MOTA, Amanda Cristina Silva; AMARO, Diogo Alves. The reality experienced by the professionals of physical education In the schools. Multidisciplinary Core Scientific Journal Of Knowledge. Year 01, Issue 01, vol. 10, pp. 281-290, November 2016. ISSN: 2448-0959
The teacher's challenge of the 21st century is to transmit knowledge, increasingly necessary for the development of skills of the future. The main difficulties cited by many teachers, in many literatures, are the inadequacy of space, the lack of materials, the resistance of the students "new" practices and the lack of interest by the physical education. This study aims to analyze the reality and the difficulties encountered in the teaching of professional physical education within the school environment. This study is a review of specialized literature, held between February and October 2016, in which a query to books published; the scientific articles and theses, selected through search the scielo database and of bireme. It is concluded that education comes across major crises, starting with the low quality of education, the neglect with the teachers and the lack of respect of politicians to the population emphasizes one of the worst stages faced by education. It is up to the teacher of physical education, the role of guide and lead this process using all your knowledge and intelligence because the more intelligent the teacher, the more he makes his students able to act intelligently.
Keywords: Reality, Difficulties, Teachers, physical education.
It is known that the reality of physical education classes in State and municipal schools is characterized by desmotivantes aspects to the practice of physical activity, the difficulties that the physical education teachers face in your daily life of the classroom like: lack of materials, inadequate physical structure, too many students, lack of will of the students and sometimes even the teacher by contempt, discipline and knowledge of the importance of physical education in the general development of students.
Education has been characterized as the area faces more conflicts and challenges in the face of a changing society. Teachers demonstrate that should not select students, choose only one sport, have authoritarian attitudes and neglecting the Playful dimension. However, still present difficulties in order to know which address content and teaching methodologies which use. In some cases, this fact will eventually transform classes in assistemáticas, in which the learner chooses what it wants to do.
It should be noted that, even with all the difficulties encountered by teachers of physical education, who is at school many children of the early years of elementary school are your first contact with planned physical activities, hence your importance as promoter of development and improvement "of the cognitive, motor and auditory spheres", this contact planned makes the children involved can understand and/or adapt your skills not only in the school environment, but also in all other the who has access, improving physical and mental health, promoting the development of useful skills to life, creating cultural habits of hygiene (RAO, 2013).
To be a positive revolution in most Nations the start process in education and in this sense the teacher becomes one of the main actors of this process. Education has been characterized as the area faces more conflicts and challenges in the face of a changing society. The purpose of this literature review is to analyze the reality and the difficulties encountered in the teaching of professional physical education within the school environment.
To check the sources, considered as criteria the bibliographies that approached the reality experienced by the teachers of physical education in the schools. This study consisted of a review of specialized literature, held between February and October 2016, at which the query was held scientific articles, theses, selected through search the SCIELO database and of BIREME. Also used the platform of google Scholar search for theses, dissertations, municipal waste management policies etc. Filter was not performed with respect to date of the publications used in this research.
The search in the databases was conducted using the terminologies registered in databases, which allows the use of common terminology in Portuguese, English and Spanish. The key phrases used in the search were: Reality, Difficulties, Teachers, physical education.
2. PHYSICAL EDUCATION
The introduction of physical education officially in school took place in Brazil, in 1851, with the reform Couto Ferraz, although concern over the inclusion of physical exercises in Europe dates back to the 18th century, Guths Muths, with j. j. Rousseau, Pestalozzi and others. In 1882, Rui Barbosa, recommended that the gym was mandatory for both sexes and that were offered to Regular schools. However, the implementation of these laws occurred only in Rio de Ja neiro (capital of the Republic, at the time) and in military schools. However, only from the late 1920 that various States of the Federation begin to carry out educational reforms and include physical education, with the most common name. (BETTI, 1991).
The dominant conception of the physical education in your home was based on perspective that many authors called hygienism. In it, the central concern is with the hi giene and health habits, valuing the physical and moral development, from exercise. In the light of the need to systematize the gym at school, gymnastic methods, where the main were proposed by Swedish Pehr Henrik Ling, by Francisco Amorós and German Adolph Spiess, which presented proposals that sought enhance the image of gymnastics at school.
Physical education in Brazil in the 19th century, was developed by the military with the goal of forming strong, healthy individuals who were essential to the development process of the country. This association between physical education, Physical education and health should the military Body and doctors. Based on the principles of social medicine of hygienic nature proclaimed themselves the most competent professional category to redefine the standards of physical, intellectual and moral conduct of fa mily brazilian. To fulfill its mission, the hygienists used physical education, defining it as objective the creation of healthy, robust body, as opposed to its body, limp and sick individual colonial (CASTELLANI SON, 1989; BETTI, 1991).
The Gym built itself on the one hand, to comply with the function of collaborating in the construction of healthy bodies, to allow adequate adaptation to production process or a nationalist policy perspective; and on the other, by the need and benefits of an intervention, legitimized by médico-científico knowledge of the body, which referendava these possibilities (BRACHT, 2001).
Both conceptions and militaristic hygienist regarded Edu cation physics as essentially practical discipline, not requiring, therefore, of a theoretical foundation to give support. Therefore, there was no clear distinction between physical education and the physical education in the military. To teach physical education, there was no need to master knowledge and Yes being a practicioner.
In Brazil, the period from 1969 to 1979, the rise of the sport due to the inclusion of joint physical education/sport in strategic planning of the Government, although the high level sport was present within the society since the years 1920 and 1930 (BETTI, 1991).
The military Government, which took power in March of 1964, are investing in the sport in an attempt to make physical education an ideological mainstay, to the extent that she would participate in the promotion of the country through the success in high-level competitions. During this period, the central idea revolved around the Brazil-power, intended that eliminate internal criticism and disclosing a climate of prosperity and development (BETTI, 1991).
According to Sh et al. (1992), the influence of the sport in the education system is so strong that you can't tell sport at school, but the sport at school. This indicates the subordination of physical education to codes/sense of sports institution: Olympic sport, national and international sports system. These codes can be summarized at the beginning of athletic/sporting performance; comparison of yield; competition; rigid rules; success in sports as a synonym of victory; rationalisation of means and techniques etc.
3. TEACHING WORK IN SCHOOLS
The teacher's challenge of the 21st century is to transmit knowledge, increasingly necessary for the development of skills of the future. These knowledge are the four pillars that support education: learning to know, learning to do; Learn to live, learning to be. This challenge requires the professor the abandonment of the position of keeper of knowledge, since learning is built in school everyday with the knowledge of the world and the various abilities presented by the students. Requires, even if it has the willingness to learn, develop skills and constantly review their teaching methods and to adapt them as the class in which you are working.
Education comes across major crises and difficulties, starting with low quality in teaching the neglect with the teachers and the lack of respect of politicians to the population emphasizes one of the worst stages faced by education. Therefore these difficulties faced by general education, makes even more the situation of physical education in schools, because it is a matter that has no "status", i.e. it is not seen as an important discipline detriment of teachers. Starts up the difficulties faced by physical education that is attempting to legitimize in school as an important and necessary discipline within schools.
Physical education must be legitimised in school, get your identity, your reason for being in the school curriculum, and for that, your importance should be discussed in the various areas of society (by DARIDO, 2006, p. 116).
In this context the Physical education teacher ends up facing many difficulties in the process of teaching and learning, especially in public schools. Difficulties often end up dragging down this professional. An analysis on the reality of physical education at school points to the need for an urgent confrontation in order to program proposals renovators, and new alternatives that can meet the needs of both the professionals and the students who also need to be motivated and understand the importance of physical education to body and mind.
The main difficulties cited by many teachers, in many literatures, are the inadequacy of space, the lack of materials, the resistance of the students "new" practices and the lack of interest by the physical education.
- The) lack of space: it is undeniable to assume that the school space is a major factor in the development of physical education classes, as it modulates content and may possibly prevent certain practices are carried out. To adapt the activities to the spaces available, teachers, possibly moving the practices for other spaces (including in public squares near the school), this is the least used, being the feature of "theoretical" classes to the rather than practice, developing content with students in "room", the most common practice.
- B) lack of appropriate materials in number and quality to the student body: practices in public schools, is the most serious of all the difficulties, but it also happens in private schools, it reveals a certain devaluation of physical education in the context of these educational institutions. To adapt the school to the lack of material, teachers acquire the material itself or require students to bring necessary materials to class. In addition, various materials are made in the context of the class itself.
- (C)) the resistance of students for physical education activities: in this context, teachers have a lot of difficulty in building alternatives to overcome this situation and, in General, end up restricting their practices to those activities that meet the " like "the students to deliver their lessons, are generally those which they are used, linked to sports practices.
- D) the detachment of the students by physical education classes: teachers point the application of methodologies more amusing that seek to motivate more effectively students to attend school, and also the evaluation as a coercive tool, forcing the students to participate in the class to obtain a particular score, since lack of interest generates indiscipline, contributing to the deficit in learning, so students disciplined suffer prejudice on account of indiscipline, and contents are lagged.
The physical education teachers facing so many difficulties still lack elements that let Them reflect and implement proposals to replace the models exclusively "esportivistas", or '' recreationists ', in such a way that it is possible that the Physical education within the school can accomplish the difficult task of introducing and integrating the Student Body Culture of ball movement, forming citizens to produce it, reproduce it and also make it, if necessary. In this sense, the student must be instructed to take advantage of bodily practices for the benefit of the critical exercise of citizenship and the improvement of quality of life.
A point to be discussed shows a very large concern, because in the area of physical education exists many professionals committed and dedicated to make your lessons and special moments rich in knowledge, but you cannot say that all professionals are so, since a portion of professionals who do not have interests in reflecting on the importance of physical education in school, and often have no argument to convince his students the importance of physical education. These professionals are for lack of time or interest fall short in physical education classes the corroborating by disqualify the discipline before the other components of school and even society itself.
Physical education teacher himself may or may not contribute to reverse this problem and show the true importance of this discipline of the school curriculum in life and formation of their students. For this may begin to change the teacher face it and start making some changes in your own behavior in front of other teachers and in the planning and development of classes, allowing the students themselves are aware of the real purpose of the classes, and the importance of physical education has for the life and development of the society.
These difficulties end up affecting the work of many teachers within the school, do end up seeing bound hand and foot to try to change the situation of physical education in school, it can be said that not only physical education more education in General (by DARIDO 2006).
3.1. WAIVERS OF THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION CLASSES
Along the course of the physical education in school, laws have been passed in the 1960 and 1970, which allowed a number of possibilities to students who request waivers. They allowed students with problems but health, serve in the army, had children (offspring), work and had more than thirty years were freed of school physical education classes.
The first Law of Guidelines and Bases for national education – law No. 4024 of 20 December 1961 – physical education is included in article 22, the text is worded as follows: "shall be compulsory the practice of physical education in primary and secondary courses until the age of 18 years "(BRAZIL, 1961). The character of physical education in this legislation was directly related to the student's physical training, in order to form the future health care worker that would be fundamental to the process of industrialization lived across the country at that time. The own limitation with respect to 18 years of age, of course, the exercise could cause wear or exhaustion in the period in which individuals, supposedly, would need a greater energéti supply co in your function of market integration job.
The LDB is reviewed, with the educational reform proposal 10 years after your creation, by means of law No. 5692 of 11 August 1971 (BRAZIL, 1971). Castellani Son (1997) points out that this law leaves to make reference to the age limit of the practice of Physic Education ca, opting to regulate the matter by another mechanism, which is put in place that year, by the promulgation of Decree No. 1, 69450 November, which was in four subheadings of your article 6 conditions which facultavam the student to practice physical education, based on the following:
At any level of all education systems, is optional to participate in scheduled physical activities tion: the) night school students who prove by professional or functional wallet, duly signed, engage in paid employment in journey 6 or more hours; b) students over 30 years of age; c) students to esti see paying military service in the army; d) students supported by Decree-Law 1044 of 21 October 1969, by means of a report of the attending physician of the establishment (CASTELLANI SON, 1997, p. 21).
So over the course of the physical education in school was opened a series of possibilities which allowed students to request waivers. These practices for exemption were or could be backed up by the fact that physical education be regarded in law as an activity and not discipline, like other areas of the school curriculum. For some authors, this consideration comprised physical education as a practice by practice, without need for a structuring of its contents.
In December 01 2003, facultatividade was amended by law No. 10793. This law amended the wording of art. 26, paragraph 3, and art. 9294, Law 92 20 December 1996. Thus, it was determined that the physical education classes were optional to the student who, regardless of the period of study, manage in some of the following conditions:
I – meeting workday 6 hours or more; II – the largest of thirty years of age; III – that is providing initial military service or, in similar situation, is thanks to the practice of physical education; IV – supported by Decree-Law No. 1,044, of 21 October 1969; V-(vetoed) VI – that have offspring (BRAZIL, 2003).
This law has a rather exclusive of the role of education Made music in school, not being an important discipline as well as the others. In fact, resumed the assumptions of purely biological, homogeneous body, tired from work, old or sick, you can't afford to conduct classes in school.
3.2. BENEFITS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION PRACTICE
The discipline of physical education develops the student, possibilities for movement and educates for understanding, relevance, importance and how and where it should be used and should be considered as a unique experience for dealing with one of the most precious resources humans, that is the human body. So the Gym brings several contributions to the students, and can be cited: the student's development as a whole; If well applied, contributes to interdisciplinary with other disciplines; It gives the coexistence, dialogue, companionship and even solving problems; Promotes the integral development of the child in the sociocultural, psychological and biological aspects to reaching your autonomy; Socialization with different groups of people living with the WINS and losses that life imposes on the human being.
For Xavier (1986, p. 33), the practice of physical education brings students to the surge of interest; concentration and motivation for educational practice; facilitating understanding and establishment of additional information; concrete experimentation of movements and objects related to the syllabus; stimulating observation, imagination and creativity; visualization of working knowledge and concrete from theoretical and abstract notions; the student with the social reality in which he lives.
According to the national curriculum Parameters, the importance of the practice of physical education, takes into consideration the conditions suitable for your effectiveness as an activity that works your body and movements. Therefore, points out that physical education is understood as an area of knowledge of the culture of body movement. Stresses also that the school physical education is a subject that must introduce and integrate the student body culture movement, forming the citizen who will produce it, reproduce it and transforming it, by actually Instrumenting it to enjoy the games, the sports, dance, gymnastics and wrestling for the benefit of the critical exercise of citizenship and the improvement of quality of life "(RAO, 2013).
According to Bracht (1992, p. 25), "body culture is all the cultural manifestations linked to ludo human kinetics". From the elaborations of Canestraro, Zulai and Kokut (2008, citing XAVIER, 1986, p. 33), in the area of school physical education, it is possible to point out several benefits to the student, including concrete experimentation of movements and objects related to the syllabus of physical education; stimulating observation, imagination and creativity; the visualization of working knowledge and concrete from theoretical and abstract notions; and the student's approach with the social reality in which he lives.
Zunino (2008) discusses the physical education is one of the most effective ways by which the individual can interact and, is also a relevant tool for the acquisition and improvement of new motor skills and motor skill, as it is a pedagogical practice able to promote the physical ability, the acquisition of awareness and understanding of reality in a democratic way, humane and diverse, because at this stage the Physical Education education must be seen as a means of information and training for generations.
On this perspective, the importance of showing activities and possibilities that children and adolescents must experience in school, causing phase can organize your body image, starting point for a full body culture. For physical education, all body movement can be pedagogically themed and developed through the application of cultural content such as dance, gymnastics, wrestling, sports and games (RAO, 2013).
4. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS
In the study conducted by the difficulties encountered by teachers of physical education in school it was observed that many changes must happen, mainly, leaving themselves and the entire class of that area, they must have a design more criticism about your role at the school.
The teaching practice is open to renew itself, according to the words of Paulo Freire (1992, p. 188): "so who knows can teach those who do not know it is necessary, first, who knows know I don't know everything; Second, that those who do not know, does not ignore all ". Thus, when planning its activities the teacher must consider not just your knowledge, but especially their students, leading them to understand how the authors own knowledge and agents the world in which they live modifiers. The teacher will certainly have committed students committed and so the teaching-learning process will have your goal reached. It is up to the teacher of physical education, the role of guide and lead this process using all your knowledge and intelligence because the more intelligent the teacher, the more he makes his students able to act intelligently.
In the history of physical education many transformations occurred over the ages, always fit the needs of society. These changes occurred so unsatisfying, and eventually cause problems in your application to the school environment. It should be noted that physical education on critical theory is a discipline that seeks to make the student to become a citizen as critical and reflective. Turning this into a student be able to recognize in the society in which he lives.
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 Student of the Graduate course in physical education of College Patos de Minas (FPM).
 Professor of recreation and leisure/disciplines supervised internship/Basketball/History of physical education in College Physical education course Patos de Minas. Specialist in physical education.