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Anexos / Arquivos

Public policies in education: quality of education and University reform

RC: 17191
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FERNANDES, Edinamar Farias [1], SANTOS, Rosimeire Martins Régis dos [2]

FERNANDES, Edinamar Farias; SANTOS, Rosimeire Martins Régis dos. Public policies in education: quality of education and the University reform. Multidisciplinary Core scientific journal of knowledge. 03 year, Ed. 06, vol. 04, pp. 5-22, June 2018. ISSN:2448-0959


Despite the increase of students in public universities in Brazil have increased over the past 12 years, your quality in education is still a cause of dissatisfaction by many critics and by the demand of students who use your services and your education. Starting from this premise, this study seeks to make a relevant education policies geared towards higher education, how they are designed, and what interests they serve. In this way, the study makes a relevance of programmes of education in the Government of Luiz Inacio Lula da Silva were created and how they correspond to the expectations of the brazilian population, especially on the requirements of the quality of education. Starting from this assumption, this study seeks to present as the search universe the theme: "public policies for education: quality of higher education and University reform". This research seeks to discuss the University reform, namely, to find out to which that interest is education policy and how it sits higher education at public universities of Brazil. This research is qualitative character, using exploratory and descriptive methods in order to better decipher the object under study. The bibliographic material for theoretical construction of this study were books and scientific articles. The survey results showed that education programs geared to higher education presented more quantity than quality.

Keywords: Quality, education, University reform.


This research is only a theoretical essay on the quality of higher education and the University reform, which seeks to discuss how is the quality of education in our public universities. In this way, seeks to address public policy education, your context and how they are positioned more to meet the interests of the market than the interests and needs of the students.

This study discusses about the education programs targeted to higher education and fragility as they were programmed, you care more about the amount in teaching than with your own quality.

In this context, the study points to the need for a University reform, emphasizing your discussion by some critical theorists, your need and your dimension to the public universities of Brazil.

Based on this assumption, the research presents a reflection on the theme: "public policies for education: quality of higher education and University reform". This study presents a reflection of the University we want.

The methodology used in this research it is a bibliographical study with a qualitative approach.

1. Public policies for education in Brazil

Education is the only way humanly speaking in that man can understand yourself and other, who can understand the world and your role in it, and when it fails, the human being is at high risk of collapse, stagnate and atrophy Therefore it is up to all government education as a priority for society, to your nation and your country.

Education before becoming a practice in educational institutions and in the Brazilian educational system, you need to first of all stop by a policy focused on education, and that anticipate what actually needs to be done, how to be made, where to be done and to be done.

The first prerequisite for the formulation of policies focused on education is in the Federal Constitution of 1988, which in 2005 article claims to be "the education right of all and duty of the State and of the family, will be promoted and encouraged with the collaboration of society. "

In this context, the Constitution states that education is a right of all and at the same time, a duty of the State and the family, with the collaboration of the society.

The first State shall develop education policies so that this becomes a reality in the life of every Brazilian citizen, and at the same time it is a duty of the family, help to ensure that the individual has access to school, and coupled to these two institutions fit also the society of a direct or indirect help to ensure that their citizens have the right to education. However, it is not enough to only have the harbinger in the Constitution that education is a right for all, but that it is something with quality.

Quality is what really matters, when it comes to any type of service offered to the society. This principle also applies when it comes to education. Is beyond doubt that the country needs well-educated youth, as your biggest guarantee to ensure the progress, development and maturity of current society and to come. Families and students seeking to improve their lives, investing in education, in the belief that as soon as they realize their dreams. Simply we all believe that the school makes a difference. " (JULIATTO, 2005, p. 47).

It is not enough only to enact in legal systems and political projects that must have education for everyone if she don't come stuffed in your service quality and structure.

It is important to consider in terms of access to higher education, there was a large growth of people entering a University, whether it be public school private education 2005 to 2010 occurs this growth, this was due to "increasing prominence educational market, your questionable regulation "(SGUISSARDI, 2008, p. 994).

In this context, higher education appears with greater emphasis on private colleges, mediated by a market-oriented policy.

Brandão (2005) analyzing the educational policy from 1995, States that much of the legal institutional framework of brazilian education was, directly affecting higher education. In this context, the main federal laws at this time are law No. 9131/95, which creates the National Council of education (CNE) and establishing the national exam, known as general test; the law nº 9,192/95 by modifying the process of choosing the college leaders; the law nº 9394/96, which sets the Guidelines and Bases for national education (LDB) and; the law No. 10,172/01 that approved the National Education Plan (PNE).

The passage of the new law of national education Base guidelines (LDB) makes some important modifications in the Brazilian educational system. With regard to higher education were differentiated forms of controlled selection process, introducing curriculum guidelines for undergraduate courses, institutional differentiation (l'art. 45 of the LDB and Decree 2306/97).

The result of these policies appear in the expressive growth in the field of private institutions. In this way, the educational policy in effect created the legal, political and ideological conditions in order to establish, in Brazil, an educational market in the strict sense – commodification of production of scholarly works and the management of universities public contributing to the higher education system has become in a commodity market (INEP/MEC, 2006).

According to Oliveira (2010), the system of higher education policies in the Government of Brazil FHC is based on neoliberal theory, namely, in the subordination of the higher education market, with regard to professional training and the production of goods and services academics, getting to the State for evaluation and control of the system, allowing greater competitiveness in the system.

In this context, there has been a diversification and differentiation in the system, due to the growing demand for places at universities, expanding the system, the integration of the different evaluation procedures.

The mass at the universities is esbarrada by new forms of control and adjustment.

Public policy in higher education from 2005 eligible private higher education companies, decreasing this way the character of higher education's responsibility of public colleges, and with the implementation of Student Financing Fund ( FIES) and the University for all Program (PROUNI) which contributed to the University of private higher education to increase the number of students.

the) 10,973/04 Law (law of technological innovation) that provides incentives for innovation and scientific and technological research in the productive environment). This standard enables the allocation of public resources to companies in the so-called innovation projects, as well as provides for the gratification of the researchers. An implication of this law would be the subordination of scientific agenda. b) Law 11,079/04 establishing general rules for bidding and contracting of public-private partnership (PPP) in the field of public administration. With this standard public resources can be used by private entities. c)/05 11,096 Law which established the University for all Program (ProUni) regulates the activities of private charity organizations, whether profit-making or not. This program ends up benefiting private commercial institutions instead of creating hundreds of thousands of slots in public universities at night (OLIVEIRA, 2010, p. 42).

Public higher education policy of the Lula administration back up the agenda for University reform.

Policies that extend higher education in private colleges are represented by the National Council of education (CNE), and is based on a political system dominated by the interests of capital, which makes proposals that respond to interests of capital (HELENE, 2011).

In this sense, the brazilian education presents itself as a commodity sold by private companies in the market, moving away from an ethical commitment to the interests of the low-income population who can't afford your education.

The program support the restructuring plans and expansion of Federal universities-REUNITE, created by law n. 6,096, of 24 April 2007 aims to increase the number of students at Federal universities and students per teacher in each classroom; diversify the modes of the courses through the use of ODL, the creation of short courses, of cycles (basic and Pro) and/or interdisciplinary degrees; encourage the creation of a new system of securities; raise the rate of completion of courses and encourage student mobility between educational institutions (public and/or private).

It is important to consider that in some INSTITUTIONS of HIGHER EDUCATION, the fragility in teaching through distance, because such institutions seeks only profit and do not present a high-quality service, on the other hand, IHEs which play an excellent working behind a computer, there is a teacher with commitment, thinking about the intellectual and social development of the student.

It is considered that education policies, especially the program GATHERED presents a school curriculum with student teaching job by taxing the, not to mention the lack of resources for the construction of the physical structure of the colleges, being insufficient to meet the ongoing expansion and quality of academic activities.

1.1 the quality of education in public universities in Brazil

If there was an improvement in the quality of teaching in Brazilian public universities studies and surveys still show that don't. Not from the point of view of academics and society.

[…] What is considered quality by the academic sector can conflict with the quality sought by Governments, with that perceived by the society or the corresponding to the demands of the productive sector (ABREU JR., 2009, p. 259)

Often the quality standard stipulated by the Government management is unknown by those who enjoy quality public services in Brazilian universities.

The quality in this sense must be loaded with a value judgment impartially and not subjective character predominating in the evaluation process, but follow a standardization and impartiality.

For Dal Thin & Rausch (2012, p. 432), "the development and the quality in teaching also depend on the constant evaluation in educational processes, structural and administrative".

In addition to this evaluation, the evaluation by academics is also valid, because only if you know what's being satisfactory one who lives and feels in your daily life.

SEC (2003) and Nephew (2010), the first higher education evaluation occurs from 1993, through the institutional evaluation programme of the Brazilian universities (PAIUB).

To Nephew (2010), the increase of higher education institution (HEI) and in a small space of time contributed to several problems, especially in the quality of education that occur in poor physical facilities, absence and weaknesses of infrastructure to support education and research, teachers not trained properly, what if adequate training to understand higher education, courses with low levels of academic requirement, with low-skill-professional.

This occurs when cares only in quantity and not quality, because there's no point extending through several courses and teachers if you don't get the necessary quality for an education in higher education.

From 2009, a dynamic evaluation on teaching quality in higher education. Assessed by the IES SINAES – National Evaluation System of higher education Brazilian. Assessed from 2009 60 IES, which increased to 676 the following year. It was considered that the large number of institutions and courses, the operationalization of the evaluation system, the regulatory character constitute major challenges for the Government and for the IES (POLIDORI, marine-AGUILAR & BARREYRO (2006).

In this context, there has been an increase in the institutions of higher education, but on the other hand, there was also a shortfall in quality of teaching, because the amount that if presented, was not qualitatively, which committed to quality in teaching for various reasons and factors contributing to such a reality. In this reality the workmanship of unqualified teachers, the speed in education without due required learning, long distance courses, not appropriate institutional structure, among other factors.

Although it is necessary to have an assessment on the quality of higher education. Polidori, Mahdavi-Araújo & Barreyro (2006) consider to be a difficult task in the legal aspects of regulation and at the same time build a culture of evaluation in INSTITUTIONS of HIGHER EDUCATION that ensures the quality of higher education.

1.2 structure and staff in higher education

The quality in higher education is from the time the student enters the school involving security while a student, your own safety so much as institutional heritage, from a suitable for the student to feel secure and can play a great class, or otherwise it will always be worried about your heritage.

A top-level institution should encompass a structural requirement so you can dispense with a good quality in education, and this involves room with containing a portion of students within the evaluation requirements, with chairs in good condition and appropriate, air conditioning, picture that can contemplate and assist in the display class, computer labs, experience and experimentation, gym for sports activities, a technical staff of teachers and helpers trained and able to perform a good service for a quality education.

For Manfé et al (2010) education is in educational facilities, human resources and infrastructure. From these factors can have a reference to an education that shows good quality in teaching.

These factors such as educational mechanisms, resources and infrastructure are basic parameters for an evaluation in education presented by public universities, on the understanding that other factors underlying these should be tied to evaluation in order to have a negative or positive result of ongoing education at this level of education.

According to Lima (2005), the public policies program GATHER at work teaching intensification occurs in universities, as these teachers have excessive work task at graduation, and thus, does not develop or develops the makes many limitations of research projects and/or extension, which does not publish or if it makes, publishes, does not have time to write and participate in scientific events.

In this sense, the perversity that the program GATHERED presents when extending the quantity of tasks but mistreats the quality in the service of education in higher education institutions in Brazil. This also extends the prejudice to educate without the necessary quality for a formation of students performing all academic aptitude.

1.3 the quality of pedagogical practice in public higher education

The quality education in higher education crowd presents several factors, among them is the quality of teachers who run the school, because the quality in teaching is impregnated with various situations, including the training of the teacher and your ability to make your work a ceara of good fruit, meaning that the student is not merely a viewer, listener, victim of a system that the teacher teaches the student and pretend to pretend to learn.

For pepper & Anastasiou (2008), the quantitative expansion of higher education is also an increase in the number of teachers. According to UNESCO, the number of university professors, in the period from 1950 to 1992, there was an increase of 25000 for 1 million, i.e. an increase of 40 times, however, in your most, are improvised, that teachers are not prepared to develop the research and function without pedagogical training.

Teachers unprepared is a reality in the University centres of the public sphere, and a result of students with poor training.

Second Bordenave & Pereira (2005), due to the lack of didactic preparation, many teachers demonstrate insecurity in your relationship with the students, present authority, using the prescribed protective attitudes in formal communications, exaggerated the evidence requirement level, ironies and sarcasm to subdue the rebels, among other factors.

The lack of preparation of the teacher shows through in your so rude and ignorant to be, when does not respect the person of the student and not considered as a thinking person, sometimes their credentials the qualify for the profession, sometimes I don't, however, who suffers is the student when on pr Attica teaching feels the need of a pedagogy that can achieve their difficulties and limitations, and not an effort to put the contents on the student's head without a strategic methodology, logic and that can cause the student to be a be critical, thinking , owner of his own concepts and ideas and not a mere alien thoughts Repeater.

According to pepper (2008), the weakness in the quality of higher education, in particular, graduation, signals the fragility of pedagogical training of their teachers.

The unpreparedness of the professor shows through in the classroom on ineffectiveness of pedagogical quality that does not seek to make the student an intellectual, Descrambler of the reality that surrounds it, but in a mere ideas Repeater.

The law of Guidelines and Bases for national education (LDBEN), law No. 9,394 of December 20, 1996, which establishes the guidelines and bases for national education, and 5,773 Decree, 09 May 2006, the Federal Education System, causes such teachers have the preparation necessary for the exercise of the pedagogical teaching in higher education, and their professors have graduate level, in accordance with article 66 of the LDBEN that establishes the following: "the preparation for the exercise of superior teaching shall be in graduate level, primarily in master's and doctorate program. "

Compliance with the guidelines is important for a top-level teacher is fully qualified to administer the necessary lessons, so I asked to have a master's degree and if not, the doctorate.

As the Decree 2,207/97, in the second year of your duration, higher education institutions must count with 15% of their teachers held in stricto sensu graduate studies, of which 5% of doctors; in the fifth year, with 25%, of which 10%, and in the eighth year of the duration, with a third, of which 15% of doctors.

It is understood that this standard is not experienced in public colleges, as many teachers are weak in teaching, showing that they are not sufficiently trained to take the Office exercising.

According to Nambiar (2009, p. 77-78)

[…] the teacher's role in higher education is to help the student to understand, to resign, to seize and appropriate criticism and creatively of the contents. Therefore, your paper goes beyond the transmission, it has to do with the construction of a methodology that takes into account the learning style of the adults, the concrete conditions of the students and critics, especially the mentality of learning. This may seem obvious, but often the learning occurs and the teacher don't you see, when your primary focus is the transmission.

When the teacher does not have a teacher feature of ability to administer a lesson, he would never be able to involve the student in the application of knowledge, because teaching is not only having a chalk in hand or the text is discussing such a subject, will for, in addition, that is, the teacher has the domain than you're treating and know have strategic methods in order to penetrate the comprehensive knowledge and this will revolutionize the student's head, so that the knowledge do generate life in mind and body of the apprentice.

For Libâneo (2010, p. 25-26)

The didactics investigates the grounds, conditions and modes of instruction and teaching achievement. Her socio-political and educational objectives converter fits in the teaching objectives, select content and methods in the light of these objectives, establish the links between teaching and learning, with a view to the development of mental capacities students.

This pedagogical and didactical deficiency presents itself in the course of public higher education, where you can witness with clarity the fragility and weakness as teachers expose their classes, the lack of a strategic teaching, that compromises the student learning, one way or another his own death of imaginative power, creative, prospective and student's intellectual. When these ideas never instigates will appear, i.e., not in his own classroom she will rise, because it is up to the teacher instigating the student working on your reasoning, your perception, your ideas, your way of seeing the world, so that the knowledge can become your own blood, your own story. Otherwise, only occurs in didactic formalism and superficial.

1.4 University reform

Understand the points discussed in University reform is no easy task. According to Lima (2004), there are those who defend the modernity of the University so she can serve more faithfully to the market; There are those who defend the past, those who want her to take the place of the State in the implementation of public policies, from the students, what more is glimpsed the intention of modifying the internal relationship of power, since it purports to be the extension of participation of the students in the institution's decisions.

There is also, according to the author, the influence of teachers ' unions and employees, in addition to those who defend the University as being the only primary source of knowledge production. Yet there are also those who want higher education to be a commodity trading as possible, and those who want a reduction of government spending with public institutions.

Regardless of the degree to which the discussions, the current federal system of higher education, have your rules governed by the law of Guidelines and Bases of education and-LDB instituted by law No. 9,394/96 and by Decree No. 2,306/1997, and features, in your Organization, the distinctions that exist between the University, University, Universities, colleges and Higher Institutes Integrated.

For the purposes of contextualization of the theme, there is a note of wedge (1997), which highlights the goal based on the growing need of the country, that the number of students universities must reach the percentage of 30% of the population between 18 and 24 years until the year of 2007.  Such goals were set out in the National Education Plan, however, I glimpsed how the Government intends to the expansion of investments in the area of higher education, much less the implementation of an efficient system of evaluation that allows the actual verification of the excellence of the courses currently proliferate in the market.

About this proliferation, which, until the mid-60, public institutions were responsible for 65% of enrollments in higher education, with the rest borne by the private education institutions. In the 21st century, the ratio is 25% of the enrollment in public universities, while 75% are with private institutions. (NAIR, 2004).

Studies that indicate the reversal of this growth indicate that such a framework reflects the "casting" of the vacancies offered in public higher education network, who failed to follow the development framework of the years 70 and 80, that to cope with the demand of the productive sector, increased the pressure on the access to higher education, without the Government testifying as to the expansion of this teaching, and, therefore, to accompany your quality.

Regarding this aspect, Chauí (1995) apud Silva (1999, p. 36), emphasizes that the University quality measurement through the concepts of competence and excellence, being bounded by the "meeting the needs of modernisation of the economy and social development ".

In practice, what is observed is that such criteria are used to define the management contracts, and not to an evaluation that allows to know the levels of excellence of public teaching.

Even in Snow (2004), is the observation that the higher educational policy also suffered with the advancement of the country towards the globalized world of neoliberal policies. Notes that, since 1995, the participating countries of the General Agreement on trade in services (GATS) of the World Trade Organization (s), account of liberality in the commercialization of higher education, as a way of eliminating barriers and facilitating access to markets.

What if discusses about the gratuity or not of higher education, however, is how to facilitate the admission into a University, a significant portion of the population, who have no economic means to undertake a course in a private INSTITUTIONS of HIGHER EDUCATION, but who also aspires cultural and professional development. In addition, the issue of quality of this teaching can't overcome the barriers imposed by the lack of resources they are dipped these institutions.

Cardoso (1996) apud Silva (1999), when considering the proposal for improving the quality of higher education offered by INSTITUTIONS of HIGHER EDUCATION, both public and private, stipulates that measures how much should be taken towards the achievement of these goals, whose main stands, among others: a) the implementation of an evaluation system that encourages the academic production; b) modernisation of laboratories for scientific research and technological development; c) stimulation and rationalization of the processing system of top-level personnel according to the needs of development of the country.

The purpose of the appraisal system contained in such procedures, the creation of legal provisions to ensure the MEC conducting periodic evidence ample and that can provide measurable parameters of quality of the services offered. Further, articles 48-50 of the LDB/96, stipulate the acquisition of higher diploma just as proof of license, but lack mechanisms that aim to establish the real ability of graduates to the practice of the profession.

By this perspective, we observe that the methods evaluated do not satisfy the vast majority of the academic community, with regard to the preparation of teachers, requiring the intervention of other federal agencies to achieve a more level measurement plausible the acquired knowledge.

The existence of low-quality courses have motivated the class councils (OAB, CFM, …) to put new obstacles so that the trainees can perform their professional functions. These facts are indicative of a weakening of the University institution. (LIMA, 2004, p. 67).

It is appropriate to note, according to the author, that proposals for University reform were not comprehensive or effective enough to lead discussions that could lead effectively to the appropriateness of curricula lagged in the great virtues of speed knowledge generated, or about the educational, administrative and financial autonomy that could lead to public University to a final State of monitoring of social and economic development of our nation.

As well notes Chauí (1999), the University reform conducted in the years 90 has its criteria for measuring the results of the quality of education linked to quantitative aspects, which include the observation of the size of the facility, the number of resources technology, the quota of the Faculty and students, without setting out a verification of the level of training of teachers, the content of the books available or on the activity carried out in the laboratories.

In addition, there is a lack of unlinking some entrenched concepts that have hampered the modernisation of higher education in Brazil, which fundamentally lack planning needs. Schwartzman apud Lima (1999) determines some "obstacles" (emphasis added) this improvement in quality, as for example, the demographic expansion, the prospects as regards the economy, the inefficiency in the use of resources, the elitism, the corporatism and lack involvement with the regulatory and ethical issues.

When you stop these things, it is a reflection about what you want to achieve in terms of development – whether economic, cultural, educational, housing, among other variables – once the targets don't seem to walk symmetrically. Assmann (1998, p. 46) have stated that "the educational system of a country is an extension of a social and political system. As a consequence will not be able to be more ' late ' or ' more ' in advance ' than this. ".

In this sense, when State economic growth targets, it must also establish projections about the quality of the educational level, notably that which more properly will cause society to reflect on its targets, as in the case of teaching superior. As proclaims Saviani (1988, p. 57), "education is not a strictly pedagogical Act, is a political act".

Finally, it is the opinion of Lima (1999), about the lack of a serious diagnosis of the educational area, while lacking the Brazilian universities to submit to an evaluation process in that the issues related to quality of research and teaching have been considered, are factors which refer to the observation of the existing distortions in these institutions.

The quality in teaching in Brazil, in particular, in the public universities is not a purely educational issue, but political, because the whole process, in particular, public education in Brazil is happening primarily by a policy, and this has still left many flaws in your way of preparation and management.

1.5 a reflection on the public University we want

Higher education one day long for and that we want to have to first be passed by a deep reflection, based entirely on a critical public policy and, above all, the practice of this policy.

Higher education starts with the seriousness the education policies and then in your practice.

We want a public higher education that is committed to the interests and needs of their students.

We want a continuous University do. Where many already know many things; Therefore, formed by people able to reflect and open reflection, the exchange of ideas, involvement in constructive initiatives. In these terms, the whole body, teachers-students-leaders, need to commit themselves with the reflection, creating her, teasing her, allowing her and fighting continuously to conquer spaces that ensure the reflection (LUCKESI, 2011, p. 42).

 The University we want must be based on an education that has a methodology able to cause the student to be able to reflect and open reflection, the curricular flexibility also trailer. However, what you feel is a University body without soul and lifeless, unable to commit to a critical reflection, which is focused on changes in the University environment, and consistent with the reality that the public universities.

I don't imagine a definitive model of the University, but intend to find, invent, conquer, understand better and deeper to reality, to the extent that we're building. In those terms, we want to create an inter/relacionamento professor student, based on the principle of encouraging creativity, criticism, to debate, to the study and, with it, marking the coo/responsibility in the conduct of your own process. It is, therefore, to create a relationship between two guys committed to build the critical reflection: on the one hand the teacher, subject of creation, with proposal of studies, questions and debates; another, the student, subject-object – never your learning, exercising and developing your critical potential, through an intelligent effort of assimilation, of creation and of questioning (LUCKESI, 2011, p. 42).

One cannot imagine a homogenous University, as each region of Brazil presents a reality, culture, customs, different particularities.

Final considerations

The first point to be considered in this study is the weakness with which public policies are drawn up, i.e. the education programmes which have been drawn up and implemented in order to meet a market logistics the need of students who need a quality education.

Another important factor with regard to the criteria for assessing the quality of teaching at the top level is just to ensure the management contracts, and not to an evaluation that allows to know the levels of excellence of public teaching.

In practice, what is observed is that such criteria are used to define the management contracts, and not to an evaluation that allows to know the levels of excellence of public teaching.

Another worrying factor found in this study was the quality of teaching in public universities that cannot overcome the barriers imposed by the lack of resources in which they are immersed, not presenting these institutions the apparatus necessary for the functionality of such universities.

It is important to consider the proposal for improving the quality of higher education offered by UNIVERSITIES, which must reach the implementation of an evaluation system that encourages the academic production, the modernization of scientific and research laboratories technological development, stimulation and rationalization of the processing system for staff.

It is important to check also the education programs with the Prouni that quantitative issues factor as the size of the facility, the number of technological resources, the quota of the Faculty and students, without setting out a verification of the level of training of teachers, the content of the books available or on the activity performed in their laboratories. In this context one can see the amount of tasks performed by the teachers, without time to conduct research with their students time for discussions, decipherment of world, providing an education that make the student a thinking person, critical and politically polite.

Starting from a general consideration regarding the quality of teaching in public universities, it is understood that the relaxation in the quality of teaching is not a purely educational issue, but rather politics, understanding that all public process, in particular the education of Brazil's up first by a policy, however, that so far has left many flaws in your way of preparation and management.


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[1] Licensed in Pedagogy from the Federal University of Amazonas – UFAM. Bachelor's degree in Theology from the Faculty of Theology Integrated-FATIN. State public server-teacher. Graduate student in Teaching in higher education from Universidade Católica Dom Bosco-Lato sensu.

[2] Degree in teacher education and pedagogy. Master and doctorate in education from the Universidade Católica Dom Bosco (UCDB). Guidance of the work of completion of the course of post-graduation courses the UCDB.

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