. 251).
One does not speak the same way with friends as in a conference or in a professional environment: in the first case, a variant of style or dialect is used and, in the second, a formal style or variant. Therefore, the diaphasic variation depends on the following factors: the subject (formal, specialized) or on issues involved in spoken communication. The style used is different between a sports commentator and an astrologer who sends specific messages. Another type of linguistic variation is the diaphanous variety that derives from two factors: the individual nature of the situation, which is a practical communication situation in which a speaker is inserted and the individualized mode, whose each speaker uses language in a specific way.
Here are some examples that show the phenomena of diaphasic variation in a communication situation can be considered based on a set of factors that interfere with the production of verbal subjects that are inserted in it: the degree of formality or the informal situation, the topic of conversation, the place where it occurs, the age of the actors, their social status and the type of relationship they have between them (more family) are examples of factors that determine the that we say. A conversation between friends in a football café is characterized by an informal level, which contrasts with the formality inherent in a speech by the President of the Republic on the state of the nation, to the Assembly before deputies and members of the government. The careful selection of words and their pronunciation, with the syntactic construction and articulation of content, usually observed in political discourse, is opposed to the more relaxed attitude of friends in a conversation about a daily subject. Poor choice of words, incorrect pronunciation or poor syntactic construction are usually not embarrassing among friends in an informal communication situation. But the same cannot be said in a situation of formality and solemnity (SILVA, 2010, p. 259).
This type of variation manifests itself mainly at the lexical and syntactic level, since it is related both to the lexical choices of the speaker and to the syntactic constructions he uses most frequently. Sometimes, however, the speaker is also likely to be recognized phonetically, especially in the process of articulating the sounds of language. In all these cases, we are dealing with a diaphasic variation (or a person or situation).
3. SOCIETY AND CULTURE
Humanity has learned to evolve over time from many survival strategies, the most distinct of which is adaptation. The adaptation allowed the subjects to follow their own path, even in the most difficult places to live and survive, in the most complex ways. An element that accompanies the strategy of adaptation and progressive regulation in the different regions of the planet is the symbolic dimension. This covers beliefs, rituals, meanings, ideological concepts, identities, etc. In short, it encompasses a wide range of yarns that weave what is called culture. Language, in turn, takes shape from elements of communication, the exchange of codes, symbols, meanings and ideologies. This has been a very effective reflector when it comes to investigating what has been in the mind and the reality of a society. The culture analyzed from the social dimension should be emphasized in the teaching and learning of cultural norms. Values are acceptable behaviors of a given social group and are some of the cultural norms that the individual must be educated in order to be part of society. Everything that has been learned since childhood is automatically internalized, and thus this learning models the behavior that must have as a citizen, whether in daily life or at work. By accommodating external models imposed, the person can relate to others and understand their environment. This provides a psychological security that results in the integration of the surrounding culture. Cultural diversity, a common heritage of our humanity, has taken many forms over time and space.
This diversity is manifested in the peculiarity and multiplicity of identities of the social groups that make up humanity. The principles of exchange, innovation and creativity and cultural diversity are, for the human species, the most important, just as biodiversity is for nature. In this sense, they determine the common patrimony of humanity that must be recorded and affirmed for the benefit of present and future generations. Cultural diversity increases the chances of broader developments in areas important to society, such as intellectual, emotional, moral and spiritual development. Cultural diversity and human rights protect cultural diversity, and thus are ethical requirements for respect for human dignity. Each person assumes the responsibility of respecting human rights and fundamental freedoms, especially the rights of persons belonging to minorities and indigenous peoples. No one can encourage cultural diversity to undermine human rights guaranteed by international law or restrict their accessibility. Every human being can express himself and show his work in the language he wants, especially in his mother tongue. Every person has the right to quality learning and training that absolutely respects their cultural identity, and thus any individual can be part of the cultural life he desires and express his own cultural practices, provided that there is respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.
Cultural diversity must be accessible to all. Freedom of expression, the multiplicity of the media, multilingualism, the equality available for artistic expressions, scientific and technological knowledge are principles that must be equal for all cultures and should therefore be present in the media of expression and dissemination, in order to ensure that cultural diversity is latent in society. The different creations are rooted in cultural traditions, but flourish in contact with other cultures. For this reason, the heritage, in all its varieties, must be preserved, strengthened and transferred to future generations as proof of the customs, traditions and aspirations of human beings, in order to increase creativity in all its diversity and establish a true parliament between cultures.
It is important to respect and preserve traditional methods of knowledge, especially those taught by indigenous peoples as well as it is necessary to evaluate the contribution of traditional knowledge to the protection of the environment and management of natural resources, and it is essential, then, to promote the connection between modern science and the expertise of each branch of knowledge, especially at this time when globalization imposes common challenges to biodiversity , cultural diversity and the connection between the two spheres. Many communities demand materials, in a frantic way, and thus prevent cultural self-conservation, especially due to the bursting of foreign powers, stereotypes of products, images, fortune and modernity. The major energy industries that want to stand out lead the biggest problem facing all countries. Cultural diversity and biodiversity set long-term titles. Cultural diversity is a guarantor that seeks to expand to the well-being of nature, and thus plead so a society in which the human beings of future generations can live healthily. It is worth mentioning, on long-term diversity and creativity, that:
In the sample of reference countries, the United States offers a particularly illustrative example, since the political treatment of cultural diversity and identity far outweighs public programs aimed at reducing economic and social inequalities. Multicultural demands are even more prosperous because social policies are kept to a minimum. The attractiveness of community resources is then directly related to the gradual dismantling of social programs and differences in living standards between the various components of the population (Constant, 2000).
One of the main points is to protect the linguistic heritage of humanity and to support education and learning in as many languages as possible. This allows us to promote and teach linguistic diversity without leaving aside the importance of the mother tongue at all levels of education. Teaching and learning multiple languages is encouraged from the elementary level. It aims to highlight and raise awareness, from education, about the inestimable value of cultural diversity and, in order to develop programs and train teachers from schools and universities. The fruitful management of cultures in school also means the awareness of apprentices and all actors of this latent diversity and these should not be subjected to new forms of categorization, even “positive”, which involve and format individual and collective identities (Akkari, 2013). Linguistic variation is considered as a set of linguistic characteristics that has different occurrences and that often reflect on a dialect in a linguistic context. Any systematic linguistic variation of a specific language is spoken in a zone, in a region, or in the same social group. Linguistic variation generally coincides with geographical, social and political barriers. People often move their homes and bring their dialects to other countries. The arrival of communicative tools favored the generalization of the variety of the standard language, which coexists with the most divergent ones, thus creating conditions of diglossia. Pronunciation is not uniform in all peoples, and thus the internal differentiation of society is reflected in language and can mask the dialectal traits, thus creating linguistic variation, whether internal, social, geographical, local or international. The risks that prevent communication can be caused by various reasons. To avoid this eventuality in the classroom, the teacher must promote a climate of trust as well as there must be proximity to the language variant. Linguistic variation can be positive or negative for foreign students, depending on several factors, such as the student’s abilities, family and personal situation, the sociocultural environment that surrounds them and the methodology applied. For example, if a school chooses to integrate the cultures/diversity of students, it cannot fail to give some legitimacy to the mother tongue of these students. The next step is to find the right balance between the common language of instruction and openness to students’ native languages. However, in the minds of some school actors, integration means the exclusive use of the host country’s language (Akkari, 2013). Quality education is necessary for the entire population, and thus needs to rely on a holistic approach to preserve the diversity of universal education. Although we have progressed, the educational system still ranks students based on academic performance and social strata are best off to get the best points or percentages. It is necessary to be careful with these scores, because they can end up causing situations of disadvantage for the students, preventing them from learning.
4. THE INTEGRATION OF MUSIC AND MUSIC VIDEOS
The development of oral language in the study of foreign languages is extremely important, as it is the tool that will allow students to have a successful learning. Oral language allows communication between people, and when developed, is a useful tool of socialization, because, at the same time, it is used to meet basic needs, to express feelings and to regulate the appreciation of the target language. In order to develop oral expression, the phonological, morphosyntactic, lexical and semantic pattern is taught, that is, students are taught the pragmatic aspects of oral discourse: how to pause, how to question, how to intervene in debates, etc. It is necessary to understand, then, oral language as a tool that encodes thought. Due to this character, orality helps to organize reflection and conceptualization about thematic diversities, making it possible to speak of the objects and situations of everyday life in the target language. According to Pombo (2007), the very competence of oral expression has improved, since ICT has brought new potential to the Portuguese language class, because it allows teachers to record and listen to the manifestations of the students as well as to make readings about their comments. Listening comprehension is a skill that students should practice very often, because it is a very important procedure to acquire other learning. Current approaches give importance to some specific exercises and listening comprehension activities to work on the various skills. These exercises should be frequent and brief.
The student needs a lot of practice to develop the ability to listen and these exercises should be combined with oral expression exercises. The material for the work must be varied and real (actual recordings of language, student context, errors and hesitations of these students, etc.). In addition, the teacher must present different dialects or records so that they get used to hearing different types of language. Students have to have a reason to listen, and therefore, before starting the conversation, it is necessary to introduce the subject and aspects about the data and issues to be worked on in the classroom. You should also evaluate the outcome together with the students. The development of oral expression requires constant practice, and therefore we have to encourage the elaboration of frequent and varied activities, establishing a clear purpose for the student to know these dialects. The learning of oral expression can be performed from several options, such as: activities that have short duration (a few minutes) and activities to be developed in learning sessions so that there is full language development. The objective of this strategy is to draw attention to specific oral expression skills so that they are progressively reinforced. This requires students to clearly know what they are learning (identifying important parts, identifying the purpose of the station, voice control, waiting for their turn, etc.). What matters, in any case, is how the student expresses or understands the text. Audio and video recording technologies allow students to speak phrases, practice languages or perform various oral activities, etc.
Music is an essential tool for the development of language skills in foreign language learning. It can bring to the student more fluidity in the processes of understanding and oral expression, and also causes the student, finally, gradually, to lose the fear of speaking in the target language. Conceptualization is one of the mental operations necessary for learning to occur. The teacher’s task is to provide adequate materials and the promotion of situations, activities and games to develop this capacity, which is not built, but is done consciously and methodologically. The CEFR referred to by Dias and Bidarra (2010) is “opportunities for practice”. It is a very positive component of orality, as there is emphasis on the activities of comprehension, production and interaction with the oral language (DIAS, 2010).
Music videos are ideal audio features, and are therefore excellent for teaching a second language, since not only do they allow students to hear the words spoken by native speakers, but also allows them to watch and compare the diversity of genres in contrast to society and culture. According to Dias and Bidarra (2010), the methodology involves the interrelationship of several factors that integrate communicative situations performed by native speakers from the selection of everyday documents, the typological diversity of exercises and activities with different degrees of difficulty and the flexibility to put into practice such activities (DIAS, 2010).
In this context, it is possible to perceive that the audio media can act as a stimulating alternative to read and listen to the teacher, since there is the presentation of verbal messages more dramatically than the written text, which can draw more attention to the student. With a little imagination on the part of the teacher, the audio can be very versatile, and also dynamic, due to the many possibilities of use. According to Franco (2010), Voki is a free and online service that allows the creation of virtual characters. You can add voice messages from microphone recording, convert text to audio, and you can make use of an existing sound file.
5. DIDACTICS OF CONCEPTUALIZATION
There are different skills to acquire knowledge, which complicates knowing, in detail, the teaching-learning processes. In a way, it is also a sign of hope to modify and adapt methods. There are opportunities to achieve an oral understanding of the standard language, but the way we conceptualize the oral understanding of linguistic varieties can also expand from the realization of different audio recordings in Portuguese language. Authentic understanding is more likely to appear and become apparent to others if people have multiple skills to represent a concept and can easily switch from a standard language to a sustainable language. One cannot expect someone to have all these skills, but everyone can have at least some skills to represent the concept of linguistic variety in Portuguese, so that there is, thus, an adequate oral understanding of the accents of the Brazilian Portuguese. The use of different methods for teaching Portuguese or foreign language is not required in public schools of the Ministry of Education of Puerto Rico. Currently, the Ministry follows the rules of the common framework of foreign languages, but does not require the use of any particular method, which leaves foreign language teachers free. The Ministry of Education of Puerto Rico has established as a standard for the teaching of foreign languages, in some specialized schools, that there should be an individual education, specialized, personalized and useful for the development of foreign languages. However, the model has not yet been adhered to by all schools.
According to Ruíz and Zambrano (2014), this is due to the fact that teachers do not frequently use teaching and learning strategies for the processing of metacognition and for the development of reading and writing. This can also be due to the fact that teachers are still linked to the use of traditional methods, which leads to a lack of knowledge and experience for the implementation of the procedures proposed for teaching reading and writing to students. It is common to hear the term “didactics” when talking about individuals who are related to education, the teaching of processes or societies dedicated to creating tools for the intellectual and cognitive development of apprentices. We use the word “didactics” when we talk about issues related to educational materials and the creation of activities for children or products designed to put such activities into vogue. But, many of the times, we get lost in daily repetitions without really understanding the theoretical definition of the concept of “didactics”. To apprehend the processes of application and master the theme of didactic conceptualization, it must be recognized that it is a branch of pedagogy that is dedicated to listening to processes and techniques to obtain specific models of teaching more appropriate to reach knowledge. In addition, the teacher must positively and effectively reach all students, regardless of social, cultural and economic factors, and also should prioritize learning diversity. Didactics represents all disciplines that focus on the different learning methods that allow students to go through the process of analysis, planning and approach of their own learning techniques.
Didactics is a process applicable to all issues necessary to meet the intellectual, emotional and social needs of each individual. It is the same practice of interaction that the student creates with educational skills and concepts. Didactics is the art of education. A person who is educated can then understand several important concepts, such as universal values, attitudes, social conflicts, cultural diversity, the valorization of art and sport, thus trying to produce key ideas and processes that make up this art of teaching. Over the years, from the integration of different teaching strategies, such as technology, the visual arts, direct access to communications and the positive contributions of people outside education, didactic references have been modernized.
Now, more than ever, this method aims to elevate the principles of effective and flexible education so that teachers can choose the right content to support teaching and learning models in educational environments in order to receive students from different backgrounds and intelligences and from different learning styles. To ensure this teaching, there are three elements of considerable importance: the teacher (who teaches), the student (who learns) and the content of learning (what is taught). The combination of these three learning factors is very relevant, sustainable and formal, in order to be able to transport education to places outside the school environment and apply it to the daily life of each individual. Soto (2013) quotes a Puerto Rican philosopher, Eugênio Maria de Hostos, and thus states that “it is not enough to teach knowledge, it is necessary to learn to acquire it”.
What has been done scientifically is not enough, it is necessary to learn how to trained it. It is not enough to combine teaching with a single method. It is necessary to learn how to manage it. In short, it is not enough to learn, there is a need to teach reasoning. The didactics of conceptualization is the process of acquiring knowledge, and thus contemplates the different aspects of academic subjects and their proper transmission. Howard Gardner, an American psychologist, developed the theory of multiple intelligences in 1983. According to Gardner (1997), intelligence is the ability we have to solve everyday problems or to provide services in the field of culture itself. For Gardner (1997), this is a skill that is partly genetically marked, but can develop. Our capabilities can be strengthened in one way or another, depending on the context of the media, our customs, the education we receive, etc. The multiple intelligences are as follows:
- Interpersonal intelligence (with others): understand the feelings, needs and objectives of others;
- Visual / spatial intelligence: the creation and interpretation of images, three-dimensional thoughts;
- Interpersonal intelligence (itself): understand inner thoughts and emotions very clearly;
- The body and kinesthetic intelligence feel and express a body shape, perform their work manually;
- Logical-mathematical intelligence: reasoning, logical reasoning, mathematical management problems;
- Verbal linguistic intelligence: use the use of language to express ideas, feelings or persuade others;
- Naturalistic intelligence: understanding the models, classification and behavior of nature;
- Musical intelligence: creating or feeling a rhythm, expressing an emotional state, detecting or analyzing different melodies.
The didactics of conceptualization proposes specific elements to achieve an application of excellence.
- The student: represents the most important factor in this educational transference. He is the protagonist of the teaching-learning process.
- The teacher: represents a figure of facilitator, guide, counselor of the student. It must be an agent of change par excellence and must constantly maintain a network of information and positive stimuli to put into practice educational processes.
- The objectives: represent the educator’s guide that guides and directs the educational process. The projections allow, in the short or long term, to measure the implementation of education.
- The content: from the content the objectives proposed by the teacher are achieved.
- The pedagogical material: represents any type of design or development device that maintains the intention of facilitating, contributing, assisting or providing access to the teaching-learning process. The teaching materials represent the tools used by teachers to enable the process of knowledge transfer.
- Teaching techniques and methods: represent the teaching strategies adopted to influence all students. Teaching techniques and methods should be designed to meet the educational needs of each sector, population and student.
Oral comprehension is fundamental for Portuguese students in Puerto Rico. They can diversify and get social positions where they feel competent to succeed. In addition, they may be able to function freely by offering the quality of oral understanding inside and outside their home country. When listening and speaking, it is important to examine and take into account nonverbal language to understand the full meaning of what you want to express. According to Pascual et al (2014), the importance of listening is fundamental, as is the cognitive ability that allows the passage of oral reading in the decryption of reading as a source of learning. Therefore, the current aspiration that all students achieve a high mastery of written language is not a challenge and offer explicit training on improving oral comprehension for all primary education. The different skills were supplanted by technology. For children, reading, listening, analyzing or applying learning with traditional teaching is no longer attractive. Mobile phones, tablets, computers, electronic games and other technologies offer comfortable entertainment, which draws the attention of these learners, and thus develop oral comprehension in foreign languages and emphasize linguistic variants are essential processes in teaching-learning. In order for students to always consider the university’s offer as an option, our schools have proposed integrating technology into the teaching process.
This attempt to improve the quality of education can also affect overall success. Badia et al (2016) discuss the positive and significant relationship between perceived benefits in relation to technology by teachers as well as the frequent use of these in classrooms. Now it is difficult to know what relationship can be established between the perceived benefits to technology and the type of use of technology for teaching and learning. This challenge is even greater if we examine this relationship in educational environments with limited access to technology, whose teachers are still in training to put these technological resources into practice in the educational context.
7. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
7.1 INVOLVED IN RESEARCH
Table 1: Involved in the study
|Alumni who attended Portuguese as a foreign language in Puerto Rico.||Former students who showed interest in having studied a course that integrated the social, cultural and linguistic aspects of the Brazilian Portuguese.|
Source: Prepared by the author (2020)
7.2 THE OBJECTIVES OF THE RESEARCH PROJECT
- To prove the need for former students to have studied a course that integrated the social, cultural and linguistic aspects of the Brazilian Portuguese;
- Recognize the benefits of the use of music as a teaching-learning tool of the social, cultural and linguistic aspects of the Brazilian Portuguese;
- Identify teaching strategies to conceptualize competence so that they are applied to the social, cultural and linguistic aspects of the Brazilian Portuguese;
- Create musical teaching tools applicable to teaching-learning of the social, cultural and linguistic aspects of the Brazilian Portuguese;
- Train teachers to serve students of Portuguese as a foreign language, with tools that facilitate the teaching-learning of the social, cultural and linguistic aspects of the Brazilian Portuguese;
Working with students from Portuguese in Puerto Rico, the results are expected to be achieved from effective teaching. If we know that the numbers of the students surveyed give us a specific starting point, we should also consider their emotions and feelings to elaborate the activities. These results provide details so that teachers are able to put into practice appropriate actions for the implementation of a different and playful course, in order to integrate the social, cultural and linguistic aspects of the Brazilian Portuguese.
7.3 TYPE OF DATA TO COLLECT
A questionnaire was used as a research method to collect impressions and reactions of former students of Portuguese in Puerto Rico. This collection method makes it possible to directly analyze the existing needs of former students who did not have a playful and different course that integrated the social, cultural and linguistic aspects of the Brazilian Portuguese. This research tool provides specific quantitative data that can be used to develop some goals and objectives to meet the needs of future students.
7.4 POSSIBLE RESULTS
It is expected that this qualitative and quantitative research method will be applied to former students to investigate whether there was any need in this student population. Secondly, we want to show quantitatively that there is this special need in teaching-learning the social, cultural and linguistic aspects of the Brazilian Portuguese. Finally, with these official data, the research will seek to show that the program must be adapted as it deserves in order to be able to respond to educational needs and for there to be the egalitarian and significant development of future students.
7.5 DATA COLLECTION, PROCESSING AND ANALYSIS
When employing this method of investigation, it is necessary to play an expressive role in collecting objective and real data on the needs of students. All individuals are measured in the same way and with the same tool. The data were gathered in a database so that there was no margin of doubt in the process of data collection, processing and analysis. The use of quantitative observations is a good tool for collecting, processing and analyzing data, since it provides timely results. With this data collection system, there is no pressure or imposition for researchers to adopt actions that may not contribute to a real collection of students’ needs. From the quantitative data, it was possible to analyze, in detail, the needs pointed out by a group composed of thirty-five (35) Portuguese-speaking former students in the city of Puerto Rico. The questionnaire presents several questions, and from them, impressions and data about the needs of the respondents were obtained. Graph 1 shows the research method used for data collection, processing and analysis. We highlight, in the research, the questions and answers to analyze the results from graphs that reflect the existence of our research problem: the importance of music to teach the Portuguese language. Figure 1: Linguistics and its variants
Graph 1 shows the analysis of the collected data, and thus presents and details the lack of knowledge of the 35 students about the term of Portuguese linguistics and its variants. This reveals to us, again, the importance of the approach to the theme of teaching the variants of the Portuguese language. Moving on, there’s graph 2. This aims to reflect, according to the perception of the former students, whether the Brazilian subjects have the same accent. Figure 2: Portuguese accents
Graph 2, in turn, reveals that, within the chosen sample, 97% of former students believe that humans do not speak the same language. This diversity of the Portuguese language can therefore be explored in the classroom in order to understand that there is a plurality of ways of speaking and conceptualizing the same word in Portuguese. Graph 3, therefore, aimed to reflect on the factors that can cause the accents of a language to change.
Graph 3: Factors influencing accent modification
Graph 3 revealed that the students interviewed believe that there are a variety of factors that can interfere with the change of the accent of a language, since 100% of the sample pointed out that the factors that interfere in the change of an accent are: society the region, family context, contact with youth and adults and educational context. Continuing, Graph 4 questioned the interviewees whether they would take a Portuguese language course that integrates social and cultural aspects with linguistic aspects.
Figure 4: Integration of social and cultural aspects in Portuguese language teaching
The results indicate that 100% of the students would take a Portuguese language course that integrates the social, cultural and linguistic aspects, since this enriches and makes learning more dynamic. Graph 5, in turn, aimed to evaluate whether these former students believe that they would have a better development in the learning process of the Portuguese language if the cultural and social aspects were approached proportionally to the linguistic elements of the Portuguese language.
Graph 5: Social, cultural and linguistic development in learning
Graph 5 revealed that 35% of the sample believed that students could have a better oral understanding in Portuguese if they were offered a course that integrates social, cultural and linguistic aspects in the same class. Later, it was questioned whether these former students believe that technological tools would help him to know more about the social, cultural and linguistic aspects that encompass the Portuguese language and its variants. Figure 6: Technological tools in Portuguese language teaching
The results indicate that all former students believe that technological tools would help them to know more about the social, cultural and linguistic aspects of the Brazilian Portuguese and 100% of the sample points out that music, music videos and the Internet are the most interesting tools to integrate these aspects, which confirms our initial hypothesis that music can help these students to obtain a better experience when they come into contact with the Portuguese language. Graph 7, in turn, aimed to ask the interviewees whether music and music videos are relevant to understand the social, cultural and linguistic aspects of the Brazilian Portuguese.
Graph 7: The importance of music and music videos
The results indicate that 100% of the former students believe that it is very important the relationship of music and music videos with the teaching-learning of the social, cultural and linguistic aspects of the Brazilian Portuguese. Finally, the former students were asked if they believe that it is important to know the social, cultural and linguistic aspects that shape the Brazilian Portuguese.
Graph 8: Perceptions about social, cultural and linguistic aspects
Graph 8 revealed that 100% of the students interviewed believe that studying, in detail, the social, cultural and linguistic aspects of the Brazilian Portuguese is extremely important.
In the acquisition of a foreign language, we work with cognitive processes and acquisition situations. The behaviorist position is, in principle, as we have seen, a good method of learning that should lead without errors the study of each subject. Behaviorist theory foresees the possibility of a universe of reinforcing contingencies, in principle perfectly manageable, subject to many random circumstances, because “nothing is perfect”. This theory admits that the conditions of acquisition are different, especially in terms of motivation. Part of the interpretation of foreign language learning is the question “Should we teach children syntax?” Your answer is no. Gaonac’h (1987) discusses different aspects of the objective of acquiring the language of a child or an adult, such as the natural sequence of acquisition or the natural order of acquisition. These are cognitive characteristics of foreign language learning situations that defend the market theory, which, in turn, refers to the multiplicity of processes and the plurality of performance levels of language activities. In a teaching method there are variables related to the student’s personality that can lead to a language approach in which production activities are misrepresented. As the school situation is particularly favourable for the development of avoidance strategies, we apply specific strategies such as teaching-learning of linguistic varieties for oral comprehension competence. In other words, we can see that language acquisition modes cannot be separated from the language activities involved in the situation. With regard to the teaching-learning of foreign languages, the constructivist approach translates into an atmosphere of class without anxiety, in which the target language, the Portuguese, is used to facilitate communication between students and the teacher, and also for real communication and oral understanding. Authentic language materials are used to capture students’ attention, values and interests. Some materials can be created by students to increase their interest and participation in each level of the language. Cooperating and working in small groups encourages learning and reinforces constructive feedback among colleagues. Language teaching-learning by project is developed in the classroom for all students and is used to help them learn to have a fun atmosphere. In this research, the result of work in the classroom is very important to enrich and complement the academic work of everyday life, and thus relies on extracurricular activities that respond to the interests of students and develops the skills necessary for students to be transported to the experience of learning a foreign language and its linguistic variations. Students work with different learning strategies and integrate multiple intelligences that are considered and addressed, while others are developed through a variety of appropriate teaching techniques, activities, and materials. The Portuguese as a foreign language should be taught in a sociolinguistic context that does not threaten the environment, recognizing that Spanish is the students’ mother tongue. Language learning should be a rewarding experience to broaden the mind and enable you to always meet the growing demands to become professionals in a globalized world. The appropriate teaching of the Portuguese language to Puerto Ricans or other native Spanish speakers should pursue essential objectives and use appropriate teaching materials for teaching-learning linguistic variations. The foreign language is not only the language of communication in the classroom, but also allows you to communicate in the school environment, travel, have fun or get a good job. The student must have a varied program in which he can study linguistics and its variants as well as society and culture. In this first phase, the problem was determined by the students’ need. It can be charged with teaching from an action approach and through the teaching methodology by process. Initially, the focus is on the functions required for communication and oral understanding of linguistic variations by different types of music that can be found on the Internet. There are many music videos and the music itself. They based on the skills needed for a good action-oriented approach in teaching-learning varieties of foreign languages. Develop appropriate pedagogical sequences to work with the action-oriented approach of teaching processes or tasks that will be very important to apply in the foreign language, which, in this research, not only contemplate the four essential skills, but also the teaching of learning linguistic variations for a good oral understanding of the accents of the Brazilian Portuguese through the integration of music. In relation to the methodology, the teaching of the Portuguese as a foreign language can and should use several strategies previously recommended for the teaching of the Portuguese as a first language. Strategies such as cooperative education, program differentiation and multi-intelligence work, development of critical thinking skills, dialogue, problem solving, development projects, thought-provoking journals, portfolios, etc., can be excellent learning strategies, since they are considered as the most appropriate approaches for communication and teaching of foreign languages. In addition, the development of communicative competence of foreign languages implies the development of all skills in a balanced way: linguistic, semantic, sociolinguistic, pragmatic, phonetic, etc. The teacher should generate a systematic plan of learning situations in order to promote the development of skills in students whose mother tongue is not the Portuguese. For this research, linguistic variations are important and essential in teaching-learning, which includes structure, form, time and space in a spoken or written communication language that seeks to improve. Language variations provide a space for support and opportunities to explore, experiment and interact in situations with people and materials that are relevant. Development levels and individual differences should provide authentic progress in learning to obtain an assessment. Education should revolve around the specific activity of the appropriate materials as essential elements for developing knowledge of linguistic variations of the target language, in this case the Portuguese. In our case, using playful music is an ideal way to stimulate students’ cognitive development and dynamically demonstrate learning. Music offers many opportunities for creative, open and fun activities that allow students to represent their experiences and knowledge through different performance systems, that is, reading songs, singing without words and so on. It also stimulates the development of thinking skills from oral and written mediation of language, research and problem solving, among others. Secondly, it encourages the participation of parents or friends, since they are the main actors in the development of students, and thus the activities should promote a positive and fruitful interaction in the student with their social environment or with whom they will interact with the language. Linguistic variations and music are organized to fully integrate students, thus avoiding fragmentation, and thus are essential to promote the optimal development of the Portuguese as a whole. The distribution of educational content should ensure a balance between the concepts, processes and attitudes of the students. The practice of linguistic variations in teaching should ensure respect, support and appropriate treatment of student diversity and cultural diversity in Portuguese-speaking countries. Training activities should develop students appropriately so that they can make decisions about their academic, professional, and personal future. The teaching-learning process of linguistic variations was designed by the students interviewed as an important thing, as long as the tastes, interests, needs and problems of students and the variety of methods, materials, activities, texts and learning situations are considered. Language development is essential for the formation of human beings. The teaching of oral understanding of linguistic variations is related according to the quality of skills that are also important for students to be able to interact with other students around him or with the natives of the foreign language. The notions of reading and writing can be developed in parallel. Therefore, experiments on methods and learning of linguistic variations should begin from the beginning of the study of the foreign language, because, thus, students will be able to learn about the importance of knowing the varieties of the language, and then there is the proper development of oral comprehension.
9.1 CREATION OF THE BRAZILIAN MUSICAL SOCIOLINGUISTICS COURSE
Social groups are often characterized by their intonation or variable of the linguistic level. These groups can be divided into social class, educational level, gender, ethnicity and these are components that influence the way anyone speaks. The limits of these social variables often do not coincide with those of geographic dialects, thus configuring themselves as social dialects that divide the speakers into components of the population, distributed throughout the geographic range of one or more linguistic variants.
The education professional has to know how to recognize the linguistic phenomena that occur in the classroom, recognize the sociolinguistic profile of his students in order, together with them, to undertake an education in a mother tongue that takes into account the great previous linguistic knowledge of the learners and that allows the incessant expansion of their verbal repertoire and their communicative competence, in the construction of social relations permeated by increasingly democratic and non-discriminating language (BAGNO , 2006, p. 8).
The musical sociolinguistics course of the Brazilian Portuguese is the integrative component of the study of the Portuguese language, linguistics and its variants, society and culture through music. It also corresponds to an approach in the Brazilian Portuguese by the different regions of Brazil. An interesting strategy to bring musical sociolinguistics to life is the presentation of several singers from each of the 26 regions of the country, since this sample would reveal the linguistic variations, society and Brazilian culture through music and its singers. The objectives of this approach as well as musical sociology can be put into practice according to the suggestions of Cumpa (2004).
One of the lessons that educators should learn from the results reported in neuroscience research is that the effectiveness of instruction increases as content is presented not only in the traditional verbal modality (left hemisphere stimulus), but also in nonverbal or figural mode (graphic, image, pictorial, or other), which will help stimulate the right hemisphere. This leads to the need to use a mixed instructional strategy in the classroom that combines sequential and linear techniques with other approaches that allow students to see patterns, make use of visual and spatial thinking, and deal with the whole set, in addition to the pieces. In this sense, the following teaching strategies could be used: visual thinking, fantasy, evocative language, metaphor, direct experience, multisensory learning and music (CUMPA, 2004. p. 156).
As linguistic variants may have phonological elements that form an accent, symbols, and also different syntactic distributions, the knowledge and use of oral communication strategies or elements of the same orality may vary according to the context of the speaker. The study of the linguistic variation of the Portuguese in the foreign language classroom is essential, since it directly reflects in the social, cultural grouping and internationalization of this speaker. The variations also explain and determine the form and use of language by the speakers of the most diverse social groups. Musical sociolinguistics is the integral component of the teaching-learning of the Brazilian Portuguese, linguistics and its variants, society and its culture.
9.2 BRAZILIAN MUSICAL SOCIOLINGUISTICBLOG
The research proposed and elaborated a blog to put into practice the musical sociolinguistics for the teaching of Portuguese language and its variations. It reveals the mission, vision, objectives, images and activities for teaching Portuguese to foreigners, here, in this case, Spanish speakers who wished to learn the Portuguese language. The configuration of the blog will be better explored in this chapter, so that other teachers can somehow be inspired and put into practice musical sociolinguistics. Figure 1: Components of the Brazilian Musical Sociolinguistics course
Figure 2: Musical sociolinguistics seen from neuroscience
Mission: This course is developed to make Brazilian music the main focus of influence and optimization of Portuguese learning, linguistics and its variants, society and Brazilian culture.
Vision: Train the student to acquire social and linguistic skills and encourage and support his personal and professional growth by being in contact with the Brazilian Portuguese.
At the end of the course the student must:
1. Identify political and religious terms as a fundamental vocabulary for the linguistic development of the Brazilian Portuguese.
a. It will use the vocabulary applied in Brazilian music to understand and interpret the social contrasts that marked various political movements;
B. It will recognize the importance of several religious aspects for the development of Brazilian musical sociolinguistics;
C. It will expose the influence of politics and religion on the development of Brazilian musical sociolinguistics.
2. Compare and contrast the impact of Brazilian musical genres with contemporary fashion.
a. Identify costumes as a representative symbol in various musical genres;
B. Recognize specific costume ideas;
C. Relate the use of various costumes with the exhibition of Brazilian musical sociolinguistics.
3. Identify the connection between economics and health through the analysis of Brazilian musical sociolinguistics.
a. Interpret social value from Brazilian music;
B. Classify advantages and disadvantages according to the economic level expressed in Brazilian music;
C. Distinguish economic benefits.
4. Develop cultural appreciation by demonstrating the knowledge gained from various recreational and musical activities.
a. Incorporate, in its cognitive development, the foundations of gastronomy to understand the sociocultural functioning of Brazil;
B. Integrate aspects focused on the customs and traditions of Brazilian musical sociolinguistics in your exhibition;
C. Identify basic elements of the linguistic variations of the Portuguese of Brazil through different musical genres.
5. Collect qualitative and quantitative information for the analysis of social problems related to Brazilian security.
a. Understand that the implementation of social well-being is essential for the development of security;
B. Identify regional characteristics to understand security strategies and service to different cultural music events in Brazil;
C. Validate the importance of sociocultural protection represented in Brazilian music.
Figure 9: The regions of Brazil
Graph 10: Musical rhythms of Brazil
9.3 TEACHING-LEARNING STRATEGIES
In response to the trend towards globalization, education is organized into sequences, units and thematic lessons that appear as a completely unified method for organizing and transmitting the skills needed in school practice. Thus, the different tasks that the teacher performs with a specific group of students, involves determining what needs to be taught and the teaching-learning procedures that can be worked with each student. This is essential for the diverse knowledge of the disciplines proposed by the school curricula to be effectively learned and to develop them fundamental skills for the formation of their personality, so that they are able to perform a series of activities with educational value. An important aspect in the design of the units is linked to the optimization of learning time and, thus, there should be the development of teaching and work sequences at the end of each learning lesson.
9.4 COURSE CURRICULUM
Currently, university curricula are not enough for students to have a good oral understanding of the accent of the Brazilian Portuguese, as there are linguistic variants of the language. The audio recordings of the method are made from the default language. In this case, the first difficulty presented for this level of students is the oral understanding of the language due to its varieties of accents and intonations, due to the region, the social level, and the academic level of the speakers, whether they are native speakers or students of the language or speakers of Portuguese. From the analysis of the data collected in the research and evaluated in the graphs it is possible to observe that the results indicate the need of students of Portuguese foreign language to be in contact with a course that prioritizes linguistic variations to improve the oral understanding of the accents of the Brazilian Portuguese.
The decision was made to integrate, in the course, songs that were recorded by Brazilian speakers from different parts of the country. The use of music for activities that develop verbal communication skills and produce effective communication has been shown to be useful for the reinforcement and oral comprehension of linguistic varieties. The musical method allows the student to know and analyze the differences that exist in pronunciation or intonation offered in the words expressed by lusophones from different regions or localities, but which, in short, favor the same action of expressing themselves. When students repeatedly participate in this musical practice, they reinforce their understanding, broaden their intellect, and gain the security to develop freely in real-life scenarios that require the implementation of vocabularies and expressions that understand the use of linguistic variations.
9.5 TEACHING-LEARNING ORGANISATION
- Context: Students will work with oral and written activities to develop their knowledge and correctly use thematic vocabulary. In addition, one can work with different levels of critical thinking and be able to apply this knowledge in a real atmosphere, whether in the classroom, on a trip or in daily life;
- Lexicon: Vocabulary is contextualized with thematic songs, and thus serves for students to be in contact with the different musical rhythms spread throughout the 5 regions of Brazil, thus acquiring new vocabularies and expressions;
- Grammar: Integration of verbal tenses and conjugations so that they are worked on the different songs and materials written during the course;
- Reading: Application of reading strategies that allow the participant to understand and perform tasks with authentic and non-technical texts;
- Writing: Application of writing strategies that allow the participant to write small articles related to the topics covered during the course;
- Oral comprehension and oral expression: The course will be taught in Portuguese and the audio material used will be authentic. This will allow participants to have intensive contact with oral Portuguese during classes. In addition, the proposed teaching strategies, which refer to oral comprehension and expression, seek to offer participants the opportunity to communicate/express themselves, in Portuguese, throughout the course;
- Society and culture: The didactic material and strategies will allow the constant discussion, reflection, comparison and contrast of different types of social and cultural aspects of Brazil;
- Linguistics and its variants: This topic aims to evidence a basic understanding of linguistic variation in Portuguese. One of the main interests is to create awareness in the students about the various accents existing in the Brazilian Portuguese and the importance of knowing the linguistic variation of the Portuguese language. Students should ask questions that stimulate the process of their education in the target language, be it L1 (mother tongue) or L2 (non-mother tongue);
- Pronunciation: Control the tone using simple words and phrases with the correct intonation and pronunciation, depending on the situation and the environment in which the student is, and also it is necessary to practice the oral production of the words studied that have linguistic variations in the oral comprehension of the accent of the Brazilian Portuguese of the song to be selected;
- Music: Discovering a song and using its written record so that students remember and sing, and thus develop reading skills, oral production, oral interaction and oral comprehension about the linguistic varieties of the accents of the Brazilian Portuguese, so that expanding the knowledge of Brazilian society and culture through music is a fundamental exercise;
- Music resource: Provide a list of Brazilian singers by region (music videos);
- Before the music: Activate the students’ previous knowledge about the lexicon to be studied;
- During music: Read aloud so that students model the pronunciation of words and to feel motivated to put linguistic varieties into practice. It also provides activities that allow students to apply and monitor realization strategies, detect a consistent pattern from reading words and phrases, and work on the oral comprehension of accent linguistic varieties of the Brazilian Portuguese. Students can work in pairs to practice pronunciation;
- After the song: Engage students in activities that can enable their knowledge. Providing opportunities for students to evaluate their comprehension and use strategies is essential. Include opportunities for students where they can expand or develop ideas from the resources available in the course and through the internet;
- After class: Perform the analysis process. This activity assumes a formal and important role, since it aims at the systematic and reflexive appropriation of the linguistic means that are necessary for the realization of each activity and lesson. The coherence of the sequences is methodologically organized, and thus all the lessons correspond to educational situations treated in class and derived from everyday life. The proposed method for all activities to be worked on also contains systematic grammatical appropriations related to communication activities. This organization will help students effectively understand Portuguese Brazilian, then transforming learning into a playful and fun process.
Oral understanding of linguistic variations is therefore essential for the successful development of each individual tool. Around us, we must conduct a process of auditory comprehension, make decisions and develop freely. In today’s times, the acquisition of skills focused on oral comprehension for students with intellectual disabilities is also important. The teacher should work with the same relevance and mission as regular instructional students. We cannot separate or limit special education students, on the contrary, we must take specific and individual measures to help them. With this course, it is intended to apply, in a personalized way, educational sequences that respond to the needs of students with difficulties and with different competencies emphasizing, in this case, the oral understanding of the linguistic variations of the Brazilian Portuguese.
It is proposed to create complementary materials for the teaching-learning of linguistic varieties. We must integrate the different regional songs and start with simple analysis tasks, containing representative, short and striking examples. Vocabulary is used to organize ideas. In addition, it is necessary to establish tasks for oral comprehension with clear questions and simple answers. Tasks are assigned, identified and classified as events, stories, dialogues, presentations, thus allowing students to draw their own conclusions about the learned topics. If students are offered these resources, they can succeed, since they will have a learning process that highlights the oral understanding of linguistic variations. In teaching-learning foreign languages it is necessary to break the stigma that there should be a “correct” pronunciation for those who do not know the linguistic varieties of the language.
The educator needs to change the methods by relying on cooperative learning. A method should be created to encourage students to use a variety of texts, audio, video, etc., so that their awareness of linguistic diversity is increased. The teaching-learning of linguistic variations must be done through music, which is communicative and functional, because, thus, students will have the opportunity to use the language in the classroom with their colleagues and teachers before their future immersion. This is the ultimate goal: to learn the linguistic variations of the Portuguese language. Therefore, it is necessary to make good use of language based on oral comprehension and its components in a formal way. This method considers the teaching of foreign languages from the usual point of view, taking into account the practice of linguistic diversity.
According to Guy and Zilles (2006), the conclusion of these observations is that language variation is present in all aspects of language and should be taken into account by any language learning program. This is the linguistic reality that is part of the experience of each speaker and, thus, it is no use pretending that language is homogeneous when we are in the classroom with students. Language training should be sensitive to sociocultural differences, including linguistic variation. The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages and the National Standards of Puerto Rico contributed to the standardization of tools that provide competitive advantages and thus evidence a standardization strategy to strengthen the organization’s ability to add value and personal interest in the teaching-learning process. The basic approach is to start with a teaching process that defines specific levels, progression, and evaluation.
The PRCS (2014) argues that learning must be fair and balanced so that better and more motivated citizens are trained, and thus brings new challenges to a world based on linguistic, social and cultural diversity. Another system used is the “evaluation” task. It is a tool used for every skill and learning theme. This type of assessment allows us to analyze each student’s progress and build the necessary skills. Four skills are essential for the language course: oral comprehension, written comprehension, oral production and written production. A fifth skill called “methodological” is also added and it encourages the acquisition of interaction strategies (oral and written) (Bailly; Cohen, 2006). Oral interaction and oral understanding of linguistic varieties will help us achieve a positive improvement in the errors found during the learning process from a fun and oriented method to capture the interest of Portuguese students.
Several techniques can be used to achieve the basic goal of linguistic variations in which students learn to articulate correctly combined sounds and phonemes. For this, you can use the following techniques: imitation and reproduction of natural sounds in the language, simple tongue-locking, repetition of phrases with different intonations, different words, fast or slow rhythm and songs. The tasks should be useful and provide students with compelling reasons for performing their knowledge at the end of each activity. Activities should be fair and students should learn different skills appropriate to their age, habits, and customs. Teachers need some freedom to adapt the work proposed by textbooks. Mechanical exercises should not be the only ones used in individual and group activities. It is recommended to use various learning tasks and techniques focused mainly on the action approach.
An action-oriented perspective is composed of a reference framework for learning, teaching (and evaluating) modern languages, transparency and coherence of activities, the scope of tasks and diverse representations of daily life. The perspective of this study starts from actions that consider the user and the learner of a language as social actors who need to perform tasks (which are not only linguistic) in different circumstances, in different environments and in a certain area of action. If speech acts are performed from linguistic activities, these are part of actions in a social context that attributes meanings to them. There is a “task” to the extent that the action is the result of one (or more) subject(s) who strategically mobilize the skills that he(a) possess to achieve a given result. The perspective of action also takes into account the cognitive, affective, volitive and all the abilities that the social actor possesses and implements (CEFR, 15).
Any applicable skill that is intended to teach requires several factors. Proper application can be beneficial for the successful development of every human being. We can prove, scientifically, that any learning process is effective, relevant and can be applied, however, it requires dedication, determination and the elaboration of a pedagogical sequence on the part of the teacher and the educational administration, whether this environment is the school or the university. Language teaching requires that the teacher and student are practicing, and thus continuously learning. Knowledge cannot be acquired when one uses arguments such as lack of time to practice pronunciation, to perform exercises and to imitate models such as gestures, facial expressions, facial reactions and any others that can contribute to the understanding and absorption of concepts.
We need to do everything we can to transform education around us, that is, to understand what we are planning. The teacher’s design approach should be linear and parallel to what you want to achieve with your students. All this is done with dedication. According to the CEFR, it is possible to accept the idea that the educational curriculum does not begin, does not end and is not limited to school. This implies admitting that multilingual and multicultural competence can give rise to construction even before schooling and in parallel with schooling, that is, from everyday situations, stories, travel, expatriation and immigration these students can acquire knowledge, since they belong to a multilingual and multicultural context.
These considerations lead us to believe that, when learning a language, in the school context, there may be a need to reconfigure the objectives of the course due to the linguistic, social and cultural context of the students, so that one should consider the objectives of educational programs of several languages so that diversity is not lost in teaching-learning portuguese language as a foreign language. For this, creating a curriculum that covers such diversity is essential. Mirroring the European Framework is a good alternative to respect the linguistic, cultural and social aspects of the mother tongue of these learners. The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages and the “Puerto Rico Core Standards” have brought tools aimed at standardizing to implement a standardization strategy to add value and personal interest in the teaching-learning process.
It is recommended to start with a teaching process defining from specific levels, in order to emphasize progression and evaluation, because, thus, there will be fair and balanced learning and it will be possible to train students more critical and aware about the new challenges of the modern world, valuing themselves with linguistic and cultural diversity. Another system used is the task of ” evaluation ”, a tool often used to develop learning skills and themes. This type of assessment allows us to maintain the training and continuous evaluation of each student, thus strengthening all the necessary skills. There are four essential skills: oral comprehension, written comprehension, oral production, written production. The acquisition of strategies for oral and written interaction should also be emphasized.
. The tasks should be useful and provide students with compelling reasons for performing their knowledge at the end of each activity. Activities should be fair and students should learn different skills appropriate to their age, habits, and customs. Teachers need some freedom to adapt the work proposed by textbooks. Mechanical exercises should not be the only ones used in individual and group activities. It is recommended to use various learning tasks and techniques focused mainly on the action approach. In conclusion, it is necessary to reiterate that the language teaching and learning processes in Puerto Rico are designed as motivators and relevant.
This is because teachers take into account the tastes, interests, needs and problems of students as well as the variety of methods, materials, activities, texts and learning situations. Language development is essential for the formation of human beings. The notions of reading and writing can be developed at the same time. Therefore, all language experiences should begin as early as possible, already in basic education. For this, the student must learn the essential skills for the development of each language (oral comprehension/writing, oral/written production and oral interaction), so that, thus, he is able to understand linguistic diversity, linguistic variants, society and cultural diversity through the musical sociolinguistic course.
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 PhD in Portuguese Language Teaching from Bircham International University in Madrid Spain (2018); Master in Languages, Cultures and Societies in Multilingual Environments – French Foreign Language by “Université des Antilles” in Martinique (M1-2016 / M2-2018); Postgraduate (Specialization) in Portuguese Language Studies: Research and Teaching from the Open University of Portugal (2014): Graduated in Modern Languages, habilitation in Portuguese and French, from the Universidad de Puerto Rico – Recinto de Río Pedras (2009).
 Postdoctoral Advisor – Universidad Virtual de Estudios Superiores, Guadalajara Mexico.
Submitted: February, 2020.
Approved: February, 2020.