An analysis of School evaluation in basic education

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SALES, Gutemberg Martins de [1]

SALES, Gutemberg Martins de. An analysis of School evaluation in basic education. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. 03 year, Ed. 07, vol. 02, pp. 5-17, July 2018. ISSN:2448-0959

Summary

The article discusses critically the appraisal system adopted by Brazilian education institutions, addressing the role of evaluation in society as a means of inclusion and exclusion. The reality of this work if shows pertinent for contributing to a reflection about the importance of school institutions in the construction of a more just and democratic society; also, small changes to be made by educators in order to enable the changes necessary to ensure that everyone has access to a quality education, forming critical citizens and aware of your role in society, as well as your transformers agents reality. Through the literature review the article has as support the importance of education for the construction of a fairer country that believes that your children and young people can make a better world when they are given the right to nod and stay in places that they value as subjects and worthy.

Keywords: learning, assessment, Basic Education. 

1. Introduction

The assessment of learning is a controversial subject in schools, where one of the main reasons of this controversy is the persistence of ancient forms of assessment that no longer meet the cultural diversity, with the universalization of access to school, attend the same.

In this way, we intend to contribute to the reflection on the evaluation systems adopted by educational institutions; enabling educators to review old practices of evaluation in order to build consistent assessments that will help children and young people to become critical citizens and subjects of your story, feel confident and able to overcome the challenges will find in their paths.

During critical discussion about the appraisal system adopted by educational institutions in Brazil, we discuss the role of evaluation in society as a means of inclusion and exclusion.

We seek to discuss the current issues on evaluation of school learning, addressing the power of inclusion and exclusion that an assessment has emphasizing how consistency can contribute to the effective democratization of access and permanence of Brazilian children and adolescents in the school space.

Observe the assessment as an important tool that provides data to the teacher so you can plan and replan your teaching performance, in order to perfect it, so that their students achieve more success in learning. So the assessment and planning are inseparable, what differs is the Division of the goals, content and teaching strategies.

It is understood the assessment as to what level and internship students are observing the rhythms and allowing necessary stimuli to the development of each.

That way we use as the methodology literature review in books, articles, journals and internet as research support.

We started discussing the types of evaluation and then we emphasize an analysis of school evaluation in basic education, showing the results and discussion of the research.

2. Types of evaluation

We'll cover in this item the types of evaluations and your importance.

2.1 diagnostic evaluation

The diagnostic evaluation has the function to make a research on the student's knowledge in determined periods of time to (re) organize the processes of teaching and pedagogical interventions.

She is structured from a predetermined standard (predefined content and skills in the curriculum and, consequently, in the Official Curriculum), that is, before teaching, professor seeks to investigate what the student already knows or is able to do.

The analysis of the results of this evaluation allows adjustment of curricula to the real needs of students learning.

Diagnostic assessments should be applied periodically, in the process, to verify that the pedagogical actions and interventions developed are generating the desired learning outcomes.

2.2 formative assessment

Formative assessment is the process of teaching and learning.

Through the construction and application of instruments, analysis of the data obtained and synthesis of results, the formative assessment allows the teacher to reset the teaching and learning process in keeping with the development of the students.

It is a dialogue about the teaching and learning process: while the teacher seeks to expose and detail your expectations regarding learning skills and school content, students do an analysis and reflection on what actually managed to Learn how and why this occurred.

In the end, both the other identify the needs of adjustment processes and strive to correct the course.

2.3 Summative Evaluation

Summative assessment is an evaluation mode that represents a synthesis of the results of evaluations or results, and should be representative of the learning that occurred in relation to expected learnings within a specified period of time (year, series, quarter, cycle).

Its main function is to locate and classify the student at the end of a process, whereas the point of departure, journey and arrival point of learning.

Normally, has administrative function of the student's academic achievement record.

2.4 internal Assessment

Internal assessment is one that teachers do, systematically, in the classroom, throughout the process of teaching and learning, namely, the evaluation of the teacher to check the student's progress, considering the expectations of learning provided for in the Official Curriculum.

Teachers can use different instruments to carry out these assessments, since its results provide information to identify whether the knowledge (content/skills) are in fact being consolidated in the allotted time.

The results of this type of evaluation indicate possibilities of follow-up of the reflection of the pedagogical practices adopted in the learning of each student in particular. In this way, the internal review takes on the role of diagnostic, formative assessments simultaneously and, at the end of the process, summative.

2.5 external evaluation

The external evaluation as its name says, goes beyond that performed in the classroom; It is also called the Assessment System, and aims to ensure the principle of the right of quality education to all students.

Their findings provide indicators for systems and participating schools in order to contribute to the development of pedagogical and administrative actions directed to correction of distortions, overcoming challenges and improving education.

Examples: national assessment of basic education (Aneb), national evaluation of school performance (Anresc) and school performance assessment system of the State of São Paulo (Saresp).

These evaluations are used specific tools and standardized tests so that their results are reliable and comparable over time and allow managers to the implementation of public policies, and school units a portrait of your performance.

2.6 assessment of learning process

Of character exclusively diagnosis, evaluation of learning in process (AAP) is a type of assessment proposed by the Department of education of the State of São Paulo, created in 2012 and applied at the beginning of each semester for identification, in school, the needs and priorities for the teaching and learning process.

Since August 2015, this "proof" standardized diagnostic for the São Paulo State network is applied bi-monthly, and the results were unique and your respective School Board of education, will be sent to the Secretary of education of the State of São Paulo.

The propositions of the AAP are investigative tools of learning of students in terms of their skills and abilities.

The material is intended to subsidize the monitoring of teaching and learning process, contribute to the development and implementation of plans to support the teacher in developing the Official Curriculum and aimed at the progression of learning still own .

2.7 an analysis of school evaluation in basic education

The evaluation only makes sense within the educational policy when not used as a controller or pragmatist.

As says Luckesi (2011, p. 28), "don't give assessment nor will a conceptual vacuum, but sized for a theoretical model of the world and of education, translated into pedagogical practice".

In this approach the learner is seen as being active and dynamic, end the construction of your own knowledge, i.e. educate is to train and learn in addition to build own know, on which the evaluation includes dimensions, and cannot be reduced only in assigning grades .

The assessment of students is the pragmatic educational action one of the main dilemmas of education. The dilemma that occurs between the expectations of society in relation to the education system which requires the issuance of certificates and the selection, and the expectations of the students themselves, who want a sensitive learning their needs and learning rhythms (MARCHESI ; MARTIN, 2003, p. 30).

Being the school institution a space so important, it is essential that the same is absolutely democratic in relation to the access and permanence of students as it is in this space, you can share collective fundamental values.

The successive repetências and high degree of circumvention of the students, negative factors arising from variances in learning showing us in practice that are resulting from an inadequate conception of the meaning of knowledge and the characterization of the processes of evaluation.

Evaluation is a process of data collection and analysis, in order to ascertain whether the goals were achieved, respecting the individual characteristics and the environment in which the student lives. The assessment must be comprehensive considering the student as a total and integrated and not fragmented. The student learns when get over conflicts. Not to be authoritarian and conservative, the evaluation has the task of being, that is, must be the dialectic instrument of progress, will have to be the instrument of identification of new directions (LUCKESI, 2011, p. 39).

"The assessment needs to stop being the great villain of Brazilian schools for thought as a large window through which one can enter to change the actions and school relations" (SAUL, 1994, p. 77).

The Act of evaluating provides data, which allow you to check directly the level of students ' learning, and also indirectly determine the quality of the teaching process. When evaluating the progress of your students in learning, the teacher can get valuable information about your own work (OZÓRIO, 2002, p. 36).

An assessment is only suitable when your goal is student growth and your full development. A single evaluation did not say precisely what a person is or how much she knows. Stand is required so that a judgement be made fairly.

Legitimate diagnostic evaluation must have the following characteristics: it should be assumed as an instrument of understanding learning stage where the student, with a view to adequate and satisfactory decisions so you can progress in your learning process (LUCKESI, 2011, p. 81).

The evaluation means teacher's provocative action, challenging the learner to reflect on the situations experienced, to formulate and reformulate chances, walking to a knowledge enriched.

The assessment is based on host a situation, for then the judge your quality, in order to give you support for change, if necessary. The assessment, as diagnosis, has the objective of inclusion and not exclusion; the inclusion and not the selection that necessarily leads to exclusion (LUCKESI, 2011, p. 172).

"Any assessment model cannot be just appropriate or ideal. First of all needs to be assimilated and be handled by the teacher in your real context, considering all the limitations that this has "(HOFFMANN, 2011, p. 58).

There is, still today, a nostalgic vision of demanding schools, disciplinary and rigid, but that does not find support in reality. These schools were not competent, because they couldn't account for all who entered teaching.

Most of the schools offers a high number of students enrolled in the initial series of elementary school, however, this number decreases considerably when compared with the number of students enrolled in the following series. The reason for the drop in registrations in more advanced series occurs mainly as a result of the rejection mechanisms adopted by educational institutions (HOFFMAN, 2011, p. 44).

A democratic school is one that contributes to your students can enjoy your promotion as citizens, who understand education as a right for all-an institution able to make criticisms and reivindicadoras people attending a school of quality.

It is not possible to live democratically, and at the same time, maintain elitist schools, contributing to inequality and social exclusion.

The path to development is an equal education, which embrace the children of a generation in conflict and design this generation in the future, aware of your role in a possible transformation. If this child is considered from the outset as a future impossible, won't have a time to prove how much we can count on it (HOFFMAN, 2011, p. 18).

Assessments should be used to diagnose the progress of the educational process, indicating progress, successes, failures and, from these indicators, begin the search for solutions to that, anyway the school fulfill your duty to society.

However, assessments are being used to approve or disapprove students in a system that separates the moment to learn and time to evaluate. The second, for countless times, panic among the students and damaging the result of many reviews. The assessment needs to stop being the great villain of Brazilian schools for thought as a large window through which one can enter to change the actions and school relations (SAUL, 1994, p. 77)

The possibility of changes in valuation practices becomes alternatives for the separation of work and school failure, still so present in the schools. School practices often become quite distant from the reality experienced by educating, creating a gap between school education and the real world. This distance makes it difficult sometimes, the assimilation of content that will not be able to help children and young people to overcome the daily challenges.

The evaluation process should be pleasurable, assist in the growth and pass security. These aspects help in teaching learning process. If the evaluation is a process, it is necessary that several instruments are used and innovate using other methods allows a fairer analysis.

An assessment is only suitable when your goal is student growth and your full development. The evaluation also allows the educator the opportunity to reflect on your teaching practice. It indicates how much the methodology adopted is appropriate to the results being obtained. When your results are used serve to show new paths to the teaching learning process.

In education, more precisely in the evaluation we need to treat students like things. As a result the note, concept, etc. are sought at all costs. Therefore, the higher the more objectivity the procedure away from human characteristics (OSÓRIO, 2002, p. 37).

A more complete assessment is to follow on a daily basis the development of student's reasoning, on the assumption that knowledge is constructed from a process whose steps may be accompanied by the educator. Through the educator's observation about the activities carried out by educating the same can register comments realizing, throughout the school year, the advances made by the student. It is possible, too, realize that points need to be reviewed.

In addition, the replacement of the concepts for records with comments, would allow parents a better understanding of the process of education of your son making it an auxiliary the son of coherent way.

When records are made clear, the learner could understand what was wrong in that needs to improve and, mainly, to feel excited and happy with the positive aspects highlighted by the educator.

Finally, modify the traditional system of records of performance contributes to a quality education, more humane and concerned to promote citizenship. It is possible, from the reflection on the evaluative practices, realizing how many actions contribute to the exclusion of many children and young people of school space. These actions are cruel for inflexibility and shutdown your connection with the students.

Should abolish the practice of conducting tests on days marked by performing, instead, smaller tasks, without the worry of assign concepts and analyze the development of the students throughout the process. Is an alternative other than the traditional, placing itself as a new assessment proposal whose purpose is to provide success to many young people and children, to that any decision, from the results obtained from the evaluations , must take into account the benefit that it represents to the learner.

The way of realization of the evaluation reflected in the attitude of the teacher in your interaction with the class and your relationship with the student. In this perspective, it is believed that the evaluation helps the student in your learning progression, and the professor perfects your pedagogical practice.

The evaluation of the critical point of view, cannot be an instrument of exclusion of students from the working classes. Must be democratic, should encourage the development of the student's ability to take ownership of scientific, social and technological knowledge produced historically and must be the result of a collective process of diagnostic evaluation (VEIGA, 1995, p. 32).

For Gatti (in 2012: SME, 2015, p. 21) "when it comes to evaluation that reaches people in your school life, so in your social life, there are indispensable to take care". Involves ethical issues, ale to involve scientific and technical knowledge.

The assessment must be comprehensive considering the student as a total and integrated and not fragmented. "The evaluation process is essentially the process of determining the extent to which educational goals were actually achieved, through the programs of educational curriculum" (TYLER, 1950, p. 31 apud SOUZA, 2012, p. 12).

A good evaluation shows paths and indicates whether the best option is the continuity of a work or the total your modification. "The assessment must be used always to improve, never to delete, select or segregate" (ALVAREZ MENDES, 2005, p. 27).

3. Results and discussions

A coherent assessment needs to be contextualized and above all contribute to the development of multiple skills by educating, giving meaning to education since the same has several links to reality, providing the student a broad knowledge of possibilities of life, through self-knowledge, confidence and self-esteem. This becomes possible when using dynamic methodologies, reflective and analytical playful.

Socially the evaluation is defended as a guarantee of the quality of teaching and that position is heritage of the Fordist production systems and Taylorista, that is, the worker is a passive performer who performs its tasks without question. This model was assimilated by society and this is reflected in attitudes taken under school requires the student an executor and passive position, without question and showing good concepts in their assessments.

However, the current needs require new attitudes, an education that is capable of broadening horizons, teaching the student to live in groups, communicating, reflect and learn, in different circumstances, changing situations of failure and inequality assisting children and young people to overcome the daily challenges.

Evaluation functions are potentially two: diagnosis and classification. The first, it is assumed that the teacher and the student to detect the weak points of this and extract the relevant consequences about where to put the emphasis on teaching and learning. The second has the effect of rank and sort students. The school preaches in part based on the first evaluation function, but employs primarily for the second (ENGUITA, 1995, p. 23).

Understand the error as one stage of the learning process is an important step towards the effective teaching since he is the starting point for the educational action. A student cannot be judged by the ability to store or reproduce content, but by the ability to build solutions for the problem itself.

The assessment enables the educator the opportunity to reflect on your teaching practice indicating how the methodology adopted is appropriate to the results being obtained. When your results are used serve to show new paths to the teaching learning process.

Final considerations

A coherent assessment needs to be contextualized and above all contribute to the development of multiple skills by educating, giving meaning to education since the same has several links to reality, providing the student a broad knowledge of possibilities of life, through self-knowledge, confidence and self-esteem. This becomes possible when using dynamic methodologies, reflective and analytical playful.

They conclude that an assessment as a form of punishment the student is a misnomer and should not be that your reason or practice. The assessment that can actually contribute to socialization is one that allows the educator to verify, by means of the results achieved, the process of knowledge construction and if the methods for it adopted are appropriate and, from these findings decide on the continuation of the work entirely in parts or the total change of the teaching methodology.

It is impossible, from the reflection on the practices evaluated, figure out how many actions contribute to the exclusion of several youth and children in schools. These actions are cruel by inflexibilities and by shutting down the context of students.

Abolish the practice of conducting evaluations on certain days and without the worry of assign concepts, performing minor tasks and ongoing, is an alternative that is placed as a new proposal for evaluation. However, to achieve a coherent evaluation, to consider the reality of the learner, the same needs to be designed in accordance with pedagogical political project of each school unit.

References

ENGUITA, m. assessment and learning. Article publishing roots and wings. 8. São Paulo: CENPEC, 1995, p. 23

HOFFMANN, j. Evaluating mediator: a practice in construction: preschool to University. 31. Ed. Porto Alegre: mediation, 2011.

HOFFMANN, j. Evaluating myth and challenge: a constructivist perspective. 41. Ed. Porto Alegre: mediation, 2011.

LUCKESI, C. School learning: evaluation studies and propositions 22. Ed. São Paulo: Cortez, 2011.

MARCHESI, a. & MARTÍN, e. teaching quality in times of change. Porto Alegre: New Haven, 2003.

MENDEZ, j. m. a. Assess to meet, examine for delete. Patio Year IX magazine n. 34-may/July 2005, p. 27.

OSORIO, d. evaluation of school performance: as a tool of social exclusion. In: BELLO, j. l. p. Pedagogy in focus. Rio de Janeiro, 2002. Available at: http://www.pedagogiaemfoco.pro.br/aval01.htm. Access in: 09/Oct/2016.

SÃO PAULO. EMS-Directorate of technical guidance. More education program: 4 grants: assessment for learning: external and with large scale. São Paulo: EMS/DOT, 2015.

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TAYLER, r. w. Basic principies of curriculum and instruction. Chicago: the universityof Chicago, 1949. In: DAS, p. s. f. learning evaluation: discussing the evaluation process at the school. UEPB, 2012. Available at: http://dspace.bc.uepb.edu.br/jspui/bitstream/123456789/1371/1/PDF%20%20Pricila%20da%20Silva%20Florencio%20de%20Souza.pdf. Accessed: November 13, 2016.

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[1] Degree in Mathematics from the University Guarulhos, post-graduated in education with school administration and supervision, graduate studies in mathematics, postgraduate degree in Teaching in higher education from the Universidade Iguaçu (ROBERT). Professional experience in public and private education in the disciplines of mathematics and physics – served as Educational Coordinator, Director and Deputy Director of School.

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